ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ѧҰ·ɵִط

߼飺

ǻ1957Уйѧѧ뷽оĽڣо򣺷ѧơ

Ƽ1980Уйѧѧϵʿоѧۡѧѧ

ժҪʽ巨ѧִͬԵķһʵļֵϵںʲôĻͼֵϵκηɷչıȻ򡣷ѧǴĻӽdzΪһֵط֪ʶ--Ȼһֵط֪ʶǾͲʵƷʺƹļֵ⼴ǷִԵۡĴѧӽdzһ۵߼̽ʵһ۵˼·ݷɼֵϵԴϵΪֲͣ͡ͺͻָͣйķϵǻ͵ģҹִطԻĹϵܣִطԳͻ߼˽ͻIJԡ

ؼʣɵִ ɵĵط ֲ ѧ

ĩĻйķִѾ߹һˡһУйɱһֱǷɵֲӹ͵ķɡһֱй֮Īˡ

ȻһУھҪȫֲɻҪйǧķĻͳһֱڶ۵ˮݡҲ˵屣"֮ɱ"ɵ""άɵ""֪֮ʶڲ۾ʹûֹͣȽĻ˶ʱڡ꡷롶ɵۣ""ʮĶĻ֮30"λ"""֮Լĩ"ֲ""Դ"ɵۡ۱ʤ֣֮Ϊ˭öԷóǴʵֲĴƺûȴ

۱߼ʲôɵֲ뱾ĻһʲôϵʵоӦìܺͳͻͼӷѧӽЩϵ

һִԣ߼

ѧĻʵϾǷɵԺ͵ط֮ǵ⡣

һִԵ߼

˹.Τ߼ִϵγɹ̾һ""ԻḶ́νɵִҲǷɵʽԡԺͼľȷڡᡷжɵķչµĸ

⵱Уָǰķɵķչ--עʽƷʴԭʼɹеħԼʽĬԼķԵĽ巢չǾȨλϮƶԼġʵʵĺʽĿԵ۵·չΪרҵġѧļ߼Ժϵͳԣһ--ȴ۲--ͷչΪϺ߼͹ɵϽԼɹ̵ļ1

Τִָ뷨ɵ"ŵͳ"ԷɵԡԡѧԵǿһµ2"ŵͳ"ĴLangdell˵ѧӦúϣͳŷ¼ѧEuclidean geometryһļaxiomsƾóȷĶtheoremsͨ߼Ӧаʵ

֮ԶԷɵʽƳ磬ִȷеķʽصġʽ彫ɿһȫͷյϵ䷢չֻͨ"ڵĶ"ſ⣻˼ͷΪоԵԣȫκɫʡַѧ·Ĵǵ19°ҳѧҿ׵µʵֱ֤Ӱķʵ֤巨ѧɡ"ʵ֤ͼֵųڷѧѧоΧ֮⣬ѷѧ޶ڷʵڷɵķΧ֮"Ҫע"̽߼ϵ໥ϵ" 3ѧɵĵԼ?˹John AustinΪѧһֶĹʵڷۣ"עʵڷϸϵķЩɵ" 4ɭHans KelsenǼ˵ذѷ"һܷһ"Žһ"ɵĴ"ֻעɵʽͽṹĵݺݣֻ취ƶȣķɹ淶Ƿ壻ͼܳ׵ذѷѧͬѧƣѧѧѧѧֿ5

ҵʷɵķչһִ𽥳ɳĹ̡Ϊִζŷɵĸ߶ʽԻʽִɾʵĿ--޷һЩʽĹϵЩϵĻͼֵȥģ䱾DzĻͼֵصģˣ䲻䷢Դܹ书ܣᵽκεطͬЧ19ĩʼִ̽Ϊ׷Ŀִ꣬Ϊһµʶ̬6ִ--λ--ִΪĵ֮һһᄈ£ɵִַɵִɷιĹ̡ɵֲͲȡԣΪܣһ˺󷢹ҷɷչıȻѡǷֲı߼

ǣ˼άϷʵǷֲʵЧͲѷ"а"ԡйʵڹȥϰУڲͬĽ׶ΣǷֱֲա¡յȹķϵǼһﵽǵԤ7ͲòʹǶһִԵ߼ִԵ߼з˼ˡ

ԷִԵķ

ʵϣ˼ִ𣬸ѧƶִԵķ˼ѾˡڷִΪķѧҼˡִַ԰ȨʢУ"ɺ־һ纽԰աΡʫ裬ǾеطļգΪǵƾǵطԵ֪ʶ"8[8]ΪΪͬʵɵĹƶȣǴᄈʽ͹ͬ֯ʽκһַɶֻǵĻIJ뿪Բ"ط"Ҳʧȥֵ

