ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ܷۡϡԭ

ԣ
ܷϡһĿںţҲΪܷһԭ򡣽šιںŵйĽһ˼гöԹ淶Ľ׻ʵҪԽԽ˵߷ַɣDZΪ󷨡ܷΪƶȵһ֣Ľƺо޴áһܽġijϷԵܷ£ƵΥƶйȷ㽵ϣܹܷζ[1]̶̵ļʱ䣬ĴܷϡԼԴΪġܷ˾ѾΪ䣬۽絽ʵ繲ͬ׷ʱС[2]ȻʱеıʽǺܷͨһΪ˾аݣǹĴܷӦɻǣǶܷıijŵܹõʵһóеεʱܷȴѾĵı컯ΪڽʽľһķɣΪͼܷǶĤݵġĶһΪԴб׼İܷһҵġ³̡ܷ淶һСijıǿµġʷǣƫִԴͷĻʯ˼ķĹԡ񡱵ǣܷȻǿʼܷʱ򣬳ֵܷʱҪ׷ķһԸԣĵĿIJϲ߾ͨԡܷϡһԭҿܷµʵĿǻȵһˮ

һܷϡԭĺ
еߵķһƽȣһܷߵķɣߵķɸƽȡ

ԼĻ

һΪijܷ1787ڹܷ[3]ܷԭ򡱾ⲿܷıбģıġܷڶƣܷ͸ݱܷӦƶĺڹķɣԼݺڹȨ޽Ӧ޽ԼӦΪҵ߷ɣÿһݵķٶӦܱܷԼʹܷκݵܷеκι涨ִ[4]ںŴһ⣬ĹϣȻܷǵȻߵķɣǹЩܷƶķҲDZܷϿΪߵķɡ߷ԺЪ󷨹ѷоṩһĴ𰸣˱ʷѧұȶ³ΪΰĴȨ[5]һıͬʱһβˡܷϡȷк塣

ȣЪȷ˵ִܷͨɵʱѡܷ֮㣵ɣͨѰԸıܷ[6]Ϊȡ֮ûмѡ񡣻ܷҪķɣɱֶͨı䣻ͨͬһˮ׼һ֮ʱġǰһѡȷģôܷìܵͲǷɣȷģô¾ͳĻͼȥЩϲƵȨ[7]ǣ֤ܷҪϵݣԣϸĶܷЪֵָù۲ǣʲôǹ߷ʱ[ܷ]ᵽܷҲǺڹһ㷨ɣǸܷƶķɣžĵλˣڹܷ϶ͼǿгܷĻԭִܷķЧ[8]ҺһԺҲܵDzļԼ[9]Ъýڡеߵķһƽȣвܷߵķɣߵķɸƽȡ߼ǣǿĽͻ˵޸˺ڹܷڶ

ΣܷͨɣʹܷƶķɣĹϵȷˣΪܷȱᵽģܷͨɣ[10]ִܷͨͬЧ

˺ϾңһܣضҪʡȥЪ鷳ܷıֱܷϡκλضöԿܷΥܷķɲǷơƶ1982йܷƣܷԷɵʽȷйܶijɹ涨˹ҵĸƶȺ͸ǹҵĸߵķЧȫһйһغװ͸塢ҵҵܷ֯ΪĻ׼򣬲Ҹάܷϡ֤ܷʵʩְ𡣡 ⱻΪʵȷˡܷϡԭ[11]

ܽЪٵол񹲺͹ܷԣǿԵóһܷϡԭȷеĺ壬ܷߵЧκΪκι淶ļܷͬͻʱ򣬸ΪļΪǡϷġԣӱܷԭһ߻߱ĵʿƵһ׳ͻĽĿģΪάǵĹߡܷȨ ܷϡԭۻ
ܷ֮ԿԵ˵ԼϵģΪȨǿΪԵĻ

һȨĸ

ȨǷ˲JEAN BODIN۹͹Six Books of CommonwealthһȨһ͹мȶȫõȨSOVEREIGNTY is that absolute and perpetual power vested in a commonwealth[12]ȫ롰áʹȨΪߵȨΪһңһȨȫȨֻһֵȨôȨ֮ضĺλƽȵȨȨͲ˵ߵȨһȨ޵ʱ򣬼ʹʹȨߵȨڿռϵķΧȫ޳ߣһ¼ʹȨɥʧȨ˺ͳ֮µͬˣȨҲܱΪߵġһȫϣȨΪϵȨҲȻûκηɿ֮ ȨĹ⣬ۼ˸ֽ˵޷֣Ȩijʵʵ壬ᣬߣȨij壬ȷ˵񡢻߱˵Ĺҡ

