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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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һ

ۼҶԹݣcitizenshipȤѾ1978꣬ǿԺŵ˵ݸ˼ѾʱˡVan Gunsteren 19789 ҳʮ󣬹ֳ˳ָ˼еרҵHeater 1990293ҳ Vogel Moran 199110ҳ

ǶԹȤ1990ԭ򡣾۲ԣλȻݽΪݸƺҪҪ빲ͬԱʸ(membership)ҪǷֱ19701980ѧĵĸһȨһضͬ(community)ءˣڳȺߵҪĶ

ԹʸȤҲɽȫ¼ͳ磬˶ͶƱѡٵĮͶԸijŷ˶ĸգŷĻԪµĽ״̬жʱӢԸƶȵķڹԸĻߵʧܣ˵ȵȡ

Щ¼ȫȶִ䡰ṹ壬һ乫Ʒԣqualities̬ȣ[1]磬ݸУοִֿܾġġĻڽ̵ͬʽǶ켺ȺĿԼ֮Ϊ˴ٽԼʹȨι̵ԸھҪӰ뻷ĸѡУDZҽ뵣εԸûо߱ЩƷԵĹƾͳΣDzȶġ[2]˹˵ƶȵļֵǶƶȵá Habermas 19927ҳ

ˣһ׹ע幫ݣidentityΪǵΣҳϺãĹ۵ĺ֮ǾͲΪˡǣ̽ձΣաȣ۵ķΧ޵ġѧУеⶼ漰֮Ĺϵ֮ĹϵƪУǽͨձһΣգԣcivic virtue빫ݣcitizenship identity[3]ۼƣڽѧǿṹƶȣѾΪӡ ۵ĵڶΣڣʱͬĸΪһ̸ˣԷɵλ綨Ĺۡcitizenship-as-legal-statusضιͬijԱʸԼԺΪ綨Ĺۡcitizenship-as-desirable-activityڴˣԵķΧָιͬеIJá

һڵķǽѧ߶ΪһʵĹӦøǿԡȻ߻飬Ӧ԰ȺĹʸ෽ʽԷɵλ綨ۡ෴Щһעһù񡱵ùӦԶڷѯʡΪһζʲôһֹں˵ۣӦͬζѧɣ̽֡ΪһζʲôܶѧڲԼʱע⵽֣˵Ĺʱ磬ԼΪ綨ġ񡱸۵еԵλ綨ġʱֵȴ൱㷺ǽڵIJжԴ˽ۡ

սͳ

ڽܹڹ֮ǰбҪ򵥹һսĹڹĹ۵㣬ȫȨij綨ġ

սΪȨĹݸӰĽT.H.Ъд1949ġײ㡷[4]ЪӱϽα֤ÿ˱ΪƽȵԱԴҪ֤ϵijԱʸ񣬾ͱ벻ӹȨ

ЪѹȨΪ֡ΪӢȨʵֵġȨcivil rights18ͣȨ19ͣȨܹȨhealth careʧҵպϸȨȣЩȨڱͲȷġ[5]ע⵽ŹȨȨĹײҲ֮ӡӵвƲġ½̵İɫֵȨȨ𽥵Ů˽׼̫ˡͽ˺ǰųȺ졣

Ъ˵ֻĸУݲܵõ֡ͨйȨȨȨӶʹÿһԱеԼʮijԱܹμӺĹͬһЩȨеκһֱƻַ񶼽ԵҲܲμӹͬ ͨΪĹȨ˽ԵĹȨΪǿʸ (entitlement)ȱκβ빫Ȼõ㷺֧֣[6]кܺõɣ˽ԹȨĺôDzӵģ輸ijЩ棨ȫɣ˵һ־޴ջ񡣡 Macedo 199039ҳ

ȻսͳĹȨڹȥʮܵԽԽͱĵĿĶԣǿԱʶһΪбҪԹȨܣβ룬ƷʣcivilityЩ⽫ڵۡ

ڶΪбҪ޸ĵǰĹݶӦִĻԪ塣ܷΪԱṩͬľ顢ҳϣǷ㹻ƽȵĻϰЩʷϱųȺҲȥΪʱҪһЩߣЩ⽫ڵIJۡ

1 ɶṫ븣ҵ

ϣսͳһҲɶԡȨЩȨΪܾΪ1루ɵĻӦΪģҪһ£2ھûЧʣ3ˡͨū֮·ڹڿЩ۾ҪôҪôDZĿѹҪôЪʽԹȨΪĸѹ

жʱı˼شתԸɾ͹ۡЪ֤˵Ȩʹײ˽ᣬЧʹǵȨȨȴΪƶײԣҴһĻȴûʵϸǵͨʹΪƶȼ໤µߣҲǽһ⣬ʹ֮ûˡŵĹ۵㣬ûκ֤ݱƻʵϴٽ˸ΪĹԣNorman Barry 199043-53ҳ

ΪݵģʽûгֹƵijЩһ˱ΪԱǰǣû񣬳ʧҵij裬ҲԼij衣[7]ȱƽȵȨȡԱݵϰһйͬͬȡݵϰЩ£ǿһ񲢲ΥƽȾ񣬶ƽġһЧĸ߱ýܰйĹͬǰų⡱Mead 198612-13ҳ