һֵط֪ʶһ˷ɺͷ۵ĵ䷶תƣͬʱҲǷ˼ԹϣŵȻѧɶԷԺռ׷һִԷʵڶʮͳ¹ѧάƵĹ۵㣬ΪֲһʷУ徫Ҫַʽ֮һ"һġ־IJǻġлķչ"徫ʶġġ𽥵ġԵķɢˣӦ徫ӦͨıȻݽ̡9ͬʱһѧķȷǽ׵ĻϵģһҪǣܸıףstateways can not change folkways.˵һеijУmoresܹõձأͻᷢչΪʽķɡˣԴУִѰ֮أҪƻͱһ¡10

ɣĵ˵۶Ƿ˼йķ״оʾġͬǰᵽйķɷչʷDzϵֲطɣرǽʮǵԸӵĵزжٷġõͬΪ;ʮƽΪ"Ļѧ"Ϊ"Դѧ"ȡ˼ĵ˵˼ԴΪķɲʵģ"йķ֮·עйԴעйĻĴͳʵʡ"11

ִԵ

ˣƺĵ˵Ĺ۵߼ʵ˵ǽͣڷһֵط֪ʶʶĻνʵôķֲأ缪ԣͬطķȫDzͨԼģֻͨ"ӵ˵۹"from the native's point of view12ȥ "裨deep description"13[13]ϸ΢ܴ֮ĻôֲοܣһǢĵطԵĻϵʲôֲıҪ

ԣһѵһ棬ʽķѧ14[14]ִͬԵķһʵļֵϵںʲôĻͼֵϵκηɷչıȻ˵͵ķҲֻij̶ֳȵżȻڷִ۵ʵǹŽִֻ֮֮ԵķɺǰִԵķ֣֮ûЩйĻ֮֡ʵķȲйô߸ʵĹͬҪһĿǰйķֲĹ̡15ˣɷչһȻƾǷִԵɢǷιֲͨγִԵķɡһ棬ѧǴĻӽΪһֵط֪ʶȻһֵط֪ʶǾͲʵƷʺƹļֵѭһ·κηɵֲǻƵġ

ǰ޷ΪʲôֲķҪڱõͬôѣ޷ΪʲôɾֲıҪͿܣ

Ϊ֮γһϵĺ蹵ԭԵĽӽǣʽ巨ѧdzڷڵĸṹӷɵڻѧdzĻڽṹĻdzγɵģͬĻڽṹȻҲȫȻͬģ˲ͬĻ²ķҲֻǵطԵġʵ߶ǴڵӽһǴӷɵӽdzһĻӽdz˶޷˷ִԵ߼ۡ

Եӽǣһӿŵ16Ұȥ䷨ɵ߼ǾͻֶᷢںԷִ˵䷨εķչִط໥˴ܣγµķɴͳĹ̡˼·ն壬ˣΪĹؼڲ໥õĹ̾ʲôģĻʲôͻ߼ʲôʵУӦеijͻ˳еĹϵڽṹ۵ġʵġӽɵʵڵлƺͳͻ߼DZѧӽǡȻǵķǻйɵ״ġǰǷӽȣӽΪԵǹϵȡǰѷɷһϵеĹϵġԣǵķӿйǰִطԷϵĿܿʼ

ִطԻĹϵ

ִϵŸִĽ̶γɵġƵִҲִҪɲ֡ ִͨʵʷ̵ĿΪԴIJִͬͨĶ·¿ԻΪͣ"һԴִmodernization from withinڲ£̵ĵ·ֳԴԱǨendogenous changeӰڴҪλһԴյִmodernization from withoutǹʻӰ£ⲿڲ˼αﲢƶñĵ·ֳձǨ (exogenous change)ڲ¾ڴҪλ"17ֶԷִģʽоҪ׵˾Ϊ"ִҲǵĻģʽĻ֣ԴķִһڲҪϣͨԷĻԾĶԷɾ񡢷ƶȺͷϵĽʵֵķִڲⲿѹ䶯ԴڲһͻԻͷִģʽŷķִģʽԹģʽ෴ԴִҪһڲ£صijǿѹȶԷƶȺͷϵʵеͻԸĸһ˵ִַûлڷɾ񣨹ʶʵִת䣬һֱͻִģʽڵĸǷҵķִͣйĩɺձάµıɹࡣ"18

Ӵķ潫ִΪԴͷִԴͷֱִ߻ͬģֻĨȥԴͷִһڲIJԣ˵նķִ޵ԭֳعҵķִԼйԭֳعҾкܴرڿ䷨ɼֵϵԴʱ͸Ϊˡ޵ȹҵķɼֵϵȫֲģնȻҲԴִңִԽ磬䷨ɼֵϵģйķɼֵϵԴΪӣĻҲбͳػеǰӵתµļֵء

