ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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ܷвûȨ֮˵ߵȨȨǵжȨȨƽȱȨܷ5͵14涨ۺˣǸݴŵıߣд֮УΩ½лսʱֹΣʱ۵еİڴޡκ˲ͬһΪΣκ°б֤ɳ򣬲ñɻƲ蹫ƽ⳥˽вƲóáʮһںڹ黯ڹϽˣΪڹĺǾסݵĹκһݣƶʵʩƺڹȨȨκηɣɳ򣬲ðκ˵ɻƲϽµκˣ಻þܾƽȷɱߵȨܷܵıĿΪʵָ뾭Ρ

ʷϣֳʱ䲼ɡֹߺͳմֳ򡱡ܶඨӵ͹ķҲͼԷDzӭˣЩڵַɹ涨ǵ 19ԺַʧȥЧΪҪ˿ڣܷԸȨҪԭӵʱڲķԮԸ˶ԣܻøߵĹʣʵƽǴģ˿Ҳµ⣬ԣŦԼ䲼˱ֳʱڸķ----ֳʱڻֵͬˣ20͵ķһɽֹκߡ޼ҿɹ߻ᱻͽ·Ҫϰ

⣬ͨЩΣսײ㡱пơЩɰֹڹơضֹ֡ǷdzҪķʽ1968߷ԺPowell v. Texas(392 U.S.514)һ϶޿ƵصĵȱݣɷߡˡƷߵȺܶ˱ؽ

1980Ժ˺ܴ仯1980꣬Ī˹һ Kreimer ڸͼݹҹͼΪϵζŶܾṩʹͼ޹صˣʱϵļλʦַܷһ涨ıȨΪߡһУԭʤߣУΪͼǡƵľۻ᳡Ӱ˵Ȩ϶ܾסͼݡðһ󷨹ΪͼӦӣζԡDzƲԵ˵ȴ˺ܴӰ졣kreimer v. Bureau of Police for Town of Morristown, 765 F.Supp. 181(D. J.N.1991),184.޼ҿɹߵȨӣַɲдӸ汣޼ҿɹߵȨ

ȣھȨ档

1983꣬ŦԼݰ䲼ɻҪûСǹߡ֤ݵ£ӪҵʱعƷ240ƿӡ̵ֻһλ1020͸ЩԴΪ޼ҿɹ˱ܵʰ鷳Ϊˣ1988 ꣬޼ҿɹ߷ġһλʦϡ19897£ŦԼ߷ԺBeverly S. Cohen䲼Ҫ̵һνκ˵240ֻⱻΪǶ޼ҿɹߵľȨϵһҪо (Canway Farmer et al v. DAgostino Supermarket .Inc.,et al, Supreme Court:New York county , IAS Part 31,Index No.11170/89.)

Σ˽Ȩ档

1986꣬ݣݾھвһиˡ޼ҿɹʱһѾ6µĵط---һȻɽҵ ҡ֤½Ѳ鲢غڴ˲˸ˡΪطûʹñҪı˽Ĵʩûγһصļң֤вûַ˽ȨǺϷЧġUnited states v. Ruckman,806 f.2D 1471(10th Cir,1986)Ǻ෴19878£ץһдĪ١ɱ˷ʱһʱ·µļ----ɼϯӡһӡ˵ӷڸٹ·żµϽɣ1991꣬Connecticut߷Ժ˰ʱΪҲʱļңӦܵ14 ı֤Ѳ֤ЧState of Connecticut v. Mooney, 218 Conn. 85(1991)о1967ġKatz򡱣һΪҪ˽ȷʵб˻˽˽˲ȡ˱Ҫıܴʩð˽ȨܱҵѲǷǷģȡõ֤Ч

ֵĵص㷽档

ضʹĿĵijǰֹ⣬Ӧ֡1989^ŦԼ֣TA䲼һ涨ֹڵ֣Ϊÿγɧźвȡ޼ҿɹ߷ġʦΪϣһ涨Υܷ涨ıȨΪԼʽDZȨһ֣ñ֪ԼIJͷաһԭʤߣ߷ԺһбƷŦԼ߷ԺɣڵֵĿҪΪǮΪ˱˼룬ǿķʽԼ˼룻ӱЧ˸ܵвɧŶϢˣTAĽǺϷġYoung v. NYTA(1990),156.ĵص㣬ǰͼݵҲɸһʹĿĶ֡ǣɲֹҰ֣Ȼʱַ˵סլȨְҰֵټ

Ȩ˵ܷ涨жȨȨȨƲȨֵص㷽ҪܵơϵݿΪȨDZȽϹ㷺ġᵽһЩҪԷɣǴһ棬Ҳ˵ڵһȨֻҪǴûвȡҪʩ¶쳡ߵʱϢӦΪ̫ܽܽܽܽ˽ƲȨӦܵڷΪ ҪⱣڵص㷽棬죬߳ǽϵĺ̵·ڵȹͨҪԿЩ˾֡ΪḣƶƣԼһߡƳߡ̲˵Ⱦˡ

ķҲԿȨܷȨľ廯һӵ⣬ܼ򵥵˵߲֣ӦȨìܺͳͻʱӦЭҪһصֵֹķɱҪܵΥ飬ƻᱻȨַʱþȼõ;

2005.6.ڵѧ