ΪΪ˱֤ƶײĻԣDZ롰Խʸ񡱣תıΡڸǵ˱ϴʩsafety netӦκαĸ涼Ӧи 1980 һҪĸƶȸĸﱳĹⳡĸTworkfareƻҪΪ渶Ͷͼǿ˹ӦĹ

ɵֹݹ۵㲢иɻ磬ʧҵڸ²׼ΪǿԵõͺȫ򾭼Ӱ죬ʵһ£ӵмΪ㷺ĸУң磬ŷһֱ͵ʧҵʡ

ң߻ָҵκ֤֤1980ɸĸٽ˹θСЩĸּͨóףƣ˰ᣬʧҵȴʩչгķΧ⣬ҲΪĵԣMulgan 199143ҳ

ǡǡ෴гɻʩǰδе̰;ϵIJΡһжΪĴծȯţjunk bond scandals֤ (Mulgan 199139ҳ) ңҲԶʹ²ʹ鲻󡣽׼IJƽȼӾˣƶ͹ʧҵ߱ЧذѡԱȨӶܲɵ¾á[8]

ˣΪȷĿǣһֶԹݵ˵ǶԹԭԣִ߲ѹΪһκλͼгãݸ蹫һֶھ״ĵλPlant 199152ҳHeater 1990303ҳKing 1987196-198ҳ

2 ṫ˼

ɶԸȨڵЩѣʿĹݱȨһԭЪΪֻеǵĻҪõ㣬DzܳΪԱṲͬɶԣЪһ۵㡰ǰͬIgnatieff 198972ҳȻʿҲʶִĸƶDzܻӭģԭƺԣٳɴӹ˽Եĺˣ privatist retreat佫ɫίлclientalizationˡHabermas 199210-11ҳKing 198745-46ҳ

ôӦأɶԡì̬ܵȡһ棬ԭһֱĺģMulgan 199139ҳϾں˼ںţܣȡ衱ˣܹκεһЩʿ޶ȵؽ Mulgan 199146ҳ

һ棬ǿΪһߡʿԴ˸еΪ֮Աų֮⣬ΪӱܹΪȱٻᣬ繤ĻᣬܽѵĻᡣȱٻᣬǿҲûãлᣬǿûбҪˣΪڸҲԸˣKing 1987186-191ҳFullinwider 1988270-278ҳԸͨѵƻȴʩʵֳ־ҵԸǿӸ˹ˣҲܹݼȰȨҲһձԭ򣬵Ϊijϣ빲ͬȨΡҲ˵ֻڲȨõԺεҪǡġ ŮȨ߶ԹʸпҵһƵķɵĹ۵㡣ŮȨҲΪȨεƽҪʵϣ?ʵĵŮճĵиϲԶȨԣCarol Gilligan 1982 19ҳŮȨ߶ɾĻɡԡԱʾĹ۵㣺ӦôӲ֧żͥŮӦչסͼӾȡ˸Ůֲϰ[9]

̸ʱġԡ˼ͥǼͥӦԽͥڲԽ̶ȵҪͥڲ̶ȵȻͥ︾ŮԵ븣ͬкΪ˸ȨԡѡKing 198747ҳOkin 1989128-129ҳ

ڶεĸܲƽȵŮϣŮȨ߶ͬɵĹ۵㣬ΪijϣȨΡʵϣŮȨϣȨԱŮΪزĽṹϰǰĸҺӾЩϰͥεIJƽȷ䣨Phillips 1991a1991bOkin 1992ڽͥ빫νڵѣֻе°ŹְҵԤԱΪͥ¸Ŀռ䣬˽һݼͥεʱ򣬸ŮƽȹݲпܣOkin 1989175-177ҳ

ȻȨΣƺֻص˸ղݹ۵ϡɻɶΪбıҪΪձĽǣͨطȨʹί˸ȷʽʹɢȨPierson 1991200-207ҳѾΪϤһ˵Ȩߣ䷽ڸҵȨ丣Ȩ

ǵṫݹ۵⡣[10]ǷܹЧؿ˷ѽڼǿԵֳԣԱִܵRustin 1991231ҳPierson 1991206-207ҳңӶԵطԹͬӶ֮仹ЩPlant 1990ί˵֮仹ЩPlant 199030ҳһڽҪ۵һҲȨŹͷˡ

3. ԵıҪ

ŵΪʹûƷرõĹҲͨԼƽʹȶȨԺƺƶԻҲֹܹIJʹÿ˶׷˽ùڲˣһ˽ҲԼһ˽档[11]óƶȵķȥƽDzġһĹ빫澫public-spiritednessDZҪģѾԣGalston 1991217244ҳ Macedo 1990138-139ҳ

ںܶ෽涼ڸʽиεľڸ˽棨ʳ̣Ƶ⣩Լ𣬹ҾͲṩʵĽԸͨһչֵǶԶͯ˺Ͳм˵ΣôҾͲЩ˵ҪԸԼԼòԴҾͲܱ޽ƵĽҪʹӣؾõͻܵϰԵزܿݲ졢ձȱ޶˹˵УRawls 1971114-116335ҳҪһΪƽ;ٲά衣ЩУûкƣɹתGalston 1991220ҳMacedo 199039ҳ

֮ҪḻҲϸʵݡΪҴӹҪĶͨǿƵõֻܽڸȨʹеĺơCairnsWilliams 198543ҳȻԽԽµĹƷ빫澫˥䣨Walzer 199290ҳ[12]