ڡܷϡԭ

ȨһʵڵضʱܷҲݵġ

רְͳεĹңȨھˣȻǻŵľĸһƶһܷʹоȨƶһܷⲿܷҲ˵ϵģƶķҲǾʹȨı֣Ȩ־֣ƶķɲΥȵֻܷ˵ΥԼȵ־벻ڲܣ߼ʹľܻ߲ңҲֻϵԭǷϵԭڷϣȨڸ˵ʱ򣬲νܷϡٸӢȨԭȨڵǰᣬˣӢɲϣκӵƷֹȨ[13]һԭ򣬵ǰȨȻӦDzƵġȥΪԼǰᣬһĵķΪϵķɣͬӢִʱⲿΪ׼Ļô͵˵ǰȨҲ͵ڷ˵ǰȨߡˣӢûа취ͨһ޸ĵķɣҲͨһֻһ²ſ޸ĵķɡ[14]йͳеġڳɷסͬ[15]ɼȨӢݲܷһԭġȻӢѧΤ˵ȨӢһǸùܷϡ[16]ʵӢܹάַκͻȨ겻䣬ΪһĹңͲijַıۣȷ˵ܷܷ͡ϡԭıӻġǿطִľ[17]ΰĴͳִͳҪԶԶ߹κһܷı

Ȩµġܷϡ

ܷϡһڡȨµᷨһԵĸԣÿ˶һӣûĸ˻ĸСȺԳԼͬȨĹңͳҲãҲãԺҲãܱȨȨߣӷҪܵΪȨߵȫ֧ģֻ޵ȨԣܶƶܷʱһҪרųһרŵĻȷ˵ʲôܻ顢ᡢȫᡣЩƶܷʱ򣬶ǿԼĴƶܷӳΪȨߵ־ӷ˵ȻЩɳĴΪܶɣЩܷȻҲڷ˵־ķɶǺܷѡƶģǰ־ѾܷķɲΥܷΥܷЧȨߡѡµܻ飬޸ܷ ǣܷη뿪̸ܷͬ뿪ʵ̸ۣΣյġ۹ȻûʣʵȴܿԸĶ⡣ ȨͬʵԶ޷ʵֵģΪȨȨġȺijεʵ塣ΪˣʹȨűҪѡٳĴˡȻԭҪձ˵־ΪΪΪĴҵЩˣͨͨġסġˣܵʱܵʱȴضΪԼԽ

ʷѧұȶͨϸܵĵоϽ߼óܷǺܶٵȸ漯ŵĴΪԼ󻯶ٽIJ[18]1999ҹ̨Ƿˡᡱͨ޸ġܷӳԼڵĹᡰԷʰ˾Ժ󷨹ٻ鲻òҪΥ飬ΪϡܷľΥܷЧӶγˡΥܷԭܷȻЧġ[19]ԣΪȨľƶܷض˾־ųǷӳ־ܷȴδȨߵ־ȫķӳֻͨһֱѡٳľӢļӹڼӵIJȫķӳ־ͬʱӽȥǵ档ҲѹÿһܷǿԼϣͻķһЧˡ޷ǾΪ˱档 ȻȨ۵ĹңضΪû㹻ǿǿȨ߶Ǵƾе漯ţܱдܷ棬ȻЩŶܹܵ棬ԶԣܷǾԵġ

ܷ֮ܶȻʹ塣ܷȻϿҵȨΪݣõȨڸȨܵIJ漯ŵܷʵʵ ܷ vs ˽ܷ
á˼巨ѧõĽ׼ķǹȻָܷûʲôϵĿϵʱûĸվڽ׼֮ģһܷƶþΪԼļŵ棨ȷ˵йеܷΪ˾й˵ƶģⲿܷ͵ȻıȻôʹ£ʹDzܷ棬ǴĴӷɽǶҲ֣ܷᷢϵĽҲô׵óġ