ݷɼֵϵԴǽ仮Ϊֲͣ͡ͺͻ19

ͷɼֵϵָ÷ϵеЩɼֵҪԴĻУDZĻͳȻݱIJŷй巨ǰķɵڵ͡

ֲͷɼֵϵָ÷ϵеЩɼֵԴĻֵϵǴ""ģ뱾ĻͳûʲôܹϵַɼֵϵĻǿӵġޡӡȵԭֳķɾ֡

ͷɼֵϵָ÷ϵеЩɼֵһĻһܵĻͳӰ죬һתʱһЩصӰ졣ǰйķɼֵϵࡣ

йǰķ״벻ıһִڶת͡Ȼ˵໥Ĺϵģ֮ԽֿΪǴͬά̸ġڵֵУִʵѾĴʣˣ̸ִʵǴάйƽ豳ġתǴйȥڡһʱάййƽ豳ġ

ʷ֮µйϵͳ20[20]ʵ໥õIJɡĻʵعִطԻĿܡ

ɵķչͱԴʵijֽϴıҹתڣӿ֣ҪµĹڸֹϵгþǰδеģҪһйͳἫΪͬķɼֵͷɹ淶֮ӦһֲͨɵġֲķϵһͻʵһֹƵá

ϵͼʾ

ִطԳͻ߼

ȻϵͳڹϵԶԶֻԻͶ̬⡣ʵУڲǴŷdzijͻʹεľء

κ͵ķɼֵϵڲìܺͳͻʱΪʹͬһĻڲͬɵļֵҲȨ⣬ijͻʱǿɣʱǿ21ͷɼֵϵڲìܺͳͻΪΪӣͬһĻڲļֵȨ⣬ŸӵĻͻҪΪ¼棺

һĻ봫ͳĻijͻֳͻҪԴڷֲµķɼֵйͳķɼֵྶͥѧеľ䰸"մ˾""ɽү"22ͷӦһͻйͳķɼֵǸ״ҪΪָ"˵"µķɼֵDzϿֿŵ"˵"ģһ"ʵΪݡԷΪ׼"͵յйͳĻʵ壬һ峤"ĸ"вТִ治ΪʱĸǿԶƲõġִɼֵ׷dz壬һ˷ٴҲɹҰƲãκ˽ȨʵʩͷΪ峤ɽүֹͷТϱȴͥ˽̵䱯Ļijͻ

ڶ´ͳɴͳijͻֳͻҪԴ´ͳδǵճϰߡںͬǩԼʵӾܹӦֳͻгõķչƶˡ֮ͬĽ׹ϵǵ鷢ڵ˽˽еĺͬǩԼʲߡǵϰصġΪڴͳ֮ιϵȷǿ˼εģϵͳζDzϰߵġ23һ͵Ӿǹڽ϶ķɹ涨йͳĻнǷٰϲơлΪϿɱ׼ģǵִ涨ֻȡ˹Ұ䷢Ľ֤ǽ飬ϵܵõɵı͵ĩǸ䶯һʱĻǿ鰸24

ٿҹǰֵ÷з""ȼ̻йһֹףѾϰΪųл̵ļӿ죬һϰײ˺Ⱦ֡˷ѵһϵ⡣ΪȺ̨˽ֹȼ̻Ĺ涨ʵʩЧ룬Υһ涨ʹø÷Чǣгжϳһ""Ϊ"޷"ڹ涨ʱι涨ȼš

зɼֵ봫ͳĻĻ˫سͻΪ͵ҹйؼƻķɡһЩʡֱϽƶ˼ƻ涨һԷֻһӣ⣩ҹߵķ֡ǶԴ涨ľصļֵͻȣйǧĴͳĻۡǵĴͳǶӶรǴͳĻӴڽӴ"Т޺Ϊ"Ǵͳֻк""ǿй涨һԷֻһʵôļͥ"Ӿ"ΡΣȨһʹϵ"Ļ"ۡΪȨ˵ĻȨطȨظʲôǵĴȨΪǵͳԶ棬һֲòִȥ