ˣǡĹƺҪȨεƽ⡣ǴϰЩأΪҪгԵѧУǶԴ˻вͬĻش

1

ǸղָɶԹķӦڣͨҵ߸Ϊ㷺ǣͨڵطƶȣԼ˾ȨеȨɢȨӶ蹫ȨȻǿȻû˵α֤ز룬Ź澫ƫȥ⡣

ʵϣԣƬ漯ڷȨıҪԺɵĵԣεͱˡMulgan 199140-41ҳȨĹܻ᲻εʹǵȨ磬׷ն֧Ȩѡ˰ķƶȺķ֣ߡѰеѰԣѰִŮİ벻ΡFierlbeck 1991592ҳ

ִIJ߶׷¬ܶΪβ뱾ǵݡŷ·ѶָŲΪһֶΣ˽ϰйβ뽫˵˼άʹϤЩԽڸ˻ļʱԵ棬ȥϣӦԹעġOldfield 1990b184ҳ

ʿͼͨݵ֮СӶƿⷴ¡ǰѼߵйֶ֧֡Held 199123ҳPierson 1991202ҳ[13]ҵǣֶԲܵƺֹˣOldfield 1990b184ҳMead 1986247ҳAndrews 1991216ҳ

ˣԽԽ˳ϣӦøȷر۵УHoovePlant 1988289-291ҳVogelMoran 1991ǰԵ15ҳMouffe 1992bƺûҵһЩӦԣҲûҵһ׾ٽЩΡ[14]

2񹲺壨civic republicanism

ִ񹲺崫ͳDzҪά¬ǷֱԹϣ˺͹жӣļʽԹȤʹ񹲺ܵΪ㷺ĹעⲢ⡣

񹲺IJߣۼңڣǿβԲ߱еڼֵŷ·ѶµĻ˵ֲǡ๲ʽOldfield 19906ҳֹ۵㿴ڼְͥҵд˽˵ȤӦóΪġνʹһ˳ΪΪȫˡOldfield 1990b187ҳPocock 19924553ҳSkinner 1992Beiner 1992

Ȼ֧Ҳϵִֹд˶ԹⷽʽִǵļͥڽϾжеõҸβ뱻һżȻĶͨԳеĻֻǶڱ֤ȥزֹ֧׷ЩDz˵DZҪġο˽ֶֹ۵ΪʿIgnatieff 198972-73ҳʿMead 1986254ҳУҲΪߣRawls 1971229-230ҳۼңWalzer 1989215ҳŮȨߣElshtain 1981327ҳ֧֣涨ִĹۡ

Ϊ˽ִ˶βĮ񹲺֤ͨ˵ϣʱڻµѾƶˡѾ壬ҲȱЧ ǣǶ˽ľ˽ķḻǹƶ񤣬ȴеDzٴѰ֣Ϊǵ˽ȹϣ˷ḻˡʷԸıԭ򣬰ٿʽİļͥǿΪɣ𣻴ĸ㣨ɴ˴ΪḻзʽͽͶΪְϣǡǡͶӵĶսϣȴܳս ЩϲְͥҵеȤδؾ󵼡ʶ˹ָͨЩ˽ΪζĹ߶๲ͬ岢ȤʵϣǡճGalston 199158-63ҳ[15]

ǽáۼҡcivil society theoristsһָ1980ԴȺ˼һ·չЩۼǿƷԼԽȫıҪԣȴΪгβ붼Щԡ෴ڹԸ̻֯ᡢͥϻᡢ塢֯Ⱥ塢ھšŮ塢ƻȣϰùֵͬԵġֶָʹγΪܵƷֻڹ(association)ϰáWalzer 1992104ҳ

ΪЩԸɵģδ涨ֻͨ𷴶ԶǷɳͷȻַԼͥѡͬ»ͬ־෽棬ûζĹҳͷؼεΪΪӦеƷԣʲŵγɡΪDzŽ빲ͬĹڻϰԸƣһεĹDZز٣Galston 1991109ҳ

ˣҪ֮һDz빫ᡣֶָѡ壬ⲢһκöӵĿںţǹҪ󡱣Walzer 1992106ҳ

ǡԵԡGalston 1991109ҳһŴӸ˵ǸԣΪΣҪ֤ѡһֹ϶ֵ𾴵Ĺ۵㣬ǺȻϵУҲѧھӣ漰λú͹ʱ⣬ΪΣҪ֤ѡһֹ϶ֵ𾴵Ĺ۵㣬ǺȻϵУҲѧھӣ漰λú͹ʱϵҲ̻ǰաɨǰѩԭͬأͥǡһѧУ̻ȥͳŮˣOkin 199265ҳ̻ѧȨͬʱҲѧ˶̵IJݣ̻Ƕֵƫ˵ȵȡ

ֶʶ˶ijִϵ֮УֹϵУϰõġƷʡһֳ𾴵˳ӣǶĻΪ˵£DZ롰ƽȵؽ硣ͬأijЩĻƫ⻯particularistڹ˼ϹôǾͱ뱣ȷԡֶĹ۵Ϊе塱еҲҪݹȨԭԸ죨Walzer 1992106-107ҳ