һֵ˽뱻ܷ

һΪܷڹķ롣йع˽ۿݵʱݡѧ˵롷أѧڶȰΪǹҵķɣ˽ǹڸķɡ[20]ֽΪ˽ڴ½ϵ꣬һ[21]ǣ1949֮йѧǷϹ˽ĻֵģɲжһΪ˽Ļڸ˷ɵĽ׼ʣڶΪԹ˽Ļ֡[22]ʵϣ˽ĻֲûڸǷɵĽ׼ʣ׼ȷطӳ˷ɵĽ׼ʣ˵ɱľûΪֻһгõᣬDzֳܻ˽ҿڶȰĹ˽Ļֱ׼ԵʱĹ۲Ľûзӳ˽ıʵIJ˽͹ĸγɹ̵IJͬ ȻѧǶԷɵĸʲôûеóһͳһĶƺԶҲûбҪóһͳһ𰸣ǴѧǶϿɷһֵΪ淶ɵĴڵļֵ֮һȷһȶ ҮΪν򡯣ǽһԹָ֮һ̬䣬ҸָҪ֮໥ϵǼΪеģǿԴǶеijռ䲿ֻijʱ䲿( some spatial or temporal part )˽ѧಿȷԤڣѧϣ֤ΪȷԤڡ[23]κһᣬij򣬼ʹһϿҵҲˡ[24]γɣ뵱ȻΪij˼Ƴġ[25]ijЩˣǸ£޷ļӢƳġгõˣҮ˳ΪԷ( spontaneous order ) ԷһҮ˽͵Ϊӣ[26]⣬ͨճͶȻĹ۲죬ǾͿͬҮһԷ磬ѧͼ3¥ϰңűĬĬصԷijλѧԺѧһƪѧУ

һ׼ϰûռѧһѧ¥Ҫһ¿γ̱ųϿεĽң֮ʣµĽеһеλ϶ڷ鱾ʱͻ뿪ҶѰһĿꣻظɴĹ̺ҵһλʼϰΪģʽڱУ԰ÿ춼ҪظΣռõ鱾ں̶ܴһֱʾãÿѰλһʮȷϢλӲЩϢۺ£Ѱλ˿˳ҵһõλͻϽռĹϰתʮҪãǶѭγһ֡Է(spontaneous order)һǵжȷԤڡ һûпλʹñλʹ˵֪һռ֣߳Ҫ뿪һռ˵صݻԷʱԼλᱻߡҰɶռձѭµΪռ򡱡[27]ֹĸӵȨߵĴ죬ͼݵʹ߳ĬĬжԷγɵġ

˽Ϊгػ߻˵гһ֣ԷġùҮ˵﷨˽ǡԷķ˽淶γɣԴdzڵĽȷֹ£ûһԸ㣬ԣ׳Ϊı裬ûйĽף޷õά֡ʷоڹңķ֮ǰ׾ѾdzˣȷĹɱǽϰߣЩϰߣһδεĽУͬԽĴֽ׷ʽѡЩ׳ɱͣбϵĽ׷ʽȻͨ˵ʵһĽЩ׷ʽЩ׷ʽﵽһνġڲƽ⡱[28]γ˽ϰߡĵ˽䣬ʵǹҿʼעгý׵ĽǷѧҶЩϰߵܽᡣΪάĽ׵άķٺͳεԣеIJĵϰάֵȴǴģǻᱻ߻һЩعصƻ[29]ƶ淶ķĪĽͽ׳ɱάļֵǣ´һй淶㣵Ĺ淶dzɱ޴Ļ뷨[30]ԱõķѧǵIJܽеϰߣȻͨЩϰ߹̶ùе֤Щ̶ǣ䵮ˡ񷨵ԲǷѧӢȺķֻ˵ǵķ֣ǷеϰߣЩϰŵģͻᱻDzЩϰߣþϽЩϰߡ˵۶ôΰ˽ѧң޷ΪΰĴߣһʹҲǰ˵ķֵĻϣֳɵĹ򣬴ֳɵĹ򣬵Ȼܹһ㣬Ѿdzסⱻֵ˽ȴҲǿгñ˾޴ı仯 ׹ûа취˷ƶȴԣΪβ˵顣ԣ˽ͬΪܷDZ ʷҪļܷĵǺ͸ϵһ[31]ǶԾƶȵĴݻٺͶԶƶȵĹܷ֮ƾմ¥ƴ¥Ĵ󲿷ֽϣԱʵܵƣԶԱĹҵƶȵۺģ¡ܷģµĶij̶ֳϡܷDZģȻĵ벻ԺܶΪӢǵĹĴҲʮ־ܣǴֲڵϰ߿ȵģܷģʽȴƶ֮ǰһֱɵתšܷƶߣڳ֮Ĺϵ˲ɹ[32]ǶƶȵİţǶʵķϿɡʷ͵ԭ֮ǰӢĹǾں͹ģּۻۣȡһȨ֮ǰӢķپͿ˵˾ӦøԤܷҪԭӢڱֳʱڣѾΪֵʵˡ˵ܷҲ˽ԷķϧֻңĹҵܷDZЩϿܷľӢӷġ ܷᴩӢʵЩԭ򣬱ҵľӢͬΪ[33]Ƿܷʱݣˣҵƶܷʱ򣬶ٶܷݡ˵ڴЩңܷ˼룬ǵԸϣΪʵĶʵ

