ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis







ԼףJohn Gray1948꣬ѧҡţѧѧѧԺоԱ׶ؾѧԺŷ˼ʷڣΪ׶ؾѧԺѧڡë˹1978Ͼѧѧ˶ʿνʦѧѧԺ



ܶδ

ܶѧļֵڹʶĻôֹʶڣǿҵ֧ҵĵ¡ָҵǽԵĽĽ̵ǽʧЩҪﵽµĸΰ˺ԥֺϺԵʱˣܶСҲܶΪ֮ܶĴҵûʤܶĵ塣ҪǣҲڽȦй㷺شһӡ󣬼ܶ̽Եģtentativeʴȵ岢ûж˵ʲôЩΣҪеʶֶȥı䡣ǽֹ۵ʾźԵûͬ˵׼ȷȴ˻ỳɣܶѾκ˼봫ͳһˡ[1]

ȻҲΪʱ磬нΪעܶ峬ԽдʱһЩ־ö㷺ҪܶаһֶԿֱ֤֤δеÿһ˶Ҫע⣺Щ뼯ߺͼȨƵĻҪйϵȻԴԵı岻Ѱһּʽּ岢˼ǰƶоޱıҪԣȴִΧṤΣ֪ЩѰһֿ˽ᷢܶڽǽԵĴе⡣ںܶ崫ͳĽܳ׶ ܶɡе۾

ܶڡɡһ˵ҪĺIJ֤֧˼ɡɺͼɵ۾УһҷչСɡĺ۾ΪԸеΨһ᣺ԼĿԣԶԼͱ˶׷Ϊ(autonomous)ĵλԼĸ(individuality)ܶ˿ǽԵĴڣֹȻѷƵķΧƶΪķչͨġԭʵһ㡣ʵϣһԭܶ۾ݵIJͬ׶γʲͬʽҪּ֮УֻеΪΣΣ˵ʱɲӦơ

Ҫǣɡִ߶ܶԭע⵽㡣һܶܽǿһԭֻdzɵıҪdzʹܵijΪ𺦣ǿƵĴҲʹǴġܶҲΪִᣬÿ˵ķʽȥʹ䴫ͳɶΪʱԭܵΥܶõIJԭ֤ԵĴͳȨDzƵȨЩӦԴ˸ĸĸŮ棬Ҳ볬ŮͲĹԴ˵棬ԭУܶᷴԡ׼֤ƶȣܶɡȻ˿ڿƵ֧߱ʾͬ飬ͬǿԴʩΪ˿ڿһѺӵϽάϵɵߵһ֡[2]

ڶܶԭζţƶ˶ɵĺϷƵıҪͬʱԸɽ޷Χĸ档ܶذߵעԭָֹ棬Աֹ˵˺ԱʹȺΪܵĵ¹һ¡ ҪǣųɵĸȨƣ۳ҩƷоͰƣ棬ܶȵߵԶöࡣͬʣýɫѧⷽ棬ܶһֺЭΪϣΪdzڵ¿ǶΪֹ𺦡󣬲ɻɵǣ֧ܶ˹˹Thomas SzaszʿһЩ˶ϣԱжΪ˽ƺͷԸƣٰЩʵϸķɿ֮¡[3]ǷܶԹҸȨͷɵļأǸϸ˼ܶЩߵķԣǽdz[4]

ܶļ

еĽ۵ҩƷʹýܶͶϣͬǵĹ۵㣬ӦԹʵ֯ȴܵʿ֧֡ܶΪɹҽƵĽӦΪԵʵеһֶڣȷڵĻĿͼ stimulusԱʹ˴ﵽijı׼[5]һ۵ֱԴжԵƽĹעڱصͰġϣIvan Illichļͽ֮ȴӦߣܶһֱδע֧ΪҽƷ򲹳ĵƶȣvoucher scheme[6]һƷǶǣΪɭϣRisinghillѧɵ˰ļûһ򵥵ðʧʵһɱصĹŻϴĵط֧¢ϵĹҽвʢܶԽĿʾķļȡ֮ķѱ߸Ȩ֮IJ졣ǰͼͨȺѡself-relianceĻǣߵĿԵʹͶߺʴȵļƻߵ֯expansionist apparatus

ܶļʮļ壨һطҽҪػص֮ϵIJֵעģΪֲʾܶ˼Ҫ֮һһַ޾ֳ̽μʹ࣬ҵ᲻ĸԴͬʱȴְѶԸɵƾܵС̶ȡܶķ·֮ʵԣrelevanceǸ;Ѿ˶Ǽˣȥӵø࣬Ϊ֪Ĺһnationalized񲻽ɵľ޴ʧһʹԴ˵˵ٷ䡣ʵϣƶ£˷Щõ㱨ٵˡ