һȴ̫ͷˡַҲʹöԸĴģԤϷ֧ڲⲿĹȨܵвôȻԸԤԱЩȨǣΪʹ̻ڲΪ˱֤ͽѧ˳ӣѵϣȥؽ𣿶Σؽ̻ᡢͥϻԱʹڲǻԸĶǿȵһصһصʹdzΪԵԡ ۼϣЩԸΪҪѧУСģߡⷽ棬ǶЩҪˡЩܻԣȴǵĿġǼ̻ᡢͥ֯ҲΪѧϰԣֻΪijֵּҪij档ЩҲٽԲû̫ϵ һڽ̻Ҳζ˳ᣬѧϰβָĸְԱԱΪ޶ȵشٽԶȥ֯ڲȾͺЩڵɣijЩ壬ͯӾȷDZٽԵģձ飩[16]

ĸʽmaternalۼƵ⡣ǰעڼͥĸԣmotheringΪԡݰϣ̩³Ͽ˵Ĺ۵㣬ĸԽ̻ḾŮߵΣֽҲӦóΪָԭ磬ĸ԰һ֡ά֡holdingġζѧ̬ȡйϵıڻµ棨Jean Elshtain 1981326-327ҳSara Ruddick 1987242ҳս򻷾ϵľԵ塣

ȻһЩָĸԲ빫ͬԣû֤ݱά֡ĸʽ̬ȴٽļֵ硰ĻԣΣΡƽԼȨʹDietz 198530ҳNauta 199231ҳָרߡҡһԼ͹ĸףͯͬߡDietz 199276ҳ

Թ۵ơĸʽŮȨ빫ۼҶǸ˽ĵ˵ԵġʱЩԶһùDZҪģDzdzֵģʱ򻹿ܻʵ䷴

߾ΪǰȨεIJƽָܵⲢûɵġ19701980ۼҼרעȨƶȵ֤Ա㱣ЩȨûע⵽⡣Ϊûֲƽ⣬Ϊɣ壬ʹùԵĹΪ˽ܣMouffe 1992b

ȻڹڹԵУЩȤȴijЩ֣֮簢ܡAmy Gutmann ˹ٷ?ࣨStephen MacedoԼ?ʶ˹ͨWilliam Galstonڸʶ˹ͨҪĵԿԷΪ֣һԣطҳϣԣԣž񣻢۾õԣְҵݻԾ뼼ӦԣεԣȨԸֻ֧Ķ۹ְԱֵ¹۵ԸGalston 1991221-224ҳ

ǺֵԣȨ¹۵ԸҪص㡣Ȩ֮DZҪģԭһʵµĹѡٳǵͳεĴˣһҪξǼලЩԱǵΪ

¹֮ԱҪΪӦͨɶŵ۹ߡʶ˹ֵָͨԲDzεԸ򹫿Լ۵Ըңȡֹ۵ԸеĶԣЩ۵УһᷢЩ۵ϡŹᣩԼ̹ʶΪطԼĹ۵Ը˵εĻֶλǿεĻGalston 1991227ҳ

ཫ֮ΪϹԡpublic reasonablenessĵԡ幫ΪҪҵɣǽ˵ԼƫûʵвңЩɻϹԣ˵DZܹ˵ͬͲͬˡˣʥͳDzġ[17]

幫֤ҪԣʹͬͽΪЩҪΪɡƽȹĵλһµġҪŬذѴͬЩܵõֵ֧ӲͬڽĻ˵Ĺ۵ȥ⣨Phillips 1991b57-59ҳ[18]

ǴϰЩأѾۼгͥеԡǺԣκУ񶼲Ծȥѧϰ¹ۻȨΪЩҪ˽ԵۣҪȨ

ۼҿӦôӽϵͳϰЩԡѧУ̻ѧԵ˼̸һЩ¹۵ȥȷʲôǷϹԵġָҪͯڳΪʵַȨһ롱ôѧУʱǾ͡ѧȨΪҪѧȨ˼ϰȨ֧˲һȨɵ (society of sovereign citizens)Gutmann 198751ҳ[19]

ȻΪѧУӦý̻ѧȨֻ̬ȲڹжԼĻͳ־Ĺ۵ġͳ巴ֹ۵㣬ΪԻᵼ¶ͯ˽жԴͳҳȨڽȨɡ⵱ȻûʲôԡϣҪĹ񣬽ͱȻҪѧҪ˼Դͬ丸ʽΪࣨеĻѡDZҪѡҲDZҪġGutmann 19873040ҳ

ˣЩäڴͳȨȺ壬ûбϸų⣬ġɡšԪͽ̬ҲһǾɥMacedo 199053-54ҳΪˣ(Amish)[]ȺŻ跨Ůѧ

ߵѾء߶ǨطȺ塣еΪȺһź£һᣬʱDzɱģRawls 1975551ҳҲRawls 1988267-268ҳЩϣʹԼҳĺڽ̵ȨӰ콵С磬ʶ˹ͨΪδ¹ۺбҪ⡰ζŹұ루ԣ֯ȥѧԳϮ丸͵ʽԵķ˼Galston 1991253ҳϣѧУԣҪٽѧȨԸֲǶԸʽȷԵļᶨⲢ¡

