ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

һɣƶ
----ҹ


пά̸ƶȵʱԱμӵķͥѵѧУѧУιط񡣡 пάϾ룬ӡ1996棬316-317 ҳִһҪƶȣһҪ־
ƶҹԽƶȡź󣬹Ҿƶƶһϵеķɹ涨ίԱ1951䲼ġԺ֯ȷ涨ʵƣͬ䲼ġл񹲺͹Ժ֯ȷ涨İΧԺеһ󰸼ʵԱƶȣǼ򵥵°΢°ͷй涨İ⡣1954ҹһܷƶƶΪܷԭ򡣣ʮԺаշʵƶȡ1956710շġԱڡ취ָʾ1978꡶ܷڵʮһͬƶ涨ԺУշɵĹ涨ʵȺڴƶȡش󷴸°ҪȺۺ1979꡶Ժ֯1951꡶Ժ֯йƶȵĹ涨1979꡶Ϸ涨ɺͥһ󰸼Աμӡһ涨ȱԣƶ˾ʵʽ1982꡶ܷ㲻ٰƶƶΪܷԭͬ1983ġԺ֯нԭݸΪԺеһ󰸼ԱɺͥԱԱɺͥСҲٰƶȹ涨Ϊԭ1989䲼ġϷ1991䲼ġϷ1996䲼ġϷûй涨һ󰸼ʵƶȣӶƶȳһԺݾõһ֯ʽ2004828ȫ˴ίʮһλͨˡԱƶȵľ¼ơ200551ʽʩС涨Ժеһ󰸼ԱͷɺͥУü׳İͷй涨İ⣺һӰϴ¡¡°ˡ°ԭ߱桢ԭԱμӺͥеİ˵ҪԱμеѡȨһشĽΪˣԺ˾200412ҲͨһԱѡΡѵ˹ʵʩ¼ʵʩ˴ľһµģôļǷΪ־ƶȵӦֵĻأڴһҪķ


һƶ

пάƶȸ߶ۡΪƶȽ̵оʵȨ̵Ҫ¹ÿ˵ʱܻ뵽ҲֵԼ̵ÿҪԼΪΪÿ˶ܾ˵ˣҲܾԼˡӺɷǣûǣκε¶޴̸𡣡 ƶʹȥ뼺޹صİ취ȥ˷˵˽˽Ļ ͬϲ׼н֪ʶʿӴѧϰ÷ɵļʦİٵָ㡢ʣʹԼͨ˷ɡΪ˵γʶʵ֪ʶҪڳƶȵлõġпάϾ룬ӡ1996棬316-317 ҳƶΪIJΪ˷ıܷȷ涨ȨֹѹȡUnited States v Datcher,830 F.Supp.411(M.D. Tenn.1993)ǿκ˶пܳΪԱΪ䡢״̬ܶбʶз¼е˶ӦӰ;ӣӦͬ䣨ˣԱְҵĻ̶ȡˡԸĸоȷʹѾ֤ʵĴڡκȨͬļǻл桱State v.Ragland,Suprenme Court of New jesey,1986.105 N.J 189,519 A.2d 1361ԱǾӢĴĴӳܼʱӦͲܷӳ¹ͲҪˣֱͨϸѡβרҵٽˡ
ҹ߷ԺҲ˵ҹܷ蹫Ȩ˾ǹҪɲ֣ʵԱƶȺڲ˾ֱӡҪʽǽȫƶȵҪݣҹ˾Ҫ֣ҲʵҪ˼͡ΪִΪҪҪ桱ԺʡԱƶȵľ<http://www.china.org.cn/chinese/law/649985.htm>תԺվ 20040901գ