ܵ˵˽ȻĹ򣬺ǵķ֣ܷιıĹ˽ʵıܷııʵ˽ǡֵķܷǡķ Ǿͻʣıܷڱֵ˽ľôΪǣҲ˵ǵĹҪȴʵĹҪ߹󣬵ʵִʱʵҪλ롣ƵԵˣľҪԥˡΪʷijϣһԲʷijЩԼȻûģԼԻԼԵѣϣĵϣʱԼֹ˶ʤ죬ԵļƻӦκѣԸȻԼᡣʵǣÿͼΪһķʱܻᱻܡཨõܻ֣ᷢԼѾԼɵçʹԭɱ¾սظկԩꡣͼóܷԿԷǿ˽ΣյġȻûһ˽ƾʲôļɱܷ涨Ϳû˽׳Ƴܷƾʲôϣ

ܷϵ

ĻΪܷĴܷһⲿܷĵһ淶ȫǹҪĻصְȨԼ໥Ĺϵ֧֮ĹϵԼ֮ͬĹϵ涨ܷ޸ģ涨һЩй¾ծȨծ̳֮УܷܷƶķɣǩԼЧ͹Ա⣬ҲһߵǩܷĶʮҪ涨ǹȨԼй7ĵIJ䣬޸֮⡣

ܵ˵ⲿܷ涨ݣ

һĻȨ

ڶҪĻصְ֯Ȩ໥ϵ

ܷ޸ġ

ܷǹ淶ȨȨ֮ϵķ漰͸˹ϵʱܷıǣᡢء¡Ҳǣ[34]ܷһϣ˽ͬȨ˽淶˽˵ˣ빫ϵϵܷ˽ޡҲûзͻĿܡ

ҪǣȻڵܷΪʲô䶯IJDzܷЩǶԾƶȵһŵƻȻԼעܷıУЩڸʲô䶯֮ǰǾиԵģǣЩߵҲͽͣ϶ѣDz˽гем[35]ȫ߽ͬ뷢ЩѾڵ˽ԭġԣʹƶܷҪ˽˵ĵĻҲǿںƵơԼɡȨַܷȷĶ벻ԡ˵ƶֱܷԭΪʲ׼ĸ߸쵼߶Ϊʲ׼ĴƶܷϷҲȴڵģг˵ʱеģΪȻ˽ԭ

ܷ֮ΪĽֵܷͬȵѾڵ˽޲ͬ۵ȨȨ˽ε˲ͬ˽ֱӵijͻ

£ܷϡ ԭзΧϣԵηdzСܷͬͻķЩ֮УΪͳεҪΪijضĿĶķڱ뱻ֵĹʱŤЩԭľķ[36]ķ淶ĵڶΪһͬȫԷ˽ϴͬЩķܳھӢijЩĴĻ߲ɸ˵Ŀģ߳ڵĶӺͷԵҪ󣬶ͬȵܷȷĸԭΥʱܷϡԭûбȷߵòϣôܷ͵ڱ޸ˡ֮һҡȨһɥʧȨܷԼôǿġά̹ȻԷ˽ʲôĿռ䡣ԣֵġ˽ͬġܷǴݺĹϵһϵơ