ܶҵ᲻ķһֶͳԼͺļĸԶĽ塣ܶԤԵؿ˸ˡ˵ڶԵIJԤִڻбDZضIJ֧ʴȵ޽׼״̬רơеĿϱȾƶȸΪŰƶ£ָֻкСĿռûпռ䡣뾭ͳ壨StatistͷѱЩĸڵΣյϣǼġܶһѱȻǴģôΪȵ壨Selsdon Groupле[7]ͬǴģΪܶΪ˼ٵʱγɵĹҵеشһϵн飬ڽżΪ塣

ڣʵӦdzʶˣܶһζؼɷߣʵɷԭûκһλŵ侭ѧһ᲻Ҫ򲻼Ҫƣң෶ΧڵԤġܶͬΪУ඼Ѿʮ͵ŷӢƶΪȻˡȻҪҪʶܶڴҵĽԶԶسսĸĽ顣

ܶǸʱ˹ҵҪڲƸķ䲻͹ҵ֯ıŰƶȡ1897꡶˫ۡϷġ¡УܶƣִУ겻˵ͶͽڼȣǼ֮ɷȡΪֱIJƽҪԭڲƸͣĿ۶µIJƸСľѧϸԼԴ˿ҩڽ쿴ܶ1848꡶ξѧԭһʱͬаɫʡֵ֧ܶIJǷزŲ˰estates dutyƶȣǽƵֳ˰accessions dutyŲ˰inheritance taxƶȣӦʽĽ߶Ǿա

˰յŵڣŲͬҪ˽˵IJƸתƸңΪͨļƻ㷺طɢ˲ƸͿԺ׵رһ㡣ֶ֧ܶŲ˰иĸƶƸķɢ֧ܶ۽˰progressive taxation of incomeķһܶ᲻ļ۵ͬߵĹ۵ʹ֧ܶǸʱĹҵᄈжԲƲ·䣬ܶǵļ۵㲢ûһرƽ(egalitarian)άȡ֮ǴڲƸļ̳ΪDzӦõģundeservednessΪƸļ缯տܶкǼл˽СȻͬĵأܶҲʹͬеıߣֻעԸٹ̵ȨıڡξѧԭһУܶʲôڸ˵бϵdividendţadvocacy֤ʵ뱣˼֮ͬʱҲʾܶ봦ͬһͳеĵ֮Ľӽ[8]

ȻƸIJƽʱ幤ҵ֯ģʽأ֯Уҵʱвǹ빤˴Ȩ壨authoritarianĹϵСܶһڷֹҵ֯ƶȡ֮ԷԣΪʱ빤֮ͻƶȻˣDzָκһìܵĻϣassociationƶȾȶԻЧʡڶԹΪһߺ͹Ϊһַ˹κʩչԼԵĻᡣ谭˹˵ijɳֹdzΪܶڡɡᵽָɵĸˡܶǸʱʱĸʹ湲profit-sharingƶȡҵϻindustrial partnershipƶȺߺƶȸȤеʶĹ۵ԶԶЩ飬õؽ֮ΪһַǸġԵϼ壨syndicalismܶ˵ƵĻһָϵʽջռλϽȡʱΪ׵һڹûзȨĹΪһʽҪùƽȵĻϹͬӵʱѡٲǸĹߵĹ¹[9]

ܶĺʱ

̸ϼǹҵҪ˵֮ؼڣܶĺʱۼͬеߣȡʵϣܶ˵ִ湤ҵ֯ƶУκͼѹҵ֮侺ıپЧԵıﶼһɽܵᡣ˵ܶijߡȻijֲͬ19ӢҲǵʱྶͥ򡪡ôһ֡г塱˹г岻ͬܶĺʱУ˽вƲƶΪֶβûбϳҲûκμҵеĹɷݲɳۣ㹻ΪʹȫʵֵӵУܶҲϣʱԳĸƣΪҵȷҵҽײһϵĵλߣֵעǣͳĶԹ壨trade unionismʾͬ飬ԼУȴûκʵĵλڴһĵʱɹƺҹµ֮һ½İ仰˵ܶù˲μӹۼҵ뷨ȤΪЩۼֻڹаǷ֯ʵȥѡ