빫ۼٵѾغơۼٵڣʱӦö˽ȺиԤʹ֮ЧԣۼٵǣʱӦõѧУĹӶ˽Ӱ졣ֱ죬ǶûгֵԴЩ⡣

4ۣ빫

ڴսУĹ淶Ըг壨нʹij̶ֳ۹ԣҲͨ˵ǾȨˡǣԸĹ۵㶼Ϊͬ⣺κһֺУⶼһֹ淶ԽɫǿǹߵһĿꡣ

Ȼǰ۵һصڣѧǶҽ乫ڹ⡣ѾģһЩƶȻ߷Ľ飬ܽٽǿõĹԻΡЩƳЩΪάһ¡۹ܾǰɾָ֧ҵͬŮȨҲڴǰܾþ֧жҲںܾǰͷԸҡˣȻӹĽǶȳչǰΪϤĽǶȣǷĻᵼ²߽ͬ

ǿΪʵĽ顣ƷҪģΪʲôŷ޹ͨȷGood Samaritan lawsβҪģΪʲôĴǻʱҪѡ٣澫ҪģΪʲôŷ޹ҪһʱۣѧУθУΪҪڲͬڽ̵ѧһѧụأôΪʲôֹ˽ѧУ

ЩרŵعעڴٽԣǼû˿Щ顣෴ۼҪôδٽδGlendon 1991138ҳҪôڡеġºԽģunobtrusiveʽȥٽԣMacedo 1990234253ҳ[20]ܹۼұԹȨܵĹעȴƺԸκЩȨߡ

Ҳųкܺõɣȴ˵һ£һΣǼһֹۡڹԵĽƺ֮ûжԴٽǿùԵĺϷǷʽ˵๫һ̸ЩЩôͻøá[21]

ʵϣٽùƷʵıҪԵжȲǿµĹڵ˥Ԥԡʶ˹ͨΪһĻձʷ֮Уձÿһ֮СGalston 1991237ҳ[22]ʹѡ½ˣǰȣͬпܸˣ˵ȨˣҸˣMacedo 19906-7ҳˣӦδٽõĹƷԼ⵽жȣȻ

ģԡ

һϵȨι涨ĹƷʲһֵλҲһͬһһιͬijԱЪѹһֹͬݣǰųȺӢ֮УΪͳһṩһԴͶ׼⣬ʸ񲻽һֵλҲһͬһһιͬijԱЪѹһֹͬݣǰųȺӢ֮УΪͳһṩһԴͶ׼⣬ȱ뾭ԴųڡͬĻ֮⣬ֹͬĻӦǡͬƲŲ(Marshall 1965101-102ҳ) [23]

Ⱥ塪ˡŮ塢ڽɡͬȺ塪ԣҲӵйͬĹʸ񣬵ȻеԼųڡͬĻ֮⣬ѾЩȺijԱ֮Ըеų⣬ǵᾭõλΪǵĻݣǵġԡ ԽԽۼΪݱ뿼ǵԡdzЩۼΪĻԪߡĻԪΪɰΪԼ涨ЩͬĹȨûпǵȺҪֻвȡ˹˵ġԹݡdifferentiated citizenshipIris Marion Young 1989258ҳܰЩȺϵͬĻȥ

ֹ۵㣬ҪijЩȺijԱϽһιͬ壬ǾͲҪΪһ屻ϣһҪΪһȺ屻ϡǵȨֵȺijԱݡ磬ijЩȺҪȨ˳ӦڽʷԭȺ壨績ŮͺˣҪιĴ壨ˣ£̩¡ˣʹҪ󳹵׶ҲѰȨ

ԹݡռλĹսΪȺĹһìܵͳݶ壬һڷ֮ƽȵȨȥԴ˵⡣һĹ⽨ĻǰִĹ۵㣬Ϊ߸Ǹͳݶ壬һ÷֮µƽȨȥԴ˵⡣һĹ⽨ĻǰִĹ۵㣬Ϊ߸ǵڵڽ̡׼ελˣԴȺԱݵȨΪ֯ڹγĶPorter 1987128ҳˣԹǹһķչ

ӰĶԪĻۼ֮һΪͼһʵġԽȺĹDzģΪѹʷųȺ塣һijЩȺȨȺȴܵѹƵУΪӦ׿Ƕصϵ;顢һձĹ۶һձĹֻǿȨΪȨߵĹ۵ͳһĹռ֧λȺĹ۵ȴᱻԵûзȨYoung 1989257ҳ[24]˵ΪʲôƽҪȺĮһĻϱųȺιдڲλҪ⡰Ҫһ⣬ҪṩƶֶȥѹȺıʹ⡣(Young 1989259ҳ)ЩֶӦð֧ЩȺĹʵеõ֤ĴԼֱӰЩȺϵķȨYoung 1989261-262ҳ1990183-191ҳ

ҳ

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ڶĻϱųȺͨжصҪЩҪֻͨȺ߲ܵõ㡣˵ȨȨԼŮȨYoung 1990175-183ҳĻԪֵ֧߻Ů˹ֵġȺ̰group libel lawsΪijЩڽɽܹѧУܸڽķɳͷ̫˹֮ڡĩСSunday closingɱ˽ͽ֮ڡͷParekh 1990705ҳ1991197-204ҳModood 1992