ִʱܷϵ

ġܷ֡͡˽ײִʱܷ۷չĽִܷۣں̶ܴܵ˼ľ޴Ӱ죬ǶԽгùֳȱݵķ

гùҵܷȱҪ㣺

ȣܷ£ѡٷ񷨡̷ŮԶܵӣȨܵȫ򲿷ơ[37]ʵ˽ӰĽŮھжٵƺͰΪŮΪԵĸӹͲƲڵģʿʵ۾Թ桰ŮǴȨµġ[38]ּҳڶᶼڵĴڣΪͳһ֡

ΣܷIJԤʹ˽ھԵͳελ˼ԭãԡͨԼ˵Ȩ[39]ҹҶԵ᲻Թȵİѹե޲ߣ߸ɴβܡ

Ϊˣִܷ[40]ģdzĽ׼ܷ֮۵

ϷʱңȻҲҶȲͬҪĸ[41]йͬǣЩҵûѡǰߵ·ѡΪᷢչԪأԽܷ˸죬չִִܷܷص˽ΣȨĸ

κܷǿȷÿ˹˵ΪĿģԭÿ˾ϵڴ˽ܵϡ1511[42]Ҳ˵˽ԭ򡪡˼ԭԻң˼ʾԼʱ򣬻뿼ǹΪһЩ淶ȷ˵͹ı͹ʣӵȵȡִܷ۵㣬ǽΪУ򵥵ĿȨڿȨͬʱдǿƵȺһƵĶʵҲȷʵһΪг÷չһij̶ȣضһЩƵšɵйԴͬͨĹ˺СʲߵԱȼΪ⣬Ⱥ֮ĽףѱƽȵģӷϸǿߴôƵȺĻȨڡԼɡ±׼Ҳ˶ԭȶὫΪıɨ

ȨҲɱΪǻȨǶԴͳɵij׵߸ȺԼھþеʧܣŵԼ˵ȡûͷչתڹʩӸԤDzҪԶҪṩһ̶ȵ֧֡ŵҽṩҪһУӦӰִܷŵұϹͶȨϢȨṩѵĽҶʧҵ߼ԾȼãұŮͯˡм˺ЩȺ档ȨʵʹȻжŬΪ˼һжӲԵı׼һжҪľú͸߶IJΪУͳεɴĽɫɫʡ

ִʱҵܷһֻ̤˽εᣬʹ˽ܷı䡣ΪЩҶûзгƶȡԷȻǿ̺ܷҵг޷ݵһʵִʱҵܷĽнƵģֻʹʱ˽Եòôġ㡱dz׵ȡε˽ڸijϣܷ˽Ĺϵһʱˮˮܷ˽Ρ

Ҳ˵ִʱܷϣܷ˽໥Эܷȫ˽ĽԣִʱܷȻ˽ʱǿӲĹ᳹ԼһЩ룬ȻϣִʱܷԲܵȻҪԷ˽أǶʱľûء

ģܷϵ

йķѧڷ񶨹˽Ļֵ֮һķԡȷָ˵񷨲˽ģΪʼûзƷõĹ۵㣬ȷʶг·ɵıʺá[43]˶ʷ˲ѷ֣ļֵۣȫεʱֵȫֳͬ󣬴󵨵ĴӸϷεڵļֵǹҲɵʱʱķƲһᡣľһжӦ뵽ļƻ֮Сˣε˽ڲ۵йҲʵλõģķҪôûбҪڣ[44]ʹй˽ƵĹ淶ҲǡЩdzϻߺˣڶȰĻֹ˽ı׼ĻйȷʵҲûʲô˽йķɶǹ

෨ѧҶйܷкܶйؾƶȵĹ涨΢ʣΪֹ涨йܷɥʧΪص㣬ⲻ֪ڶԹȨĹ涨ԾƶȵĹ涨ܷĺ֮ڡй쵼ΪƶȾӦҪұһӴĹɷݹ˾ȨҪΪý񣬾Ҫ쵼ý裬1956425գëйξΪʮϵҪ棬ñ棬ʮĸҪìܣȫ˹ߣҪĹһֱӺͼӵΪҹΪһǿҶܶ[45]ĹңѾΪһ壬ʷǿǰġΪˣйܷҪ涨ƶȣܷӳЩݣܷDzģ޷ӳйĹ壬޷ӳйʵĿ

֮ܶΪʱ壬ԾõĸԤܷҪȨȨȨΪģֹĽ룻Ϊй壬ҪԾõĸԤܷҪԾƶΪģǿƵIJɶҡǿҵĶܷΪȫͬҲͬȴӳͬ˼룬ܷ塣ܷҲ˶ǿܷϣ˵ܷȷƶϡйںܳʱ䣬һֱʵع᳹дܷƶȡ ԣҵܷϣǽгã˽ĻϵܷϡҵʵĽΣѾ֪Ͳѱīˡ

