ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

 

ָʦȨİ

һ

죬ƬĹڶῴԱȨȨֳĬֳĬȨ˵һлڷͥ㲻ĹʡȨʦϣʦûǮʦѶʿʼǰΪһλʦ°еʦȨÿһν ΪȨĽÿһ˶ԼиŬͿڸıʷ

1891ܷ涨ﱻڷͥʱȨʦΪ绤źǣںܳһʱڣһܷͬ裬ʵֻDZǮˣΪûǮ޷ʹдֽϵȨ

ֱ1932꣬ ˹ƴIJкһŶԴı䡣ڴ˰У9ˡǵʦٺݳһصУͦ. ˹ƴIJкĹ²Ȩʷϣܷķչ϶Ҫ壬Ϊһʹʮڡƽȵķɱ ɳϵı֤õ㷺Ľ͡һ˵֤桰ʦЭȨķΧ⣬һյݻУ˶ɵõʦİͬʱһκȺ岻ñų֮Ĺ涨

ġ1931 331գڰݵ˹ƴIJգ9к·ǿŮָغ󣬸Ůҽ˵δǿ顣һ֤ݣ9кл8˱ݷԺﲢ̡һУ̱IJþ

һþİǡ߰ݡ(Powell v. Alabama, [1932]) һ9һ˵ġ߷Ժ˰һ̱ʽIJþΪЩ̵ƶṩ㹻ʦЭþҪڡܷʮ ʵɳ򡱵ƷоĹУ߷Ժľȷţ˹ƴIJкı绤Dzֵġ߷ԺIJþָݷԺԺصİԣʦЭʵķɳ˵Ҫġ

ǣݲ¾͡˹ƴIJкߣʹŮҽ֤ʵδǿ飬³ȡıµпͥǰһʱҲƷԭĹʡеˡ¡ɭ (Heywood Patterson) Ϳ˹ŵ˹ (Clarence Norriss) ٴα̡߷Ժĵڶ̱ʽIJþŵ˹߰ݡ (Norris v. Alabama, 1935)ٴƷоһΪݽֹ˽š

߷Ժþ԰ݵߣݹִ19351937 䣬һߡ4ٴαдڼ5˵ָرˡϡ (Andy Wright)һ͵ģһ1950ꡣĵһҹѹȥ19215졣ΪһŻͷӵĺ¡ɭ 1948ԽЪ (Michigan) ݣûзߡݳܾɻذݡɭʱԼġ˹ƴIJк(Scottsboro Boy)һ顣1952ڰ֢ 39ꡣ

롤 (Ozzie Powell)Ϳ˹ŵ˹ﱮʽ߷ԺIJþС 1946ͳ30ŵ˹Ѱ󲢵õ˵ʱΰݳΡCʿ (George C. Wallace) ⡣ 1979꣬ŵ˹Ϊһ˹ƴIJк (The Last of the Scottsboro Boys) ¼Ƕοѵľ1989꣬9һ뿪

2030 ˹ƴIJкõ֧֣аȫɫЭ (NAACP) ЭȨ֯ǣðĴջɣҪ鹦˹ƴIJձ绤ίԱ(ScottsboroDefenseCommittee)һַɫڵ塣ʷѧΪΪ֧֡˹ƴIJкеʾкͼᣬ 2050ʼִȨ˶Ҫǰס߷ԺһIJþΪлʱ壬չ˷ˣʵ˵Ȩ

1961꣬ķзһıʦȨİǼ϶ٰ

϶һ51˺ 1963꣬߷Ժڼ϶أGideon v. WainwrightһвöݷԺӦΪط౻ṩ绤ʦ˹϶ Clarence Earl GideonݵһƶİˣֻиĻˮƽ1961ӴһҵӷԶشԶۻеһЩӲҺ͹װϡ϶벻ʦҪͥΪṩһλʦ⵽پܾ϶ֻòݲݲһЩɷ鼮绤Ͼûܹķרҵʦѵ绤Чѣͽ̡

϶ڷݼڼ䣬еͼݿ̿ѧɣڷĶܷйطɺͰǦʸ߷Ժ󷨹дһݡƶ顱У϶ƣܷ涨ڷͥʱȨʦΪ绤ȴƶطԺʦ绤ʥܷȨͥоDzġ߷Ժ󷨹˼϶󣬾֮֮оݡۺ֤λ󷨹һͬ˼϶ߡ߷Ժڲþǿ·ԺʦDZݳޡԺӦΪط౻ίɱ绤ʦ߷ԺIJþ´󣬼ﻶ׶϶ɷָͥѱ绤ʦоͷš

߷Ժͨ˼ء (Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963) IJþʹ涨ĵõʦЭȨиݼԺﰸӶһ(Hugo Black)󷨹ƣ ijЩңõʦЭȨһǹƽеıزٺҪȨҹȴǡ˰һȫؼǧѺˣʱͬûʦΪDZ绤¿ͥĻᣬ˵оͷš϶һʱΪзĽӢۡ

1972꣬ڶ԰ߺķ֣Argersinger V. hamlinһIJþУ߷ԺþõʦЭȨָܵصݺı棬类ォ̵ߡ 9ľսķк1931괺վȵİݷͥϽеʱȣıȨѾ˾޴ĽʦЭᣨ ABAһҪΪṩ޳ķɷ ÿһ벻ʦֻҪдһż򵥵ı񣬾Ϳʦİ

1891ܷ涨ʦȨ֮󣬴Ӳκṩʦ1932ǰӦΪе̵ﱻṩʦ1932 Ժ󣩣Ϊеﱻṩʦ1963Ϊпܶκṩʦ侭˳100ʱ䡣