ЩȨ֤Լ㷺ϵѾ൱ˡԼЩȨԡѹơķӦΪ֮绤ѹƷΪ֣ԵȨ״̬Ļ۹壬ԼȺ޻־弤ñɧšYoung 1989216ҳҪֱ𿼲ЩӦı绤ַʹߵ̫Զ[25]ǽֻпЩȨԹݵӰ졣

Թ۵ߵģȺ嶼ֹתעԼڲġԡġġڽ̵ġԱĻIJԣôͱһȺһϣGlazer 1983227ҳҲǡһȺ빲ͬĿĸеĹߡHeater 1990295ҳKristeva 19937ҳCairns 1993ûκζܹѸȺһֹ໥IJͻĴKukathas 1993156ҳ

߻IJԹ۽һ֡ԹΡpolitics of grievanceʾѹȺԹݣ⽫Ⱥ佫ξڷֲԱ㱣ҪȺȨŬȥ˷

ЩǺ⡣ȻʱҪֲͬȺȨ߶֡ȨԲȺ壩ڶԪĻȨڽȺ壩Ȩ壩ǶжԹݼΪͬ塣

ȨгȺԣƶײ㡢Ⱥ塢Ⱥ塢ͬȺ壬ǶȺȨҪιĴΪЩȨǶѹ״̬ķӦñͨһҪ֮·ϵȨ֮ơӦͼȡЩѹƣӶȨıҪԡ

ȨٵijЩУӡڰ˾סرƶһӣȺҪȨܱһȨ֮ơȺȨijϣгһձȡѹƷӦDzԵġ˻ո彫ԾԭҪöеȨΪʷԵȺǻƶģռһĹӵжصʷϣЩȺ幹һ֡Ļ塱ethnic塱nationЩһιͬĽ֮ڣҪӵijЩؼϽεȨԱ㱣֤Ļɵطչ档ЩҪIJиõıȨȨתƵԼȺС

ԪĻȨ˺ȺȺͬҪ֧ѧУ˫ѧоǵڽ̻֧ǴӲijϣгһձȡѹķӦDzԵġ˻ո彫ԾԭҪöеȨΪʷԵȺǻƶģռһĹӵжصʷϣЩȺ幹һ֡Ļ塱ethnic塱nationЩһιͬĽ֮ڣҪӵijЩؼϽεȨԱ㱣֤Ļɵطչ档ЩҪIJиõıȨȨתƵԼȺС

ԪĻȨ˺ȺȺͬҪ֧ѧУ˫ѧоǵڽ̻֧ǴӲǵķл⡣Щ취ּڰĻϵĶԺУȴ˶谭ľƶлȡɹȨһЩȨҲֻʱԵģΪֵ֧Ļ첢ϣȡġȨͬǣԪĻȨּڴٽں϶Ρ

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ԹָDzȨеһֻ֣ôʵκһִijʽĹݡۼԭĸԶΪIJԺ͸ٵͬԡParekh 1990702ҳȻĻԪҪIJԳ̶ڵκһ¶δܴﵽ

һֻȺȨݵϹ𣿶ȨĹ۲콫ֵô˵طʵϣܵ˵ԴȨԪĻȨҪһֱҪЩеųȺϣᣬϲ˳ӦǵġԡּڴٳҪ

Ȩֻһɹ·չ֪majoritarian democracyƶϺɵڶ֮жڵԼʱҲԴ˷Ӧʶػλı߽򵥸ѡı߽ԱΪɴϯBeitz 19897£ĻԪֻǽһ߼ǵȺ壬ЩȺ壨績ŮȺ塢мȺͬȺ壩ͬҪ

һʵϰ磬ξЩȺȨȨ[26]α֤ǵĴʵϻǸ[27]ǣȨĻ뷨϶Ƿѡ

ͬԶԪĻȨҪ󶼱ȺԱҪԸһ¼ô˽ͽʵôʼᆵӣRoyal Canadian Mounted PoliceǣǵڽҪǴͷDzıͨķǣǾͲܼ롣ЩϣΪΪôĻʼᆵӵһӣһʵ֤Ҫ뵽һȺеԸҪȨֻܱǶͳһĴٽ谭[28]

˵ģԪĻȨ谭Ϲ̣ΪǾɵµĹ֮䴴һЭֵƺûоݡôͰĴľй㷺ԪĻĹУһ͵ڶȻԶ̳еĶеԺµĹҲĹȺ壨Kruhlak 1992[29]ңǶ¹ҵǿҸ飬ҪҶĻ첻ݶұʾӭĻ֮ϡ[30]

ȻȨȷԴͳݹ̵⡣ȨԪĻȨһȺ壬ͼ̶ȵںϽȥεҪȴӳһҪͬȺϵͼҪ䱾ʡȨԡζͳΣôȺԾ˵˭ġ⡣Dzͬ壬ӵйеԾȨȨΪһбϣʱDZȵģͱöɳȷȷЩԼܷЭijЩȨȷı

ˣȨDzԹ׵ӣΪǻΪͬ壬ÿһ嶼ԼʷȨԼȨӶԼιͬ塣

ᄈ£ԹƺܷϹܡιͬеijԱݣôȨڴιͬͬʱȻһ˫عݣڹͬһͬϵDZڵijͻ(Vernon 1988 )ңһκͻֹȨֻҰģǵǶԳԼҺ⡣ҴڲԽDzȶġ

ˣҪܷв漰κȺȨ⣬Ϊ˵ĹͬݶȺijԱ޹أЩƺִԪĻķͨΪʽԡǾԣһЩ⣬磬Զлӡڰˡ˹ĦˡԼıؾһҡٵͬЩԸ񣬶ͳһʷεġֳΪһֵȺ塣ͬݡ壬ӡڰˣԲҰܸգ֧ҲȺ塣ͬݡ壬ӡڰˣԲҰܸգ֧Ҳһ㣨Walzer 198227ҳKymlicka 1991ˣڽȺ嶼Ȩ