ǿ͡ʵʩһ涨ȷԱѡӦעײԱԱԴĹ㷺ԡΪųһЩضײΪԱݡڶĹ涨ԱһӦдѧרĻ̶ȡִиù涨ȷѵĵطԼϴȺϸߵĹ񣬵ԱĻʵſũͳУĹ˺ũûǵĴӦ˵ũû˴ﵽרֻмдרĻ̶ȣڵĹ涨ʵƶȵıȥԶ˾ӢȺСҲ˵ռ˿ھȺ岢ûдƶȲﲻ涨ƶȵijԣרҵҪȫҪ෴ײС
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Ҫʵϵ͡ϴȺĹ涨ڵпΪеѹȺͲṩϵȺڻ
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ƶ빫
ĹԴ棬һǷְҵٶԼ߷İʵ飬ڷԺ˸׸ݷͥչʾ֤ƶϳʵΪ˵˶γν˾Ȩ˵ΪĿģֻDzIJобϵĸӹʹIJо˺Ϸ¡ԱҪȽϴŵΪ6-12ˡ6 ˱ΪΥܷ6ġ˵IJۺ˴˵ĸо;飬׳µƶȶûܹ֡ʵʩ涨ҪԱаעش±׼ȷ԰зжϣ뷨γ˼άڲ尸ʵȷ÷ɣȷйͬʱͨԱȺڽзڽһǿϵ⣬˵Ϣ߷Уʱף˾Чʡһ涨ûܹеĹ塣
ԱںͥеûзƣУԱ٣ʵտרҵٿƾ档Աǿġ
ڵƶǽеĺͥ٣м򵥶þĻ֮ϡһĺͥ357ʱֻҪͿԽвСζһֻҪӶ߷ĵͬͿСôͶƱǰٷ֮ٵķ񶨰ʵijζֻ67%60%57%ĿԵ¾Ϳڴ̵оϷҪʵ֤ȷʵҲﲻҲﲻųɡij̶ȡʵǣԱӰ취ʱרҵԱԶԱ֮ˣӦһ²þƶȡ
ԱҪһҪ־Աܲ÷ɶֻܽʵСʵʩʮʮ涨ԱԺμԺлǰ뾭ѵԺݱԺйʵƶԱѵƻͬ˾Ժѵа졣ԱѵӦԱμлʵҪѵݰɻ֪ʶйְҵºмɵȡƶȵıáˡμУԱרҵΪڵרҵϰγɵijɼѵҪĻôֱɷٽУοӵķ֪ʶйϳ򣩣ԺУҵѧҪڵʵϰͶգѵʲô塣
ԣӦ϶ԱδѵԱ԰вУֻܽʵIJС

ƶ
пάڿ϶ƶȵõͬʱƶȵӰ죬ΪӰòûжֹ˵ıпάϾԣ룬ӡ1996棬1 ҳ׵кͶ˵ıһֱǸҹѧ߷ƶȵɡҹƶûԱںͥеҲ˵ܳᵽԱںͥеı෴357ԱУ˵Ա2ˡ4ˡ6ˣʱרҵԱþͱÿпˡ˵£ĴݵḬ̇УеĽһͨаŮļ̳Ȩҹķɹ涨ǻŮŮȨͬĹ涨DzһµġΪʵŲǸҵģǸӵġϻƵʱѲƲ͸ӣҲǽ ̳ҪŲ õ¶ϰĽй걨 <http://www.cyol.net/>2002118գ
⣬ʷƶȵ߲ûпǡܱɵƶȳͨԿʹ˫ܹȡһԱ£ܳչָ˵źͿķϸ֮⣬⣬ҪǷֹһ
һŲܽʵУܾͷϺϷԼ̷Уרҵٵ顣һڲƵ޷ΪԱרҵپͬȵȨDzƹеȱݡ
