ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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ųDZɵһִ֣ᣬҲDZɵҪʽɳͨͨѶ̸ۡ⣬㷺ǽýʵ֡˾ɶ᲻ȱٵIJ֡һ洫ý˾ı˹ڵ֪ȨǴ˾ϢһַһijЩֿܶԷ١Ա֤˼Ӱ죬ý˾ĹϵһָӵĹϵý˾һָӸӵĹϵ

޹ǹʹԼҪ
ݡȨȨʹԼ19һȨţܸ档ɷȨȨѰ󡢽ܺʹݸϢ˼ɣ۹磬Ҳۿͷġдġӡˢġȡʽġͨѡκý顣ɼǡ۹硱ģùԼʵȷˡ޹硱޹硱޹硱ԭҹֻ 1998ǩ𡶹ȨȨʹԼû˴׼룬һԼΪ׼ָ˾

Լر涨ʹЩʱ۹磬Ҳۿͷġдġӡˢġȡʽġͨѡκý顣ý顱Ӧ磬ǵѸ١ЧĴý顣ɡɾôýʵֵĽɡΪƶȻʯּܷάɵʮȨ(Bill of Rights)Dz179113ݵ׼ġеĵһȷýȨżȻܷһ(First Amendment)һι涨᲻ƶйķɣabridge[i]ɻųɣ ݡܷ롶ȨĿǿֶͨDZֽСӡڹ˼۵ý塣ˣһʹ"ų"ˣܷһᵽfreedom of the press ָɣfreedom of the press ָɡfreedom of the expressionʾ[ii]

ɵĻǹڵ֪ȨɱɵϢˣҲȨӱõϢΪ֪ҪලĻ͸˵ɵýDZġŷȨԺ˵ȨõϢ˼룬ýӦ䵱ڵĿŹ [iii] 񹫿ϢϹȷһ繲ͬ׼򡣵һϹͨS91ž֣ϢһȨǹɼϹΪ֮ܶɵԽʯ˵ϴң񹫿Ϣдܷ

ҹɶýҹ˾ϵĹ涨
ҹܷͬҲ涨ۡȨԹһصļලȨܷ35涨л񹲺͹ۡ桢ᡢ硢СʾɡеۡȨͿԾΪý˾ļලȨܷ 41涨л񹲺͹κιһغ͹ҹԱͽȨκιһغ͹ҹԱΥʧְΪйعһߡظ߼ٵȨʵܸݺ ˾غ˾Ա顢ߡظ桢Ȩͬͨýලһʽʵ֡

ǣ˾ȨȨìܵʱ˾ؿԶýЩƣʽķûġϸľԺԺʽ˾УֻԺ1999ġԺϸִйƶȵɹ涨19993ţ¼ơɹ涨1011漰ýͥɷñ⣬áɹ涨10涨ˡƵ˺δԺ׼δ˳⡣ݷͥͲμҪ֤뷨ͥģ֤ԺƷ˺޹˳Ч֤ҪģйĹ涨Աءл񹲺͹Ժͥ򡷵Ĺ涨Ӧܰȫ顣11涨Ժɣż߿Լ¼¼¼Ӱתͥʵߵҹй¹涨顢صְΪινýļලû˾͵Ĺ涨

1990 119չԺ䲼ġߺפŻ涨ŻDzפߣӦ⽻˾롱߸йŵɷãӦйʡֱϽ°칫ͬ⣻йǿŵɷãӦ˾룬׼ذ֤߲ɷйҪ쵼ˣӦͨ˾룬ͬ⣻߲ɷйŻλӦͨй²룬ͬ⡣ˣҹɶ߲ɷƣһŻDzפߣӦ׼DZͬDzļֻܽ߿ŵ߲ɷйŻλӦͨй²룬ͬ⡣

ýҹ˾ϵҪ
ˣݹʹԼҹɣýҹ˾Ĺϵ漰ĸ⣺

һ߶е
İߵȻȨԴˣ׼ûκι涨ⲻûеõӣΪҲһ㹫񣬼ڹһ涨֮СڶԼ߹ķʽϣҹԺϸִйƶȵɹ涨δˡ͡ߡΪҪԺرɲܲμˣġ

϶ΪɷãΪͨʱסߵȻҲȨȻȱ׼ľ涨Ǵ˾صκһڱˣֻҪʱסңʱ䳤̣ɶйϽȨͿܳΪԺĵˣȨ˽ҵУˣùһͬȵIJμӷԺȨȨƽȡ˾Ͳܱ˾ȨĹϽγڡ²ȨַȨԺ°ʱԺԱ֪ǵʱסˣԺԱҪʾ֤Ҳκ˵ֻ֤ǽаȫ顣ԣӷ˵κ뱾һƽȵеȨӦΪɷйŻλ