ʵϣжҷϸġͬݡԡⲢΪ棬ΪܾȨֻӾЩȺԶдӶǶԸTaylor 1992b64ҳ[31]

εͼΪͬ۵֧ҲΪԹ۵֧⡣Ȼ֧߻ߣǼûע⵽Թݵʽע⵽Ȩİţ壩[32]

ôҵͳһԺδأ޶˹ƣִͳһԹͬһ֯õǷָɲֶֶԪġǹϵһ֧Ź֮άϵ֮ϵRawls 1980540ҳǣйͬԭһʵδؾ͸ǺܺõȥȻΪĹң϶ǷΪĹҡŲйͬԭ򣬵Dz˶1905ŲĶеźͬڼô˵Ӣ˵˳йͬԭ򣬵һʵǼϵԭΪ˳ϣԼҲͬԭһιͬͬһͬݣ˵ܹΪĸֵжݵĹͬݣNickel 1990Norman 1993[33]

ԣDzȷʵҪһֹۣۻۡһУDzڲͬιͬ壬ԲͬķʽҲ˵еΪ˶ȥģеͨһȺڵijԱݶġ̩ս˳ΪĶΪǶұͳһġΨһ취Taylor 1991һУβܽ乲ͬݣ̩ճϣʲôʹһұŽⲢûн[34]

ʵϣʷĻеľ޴ìܱκһֶһձԻش𶼿ԹʵҲΪܹչһձ͹ͬݻԹڴٽ谭ͳһеã뱾ǴģTaylor 1992b65-66ҳһϣͬڱпһǾܹһ֡ۡڴЩʲôȻ

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[1] ޶˹˵ġṹ۵Ҫ⣨Rawls 1993257-289ҳ

[2] ԽͽԸƹԵȤ磬ӢίԱġٽԡ1990ĴDzԺ䲼ġ1991ôԺ䲼ġôԣΡ1993

[3] һDzۣȻߣ磬Brubaker 1989Van Gunsteren1988

[4] ӡMarshall(1965)ڹʸʷϸܣHeater(1990)Walzer1989

[5] ǾᷢӢʷǶôضءŷ޹ңһ̵Ĵ󲿷ֽڹȥʮų֣ͨ෴˳֡ʹӢʷҲ֤ȨģʽǵĶԵģHeater 1990271ҳParry 1991167ҳHeld 1989193ҳTurner1989

[6] ʼζʲôʱ̸øĿȨΡӢͬȷӢ˻ǿȨ磬ܹȨȨͨǿȨ磬ڽɣKingWaldron 1988:Conoverȣ1991804ҳԴ˶ԣ߷ԺָһǡӵȨȨTropDulles356 U.S.86102[1958]

[7] ˱˴֮ԼԼDZԱôЩͱõ㡣һ֤ݣMead1986243ҳShklar1991413ҳMoon198834-35ҳDworkin1992131ҳ

[8] Fierlbeck 1991579ҳHoover Plant 198812¡ijЩʿѾʶгΪĹݸڵΣաͼͨǿԸʹҵһӢصԹݻۣFierlbeck 1991589ҳAndrews 199113ҳHeater 1990303ҳ

[9] ǿͰŮ˫Լ֮СǴڼչСͻᱻָδ񣬴ӶΪεĸĸףͼı·ôָֻδܾԼͥΡ

[10] ڹϵһƶȨҪ⡣ʵϣͬȨĺͽ⡰ʱһҪ󡱣Philiips 1991b13ҳAndrews 1991207-211ҳSedley 1991226ҳ

[11] ΪʹһȺħԡ⡰ԵõתDalston 1991215ҳȻеҲʶ˹ԵıҪԣˡܶԼӢΨߣVincentPlant 1984һ£ҲCarens(1986)Deigh(1988)ΪȨԭΪ൱㷺ε춨˻ЩַԼǵйְ񣬲ѡٵԼŮ

[12] һĵ飬12%ΪѡٶһùҪġңĮ˵áһһǰʮƵĵһԱȣڵ˱ȹȥʮκʱ˶֪١ĵ١ٵزѡ٣ƶȸԡGalston 1991129ҳӢ֤ҲƣHeater 1990215ҳ

[13]עĿֻһϵDZڵijͻArneson1992488-492ҳָֽһְΪһڶΣգУεԶˡDworkin 1992132ҳ

[14] ʮһֱ⣬ΪΪԹݵĹעһʲ׼ʶֻ̬Сˡ漰⣨Selbourne 199194ҳVan Gunsteren 19789ҳDietz 199270ҳWolin 1992241ҳAndrews 199113ҳ

[15] 񹲺ߺϸΪֵ绤磬ǡ๲ʽŷ·Ѷ¼˵ҲΪһ¹۵֤κһֹ񹲺Уõ˶ε֤Oldfield 1990a6ҳѾָЩڵı绤ڶԸŮԱӺͶ˽ıͣVogel 199168ҳYoung 1989253ҳPhillips 1991b49ҳ壨Habermas 19928ҳ˹ΪβԴ˶ֻΪֶεļֵDZʹǾڼֵǽܲڲⲿĶвSkinner 1992219-221ҳڹƵĹ֮ĹϵۣDworkin1989499-504ҳTaylor1989177-181ҳHill1993163-171ҳ