νһ²Уһ²ֹܹ˶˵ıڶƱƵ£ֲһ˵˵ǡǡǴľһǶƱζһǿһ˽ԼԸܵľһ²þܹ˷ȱݡҲ˻˵ʵϺѴһ²þΪֻҪһͻвͬһ²þʹ޷Ҫһ²þ£ﲻһ²þγν(hanging case)Ҫŵֻռа2%ҡΪʲôأԭ˶Եģһ²þΪԱһҪʱʱԱὫ˴˵ЭԣԷһּγһмĽߵһ˼ΪﲻܳʱΪде˿ܹһֵδΪΪô˼֣пϷҡǴڱ˴˵˵ЭγһмȻҲų޷˴˵޷һʱֻͨ֯Сһʵֹܹν̰пֵܳĶ˱Ϊ֪ʹһУҲе˶ְ̳ȨĿģһ˵ļܹı䰸ˡ⣬ڰУվڶ̵˵˿ܸıԭĿ
ȷʵ˴һΥɵIJþô죿νŷϷnullificationһDZĬģ2002һֱȨȱݵܷ飨Joshua Dressler ,Case and materials on criminal law ,Third Edition,Thomson west,2003p19ָԱΪʵdzģڲͬⷨɵĹ涨һΪǶ񷨣ʵIJСΪΪΥ˷ƵͳһЩݹ涨ΪϷӡڰݺݵķɾ͹涨ԱҽʱǡŮʿǣǣDZţһӸǵΣǵǸ֤֤ݾʵʵķ٣ǽ֤ݣóʵۣþҽǵķɣǷͬЩɡǣͬⷨɶʵԱDz˵ΪͬⷨɶһþģֻDZ˴ղƶȸȨ˭Ҳ޷׷λΪdzΥԼȨһҶһdz޳ģԱҲ˲ӦǷҲΪŰ˱˶ҲڻڶԱ˵ͬ顱Joshua Dressler ,Case and materials on criminal law ,Third Edition,Thomson west,2003p19ļֵͨһܹѹԿ˷ȱݡΪὫƶѹԶʵ塱 United States v Datcher,830 F.Supp.411(M.D. Tenn.1993)
ˣΪӦıҹ򵥶вþһ²þƶԱ˵ɡ

ġƶ˵
ν˵Ҳ֮֮˵һй淶ܺ͡ƽȡ˵ĵԭϵѧ磬2000棬123ҳ ˵˱Ϊ߼ֵ˼ϵŽһ˶ƴ˵˿ʹ˳Ϊ˼ƴ˵ļֵʵ˵ļֵ˵ԭг͹ƽǿȨΣҪݺ--еġơ˵˵˵˱Ϊ߼ֵŰ˵ΪDz̴˵Ϊǰ˲˿ΪöԴ²˵Ȱѷ²ƴε²ԴӶʳŰ˵֮²ֻ²ˣӶ̵ؼŰ˵˵ôʵ˵أɡ͡컯ʵ˵ԭ򡣣ƽȡ˵ĵԭϵѧ磬2000棬134ҳ򵥵˵˵ΪΪIJĶԴ˵̬Ⱥͷʽ
ƶȵ˵ֵҪ̵ϡ̴֮Ĺ۵㶼Ϊ̷һֵĻֵǷЧ桢˵֤
̵Ч漴Բ̵Ĺ֮ϣΪ̷һַ书ҲһԤԤܡһԤָͨԷʹһ̷ϵ˲ֹ䷸áһԤֿɾֻΪԱ˵ĹܺͶĹܡԣԱ˲һְܣ㱻ҪͷǿԸοܵľˣʹ価ӷɵʹнѳ̵İܣ̫֤ɱ߳ʲôԸõİܺ߼鴴ˣܶһΪʹܵӦеijͷĴԩδѩ˻԰Ҳ˶һκ˶ᡣĹܼһԤҲ˵̷ϵˣDzҪȥͬ̷ܵijͷӶĹЧᣬҪһЧ̵ЧʮԵģɱͷҪֻһΪģԴ˶ԣ̵ԤҲԶ׼ġԤܣƸԤָͨԷһ̷ʹԶһʱɥʧٷ˵ȻҲȥˡ̵ΪʵʱȨ۳ΪɱʵʰȨʣֵЩ൱ģҲھۣһ˵һ˵ֵɱ˳ʼǷ൱ԭġ