ġС

ˣǿԼ򵥻شĿʼ-- йǰⱳµķɼֵʲôص㼰ٵʲô

ݷɼֵϵԴǽΪֲ͡ͺͻ֡йķִԼǰת͵Ĵ󱳾ʹйķɼֵϵȲͬӢͷɼֵϵҲͬӡȡ޵ǰֳعҵֲͷɼֵϵǴַѧϣǽйķɼֵϵΪͷɼֵϵ

ԴϿͷɼֵϵҪعɣֲɼֵйͳĻķɼֵתرгýγɵµķɴͳͼֵйǰĹһЩɼֵȡ

Щ֮ԻͶ̬һ棬ҲֳͻǽΪɼֵϵڳͻͷɼֵϵһͬһĻڲֵijͻ⣬ַɼֵϵڳͻҪĻΪĻͻĻ봫ͳĻijͻ´ͳɴͳijͻзɼֵ봫ͳĻĻ˫سͻȡЩͻʹʴӣҲʹƶߴһdzεþءǻͷɼֵϵǵ⡣

ǣȥƽָӷϵͳڳͻΪԴӦþԲͬʵijͻԷֱȡ²ԣ

һЭˡЧƽⷨɼֵϵڳͻҪ˼·Ͳԡһ棬ӦǵĴͳϰףһ棬DzòDZ仯ʵǵĴͳϰ׽һЩµԼҪڶ֮ѡһƽ⡣統ǰȼ̻ǾDzȡһԡ

Զµķɴͳʹ価ڻǵճΪȥЩӦתͳֵչһЩµķɼֵͷɹ淶ǹȥĹ˵һµҲ˵dzͻȫµġЩǵIJӦǼӴȣʹ価ڻǵճΪȥгصһЩɼֵͷɹ淶

ǿСһЩԹҷչսӰķɣȻЩɿܼйͳĻͻʹϵļֵͻӦǿСƻصķɾС

ġɵ޵ģЩûа취ЧȥڵģӦýλڵ¡ϰ׵ν"ΪΪ"ɱϾܵġڹ""СպͬȨ֮ƽȵԭƱij˿ͶƽȵӵλʹȨϰ׵׼Ҫ·ɾ޷ڵļֵͻʱIJԾӦǷ÷֮Ĺ淶ϵȥá

ԭڡйѧѧ20075ڣ

עͣ

1Τᡷ¾201ҳӡ2004档

2ǣйɵִԣ"廪ѧ"10

3ǺĬѧѧ뷨ɷ룬йѧ磬1999棬116117ҳ

4ͬϣ118ҳ

5ͬϣ125ҳ

6ѶΪʶִ̬--ѧԵߡ2003档Ѷڸָ"ִԶֻһױضķԺͲԹߡҲһڸ໥ǿĹ֮佨ϵʶ̬"113ҳ

7μا飬йִ̡й񹫰ѧ磬1991

8ģط֪ʶʵͷɵıȽ͸ӡ꣬1998

9Ӣ޽ܡά˴ɵ룺ѧۡ24ҳij磬1989档

10See Cf.A. Javier.Trevino, The Sociology of Law: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives, New York:St.Martin Press,1996,pp.30-33,50-54.

11μ䱾Դ6ҳйѧ磬1996档

12Clifford Geertz, "From the Native's Point of View":on the Nature of Anthropological Understanding... Local Knowledge:Further Essays in Intertive Anthropology. A division of HarperCollinsPublishers.

13ģ"--Ļѧ"ڡѧ199612ڡ

14Ȼ˵ķѧԼ˵ѧҶǴȺ˵ģΪ˱ķ㣬еķѧҶֹ۵㣬ҲеѧҶĹ۵㡣Ҷǹ۵ĸе֪ʶһֻΤ˵""Ļ֡Ͷ֪ʶֵҪԲμΤѧۡйѧ磬1999ꡣ

15ߺ"޻˵л˵֮--ΰġйͳ˾ͷѧ"ڡ̳20065ڡ

16ֿҪָDzҪڸͽؽɿǶ֮еһ""ĹϵҪ̫Ĺе˼άģʽرĻ塢ʽν""ԼҪʵ취ڻǾͻᷢʵУɵķչϸһеĿֱǰģһָӵijͻ뻥̡

17ִۡѧ磬1993棬123ҳ

18סҦڣ"۷ִĸģʽ"Ͼʦѧִоıࡶִо1Ͼʦѧ1995棬13ҳ

19Ȼĸе֪ʶһֻΤ˵""Ļ֡Ͷ֪ʶֵҪԲμΤѧۡйѧ磬1999ꡣ

20ʹ"ϵͳ"ʣDZǵķڷɳĵƶȲġ

21¸"ɼֵijͻ"ڡѧԺѧ20043ڡ

22ֵķɼֵϵijͻйʵķ"յɽүı"ڡƼ䱾Դйѧ磬1996棬2340ҳ

23֣Ҳ򣬡ۡй㲥Ӵѧ磬2001棬170ҳ

24ԸðĽܺͷμƼ"תҰ¹ҷ䷨ijͻ뻥--һ׵ķѧ"ڡѧ2006괺