ܶ˼Ѿﵽ˶ʮʮһֱ˼⡣ԴˣҪӿԾ̬ãstationary-state economy֧ҵŵ侭ѧһܶΪһȻԴȱϣ˿ڲϵظغʳƷѹֻʱġȻŵ侭ôͳѧȣܶ¾̬õĵӭΪΪֵĴģתṩ˻ᡣܶΪӦ֯Աƽת򾭼ͣ͡Ȼֹ۵ں̶ܴ˹ΪԴ޵ģ˿ڹΣڿһƺȶʮǰеȻܶԾ̬õָ֧IJڵԴĿݽߣǵ˶ԲƸIJ׷ƻԽijľǵȻĻԺ

Ϊܶһصڣ뼸еʽһڶɼħĸϣһصʹ뵱ĸءһ۵㼸ûΪ֪ʱܶͶĶ˵ϣЩ˵ĹУӲȻΪһҪĿꡣЩң÷ҪǸõķ䡣DzȱٵĴʩ֮һǸϸĿ˿ڡ[10]

ܶξѧԭԤԵһ¼ֹۡ״̬һܽΪʱ˿ڵľֹ״̬ζľֹ״̬[11]һܶǻӭ̬һʵˡһУҴܣself-defeatingͻԵķΪĵ⡣Դɱµ⾭˥ʹùھʧѰά־ķʱǸӦע⵽һ㡣

ܶʵ

ܶ˼뵱ĹϵʱһЩ˵ΪʲôܰܶһѹʱĽػΪܶļΪЩѰṩණܶļķȨġ뾭ͳļ塣ͳ岻һڽἫΪٹ̵ƶЩ㷺ϵϷȨҪȨԵĴdiffusionҪʱ漰⡣ܶҪƲ·䣬˼Ȼһּ壬ṩƽ۵һԹƽʵнɱػߵͣͶһᣬߵһȨȨIJ治ôΣյĽǮϵIJᡣּܺõɷַоͣսЩͼڼֶ崫ͳĺҳϵͬʱָıƶߣܶ˼ӦóΪЩҪС ųǿܶҵԵҪĴ𰸲ûʲôôΣܶҲᷴκһͼܸܶڲ𺦴ͳɵͬʱȥӦԶͨͺͲӵʧҵȥѰҹڵƶȣǡʱġǡġĶΣ˵ǽһƶӦǰδеľƷ棬翭˹ǿһҪʱǻۡǴӢΰʱ̳κκ;ƶȲǶܶIJҡܶԼ˵ҪʵŵԣͬʱҪĶ˵ıôƶеļĸDZҪġ[12]Ҫ֤ǣDzָܶҵʵᣨܶԼںܶ෽治һɾ͵ϸƻǣЩǵϺܶ˼룬ͲǺˡܶǰʱתʱǵʱȻһת͵ʱνһΰת䣿ǰԴͳǻ۵Ľ⹹ܹȥܶĹ۵㣬ǾǸͷ John GreyLiberalismsessays in political philosophyNew YorkRoutledge1989һ¡


[1] Դ˹ʶAlan RyanԼ?˹ͼ?ܶJohn Stuart Mills art of livingڡڡThe Listener19651021գԼ?˹ͼ?ܶ뿪ᡱJohn Stuart Mill and the open societyڡڡ1973517գAntony FlewJ.S.ֻܶߡJ.S.Millsocialist or libertarianMichael Ivens࣬ȡ֪Prophets of Freedom and EnterpriseLondonKogan Page for Aims of Industry197521-27ҳIan BradleyԼ?˹ͼ?ܶάʱԤԡJohn Stuart Milla Victorian message for modern liberalsڡʱThe Times197358ա
[2] 磬Jack Parsons˿ڶɡPopulation versus LibertyLondonPemberton Books1971Douglas HoughtonSir David RentonLord Beaumontǰԡ
[3] Thomas Szaszɡ뾫ѧLawLibertyand PsychiatryLondonRoutledge & Kegan Paul1974
[4] ȼɡ¡
[5] ɡDent棬1972꣬61ҳ
[6] 磬ֶ١Milton FriedmanʱɡCapitalism and FreedomChicagoChicago University Prees1974A.T.PeacockC.K.Rowleyѧһ꡷Welfare EconomicsһA Liberal RestatementLondonMartin Robertson1975
[7] ˵Flewע[1]Michael Ivens࣬ȡ֪
[8] 磬ܶʽͳеĸĸƻJ.E.MeadeڵġǶָϡIntelligent Radicals Guide to Economic PolicyLondonGeorge Allen & Unwin1975
[9] ξѧԭͼ鹫˾棬1970꣬133ҳ
[10] ͬϡ114-115ҳ
[11] ͬϣ116ҳ
[12] ܶ۴ʮ¶Աƻ˴ƵĽ顣



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