[16] ңʹؽ壬ҲѷǾܹ̻һΪȱٵĵԣͬݺĿĸУPhillips 1991b117-118ҳǽڵĽ⡣

[17] Audiڡ׶ԭ򡱣principle of secular motivationеۣ1989284ҳ

[18] ˵Ϊʲôǻ⹫ۼңΪΪõĹԿԵڴӸ˵˽ĵԡ˽УַϹԵҪDzҪģҲ˻ӭҪͽھ̻ʱʥǻƵġ

[19] ѧУͨγЩԣһͨѧλϣ벻ͬڽͬѧڣȾ֣ʱҵڲٳҪ˶ȷʽGutmann 198753ҳ

[20] ڡءٽԵ˵Habermas19926-7ҳHill1993ԼRawls1993216-220ҳ

[21] 磬IJƾ壬ΪеķԹҵȨͬʱѹݽΪɵλMouffe 1992b227ҳͼؽѧѧ֮ѾʧȥϵͨΪһ֡ڶԹ͹ֵ֧ݡ230ҳǣδٽ򼤷ֳڹ澫IJ룬ûκν顣빫񹲺岻ͬΪɵѡ񲻸λԡˣƺԻԭΪ۶ϣԥؽܵΪɵλĹݹǡ幫۵֪۶ûʲôͬ

[22] ʵϣǿ1950 пάҵĮƵĵǡ

[23] ڹݡϹܡۣBarbalet198893ҳ

[24] ڵǰĹΡԵص㡢ġڸŮֻΪȹ񡱶йݣҲۣPateman 1988252-253ҳJames 199252-55ҳPateman 1992

[25] ߷ԲԹݣΪΥƽȡΪȺԱݵĻȨһЩ˶ˣͽһֵȼƣֵȼУһЩȱĹ񡰸ƽȡΥԡĻϵӦάһƽĻгרϵġûԭ԰취ЩȺȨõԵλЩۣGlazer1983Taylor19911992a51-61ҳHindess1993Kymlicka19891991Phillips1992ԼVan Dyke1985

[26] ΪһȺԭֻѹƵȺ壬ǾͲغȺ᲻ʵʵؼˡYoung 1990187ҳȻгѹȺȴռ˿ڵ80%˵ڵȺһַֻʽܵѹƣŮˡޱīˡˡԼ˵ˡˡͬȺ塢ͶˡԼϻвмˡYoung 1989216ҳ򵥵˵˽Ըж԰ˣÿһ˶ܵѹơˣÿһȺлȺ壬ҲܻҪԼȨǺѷһ׼ܹԴҪ󡰲ʵʵļ磬ӢˡһԸָȺܿͷ޺ȺͼձȺȺ壬ָϸ΢طȺ塣£ʲôǡġPhillips 199289ҳȻ͹ᶼȺƶûҪԹ޵ļYoung 1989187-189ҳ

[27] ûа취ȷÿһȺҪʲôεǴƵһ⡣ȱȥȷÿһȺҪЩʲôЩʲô£̸ǵδûõġȱε£ҲЭƱȴƸʺϡ [28] ôȺ岻ͬΪεһ֣ЩȺһֱͼʼᆵӸϳ䶨ӵأñصľȡȻԪĻȨҪҲܲȡ˳ʽӸ˵ڽɱȺпܲȡʽ簢ˡ

[29] ңԪĻҪҲܾΪͨ漰ͳɵڽ̻֮ijͻԶѹƱҪЩȨԼȲDZҪģҲdzֵģǾͲܴٽԹΡ [30] ȻһȺҪʵڽ̻ĻϰߣȴֺԱĻȨôDzҪģ磬гֿȺȨǺҪģǿԳ֮ΪȺڲȨ롰ȺⲿȨڲȨһȺԱȨǿȺԱشͳϰ׻ȨⲿȨȺһȨĻͬȺⲿľѹУȺȨⲿȨΪڲȨĹ淶Բһ¡Kukathas1992Kymlicka1992ĻӦ

[31] ΣҲɱҪسȺݡϾԽΪѧУͥĹٷԡ

[32] ѧNorman1993b

[33] ùͬȥٽͳһͱ벻ʹԭĽӰݸЭһ£ҪһЩķŻʷ񻰡ֲԵۣNorman(1993a)

[34] ŷ޵ѧЩΪͼŷıҪĹʽ˹׷Ϊŷ޵ͳһܽΪҵĹͬͳĻԵĻϡ෴ŷ޵ĹݱԹͬԭΪġġܷ԰壨constitutional patriotism֮ϣHabermas 1992Berten 1992Ferry 1992ǣȴΪһͳһĻ̫ˡָ̩ʹʵܷ԰ɹĹң編ҲҪһЩҵڱ־˵ʷϾаԱݵTaylor 1992b61ҳLenoble 1992Smith 1993̩ΪѧDzӦȥ涨ʲôǺϷĻΪ˽ܵĹݵ飨a priorʽӦȥѰҶԼԾҪʽTaylor 1992b65ҳBerten 199264ҳ

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