̷̶ڷǷиõԣʷǶȿ̴ڵԺܵɣ̷ϳѧߣҲϳ۵ʱ̴ڵԽзѣˣ̵ԼΪһɵˡԭʼ̷ǻԭʼġʽ̬ͬ˼²ģ䱾ԭʼṫҪIJﱻΪһֶ򣬶Ϊʽ֮һӶһ뱻ĹϵһġȻ̴ڵӦõϵġ
Ϊ̲˵ΪΪ˴ڵΨһ׼԰̱ضܴﵽ̷˵Ҫ󣬴Ӷó̲˵Ľۡɱ̰Ȩ--̷˵ԵıںҲҪ󣬼ʹ̷˵ҪȨ棬ͬʱҲҪѱȨ˵˿ڰͬʱζŲٰ˵˿ڡ--̻оɳ2000棬192ҳʹҹ׳ȫϳ̵¡֤̲˵ʱΨһǡֻҪﷸˣﷸӵйҺͷɶðȨӦȫֹ̡ ˾Լá <http://news.163.com> <http://news.163.com2005-01-17>ļֵбȻصóӦö˵ձԵصĽۣʶжǷ˵Ҫľء¡Ȩ------̷ֹ۵Դй̹۲ http://www.chinamonitor.org <http://www.chinamonitor.org/default.asp>ҲţŹȨռȨ˶ķչ˵ԽԽΪϿɣĵȼ۹Ҳ˵Եǿ̷ĹԼֵı䡣룬˵ԽԽӵı̵ĹԻܵǰδеսڽijʧȥ˵ֵеĹҷϳһ־ЧԡԵ˵̷
ǵìܵļֵͻʱһӦȿأ޷˵֤رǹ˵ĵһָܣܵǿҳ̶Զ޷߼ġ˵һ˹ɱˣ˺ЩΪ̲ҪĸоԲֵͬ飻ͬ£һУ˺ȴΪ̡̫˵ûϵҪԱ˴̡˵ıܵһָܣӢ̷ڡӢ̷ʷʷٷΪоΪʲôһҪ֤˵˵֮ļ̶ҲһҪ֤ǵĴСDzͨԱȽϵó۵ģһ¡ݽʱ̽ ˭Ҳ˵˭Ҳ˵Ϊɱ˳һ׼̻ҪΪ˵׼ϳ̣˭Ҳ˵˭ġڹһûзϳʱ˵ҵ̲ijһǷӦ̣ҲԿΪҪɱ˳´̣ҲֻͨԾ尸жϡҲΪʲô̶Ĺң̵̬ȥԶԭŷ޹Ҷϳ̶̣Ȳŷ޹ҵ̡Ҫԭ˵ͻʱȡ᲻ͬ
ƶУȻһֻʵþǶֻԴ̵ϣŽһ²þ̱ΪǡԱҰֺı Harris v.Alabama,513 U.S. 504,518(1995)(Stevens,J.,Dissenting)2002ǰݼݺͷݣ̰оõνġšJURY OVERRIDEƶȣնԱ洦ɷپšڶֻнд̵ȨյȨȥŽ֮ϡ20026£߷Ժɣݰвöһзٲܷ豻˵ĽȨд̵ļػʵȡᡣ߷ԺöűرоʵþڷܵоɣݣƷоɡ536U.S.584,607(2002).ˣеݶ尸бǷӦ̵⽻ȥжϣжϵĹʵǾкͬģ˵֮ƽ⡣ţǾͲλֻһηĻŮ18-20֮䣩ͬһжԲ̵оˡλŮ򷷶 http://club.news.sohu.com/read-fazhi-234-0-60.html <http://club.news.sohu.com/read-fazhi-234-0-60.html>
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