Ժϸִйƶȵɹ涨10涨˺޹˳Ч֤ҪģйĹ涨Աءл񹲺͹Ժͥ򡷵Ĺ涨Ӧܰȫ顣Ҳҹ˾͵ʵͬģ˺޹йͬȨҲֻҪ涨а졣2003꡶Ժʵ˾ΪʩָߵȻҲƾ֤ƽȡ֤μӰ

⣬֤ԺƷһϸڣȱɹ涨ǡǡԳΪЩԺɱߵֶΡˣ֤ŵĹƽӦڷȷ涨ʵӦ涨ȡ֤ڣЩλȹ֤ųּʵǺܺýģֻҪȡ֤ǰһʱ乫ŶȺ˳ȡСȻҲԹ涨˼ͼȨ

߶ҹ˾IJɷ
ŻDzפߣӦ⽻˾롱ʱйвɷõļߣֻҪҹ뾳Ϳ뾳ɷáDzפǣ浽йڳ֧Ӧ׼ϹҶ뵥λйȨĹȨݡǣν⽻˾롱׼ʱйвɷõļߡ ɷһ߶˾ŵIJɷ²žҪ˾صر׼⣬ʽĶ˾صIJɷãӦͨй² 룬ͬ⡣

зǰ£ѾʸһɷõߣйŲɷ⣬λ͸˵IJɷãڵصͶϲӦܵơҲ˵ѾйߵIJɷõֻ棺һ߸йŵɷãӦйʡֱϽ°칫ͬ⣻йǿŵɷãӦ˾룬׼ذ֤ǶйغйصλIJɷҪ²ŵ׼⣬һֻҪͬijһڸõIJɷòӦܵĿꡢԱơǶԡйغλIJɷҪ²ŵ׼ⲢܷЩλĸ˵ȨЩΥλĹ涨ܲɷְΪģ׷Щ˵ְΡλʲôλΪӦΪе˹Ȩĵλڲ߱ȨĵλʦΪʵ˽ȨΪǷӴߣڸɵķΧӦܵرơ ȻзɵĹ涨ʹԼҪΥȻȨȨʹԼֻǹ涨˱ɵݺͷʽýͼߵijһҽлû漰Ϊ롶Լ޹硱ͱɵľΥģΪκһطֻҪϣصijŲ֪ͻͨ²Ų׼ߵ롣ˣΪڳ뾳Ż֮⣬߾ijһλвɷûҪ׼ϡȨȨʹԼ޹Ĺ涨 ӦȡijЩǷ߿ŵĹ涨йеȻӦ߲ɷãͬڡһػйصλIJɷҪȾ²ŵ׼ҲӦȡǷߵIJɷЩλо ýĻɷõۡ1994꡶ý˾ϵУýĵ鲢ûر涨DzģȨ롶ȨȨʹԼ涨Ȩһ¡κһҵŷ棬˹涨ܴ̽ܵһ涨⣬鱾ýߵһȻȨûеûʵĻãýֶεʵΧȻʵۣҲýĵȻĹܡ

ҹýṩ˾Ϣ۵Ȩ
ȨȨʹԼı׼ɵȨѰ󡢽ܺʹݸϢ˼ɣ۹硱ζŹڹȨýṩԼۣȿڵṩҲھýṩ۵ķʽҲǶֶУ ۿͷġдġӡˢġȡʽġͨѡκý Ӧܾýɷáھ桢Ʒȸ۱ʽ

ҹҲûжɹ涨ƣֻҪûй¶һܺΣҰȫΪ߷ۻй˷ۣⶼɵġ˾У˺һɣԾͰýṩϢۡϢȻҹ˾صĽ۲һ£ҲпǸۣģΪýලĹһ¡

ЩλƸ˽ܹýIJɷáưýͶȻΥԼ涨ҲҹܷĹ涨ȨΥ

2005.7.

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[i] е˰abridgeɡᡱDz׼ȷģӦΪʱΪȨЭɽƻߡᡱɵʵݲܼ١

[ii] usinfo.org/mgck/usinfo.state.gov/ regional/ea/mgck/archive01/media.htm - 4k

[iii] Thorgeirson v.Iceland,.The centre for independence of judges and lawyers (CIJL),year book ,Volume IV,1995.11,p17.