壩С᣺

֮ܶԾǿԷ˽ʱ򣬱Ϊϵܷû㹻ĵ˽а塣ܷϣֻѡܿ˽˽ͻ߸˽ѱ֤ͬʱʵ֡ԣ˵ܷһ淶빫ϵIJŷŵߵĵλҲʲô治ۣⲻǶʵ¸ҵijϰˡ ġйܷ
е˵йתڣʶԭ׼ƻѾûκ㿪ʼ˸ĸ↑ţʼؽгᣬ˽йĴϡ1986꡶л񹲺͹ͨ򡷵İ䲼й˽ı־ ҲʱǿʼĴܷˡҲʼãˡ

ܷҪܷҪȶԣҪȨܷݸֽ˺ͿдʵȴǣÿһִȫĻ֮󣬽ٿȫᶼŪܷ޸ԭܷ20ܷ޸3Σͬʱͨû޸ģ̷Ҳֻ޸һΡܷѧܷƵ޸Ķʹļף˵ܷɥʧȨ

ǣܷ޸ģôأ˵йøĸḶ́ǶܷһδΥḶ́ʵҲȷʵˣ1982ܷȷ涨幫˰˵ƶȣʵиܣͷԭ򡣡ܷһ1979йصҵ䲼йĴϣѾʵϵİҪطһİͷˡʵֱ1999ܷ޸ĵʱűܷϣһ׶ΣֹΪ塢ƾùͬչĻƶȣְͷΪ塢ַ䷽ʽķƶȡܷʮӶԡ׶ΡΪڣʵڰġַ䷽ʽΥܵ״̬Ѿ17ꡣиӡ1982ܷԺޱͨصĿǺųƣκ֯߸˲ռʽǷתءܷʮĿڸĸ↑֮ڣһͱͨˣʹȨԳõķʽʼתˣתõõϿɣֱͨdzĶܷķ񶨡ǣܷôڻоûа취չˣзزIJҵԥľΥܷˡֱ1988ܷһ޸ĵʱȫ˴żæ׳κ֯˲ռʽǷתأصʹȨշɵĹ涨תáܷڶ

ǰѾ˵ܷǽڶгõĴݻٵĻϵģҿʼؽгõʱܷȻµĻˮؽгõĽ̷˼ҵijͻøĸֻϦĸƴ˷ѵļʮǾͲϵΥܷˡҺйûнʽ˾ƣȻйĸĸһвȥֻûʲôЧҲҲ̫Чʵȫ޸ġң޸ٸĸ·вͨģСƽ˵úáĸʯͷӡĸ֪ȾԤϵеܷҪʲô޸ģԽ޸Խء

ֶܷΥͲϵ޸ģʵǷЩܷϣйܷϱΥ޸Ķʹļ׵ʿĸģЩʿǽηɹϴгõġܷϣҪܷй涨ĹĻȨܷеЩƶȥ֮ʹļףΪЩݶǰһģƵĶһݵΥ޸ģ췽ҹ̷ܷijЩֱָҪܷijЩֿϣֲϣܷȨ֮£ѣ

ԣйܷ⣬гøܷ䱾޷Ԥδĸĸﻹ޸ĵܷЩ֣δĸĸﻹжٴδֱΥܷҲ޷ȷ֪ʲôʱܷܷԼţԶҲţΪΪгƶģƵᣬǷгõȫµᣬгӦѾйעҪȥ·


ܷϡԭеǾϸµطDzòϣܷԵľޣܷϡԭ򲢲ܶзΪЧܷԭֻ޵ܷԹܵĵģ˵ǻۿƵ򷢻ãܷİõ˵ִܷķɵȻЧڸΪ˽ܷԭܵɣȥɣҪܷ˽ʵĿǰΪֹûгɹ

ܷĹ߼ֵȷһֽΪͳνṹ򣬸ܷʵʵĹֻܷΪЩܵĴڶɥʧȨΪɥʧܷԭĹܡ֮гѾйܷؽ˽ͳεDzǵģع鵽ܷԭ״̬ܷһ޸ͨɵģ淶빫֮ϵŵķĽɫܸܷõ󷢻ӡϾһľϸҪڶԸdzֹ ҪܷϣҪһõģʽҪľǸܷȡܷ̳ܷΪͳιߵʵʣܷƳ磬оʹܷߣʹܷʥҲҪʥʹܷ߼ֵõ޶õһֶΣΪȻݲģµʵȷʵܹ𵽸õЧܷĿںŶΪʵֵֶܷΰɡʵʵĿ룬ŹĿģȥǵܷ

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[3] ʵϣܷ䲼֮ǰݶѾԼܷ

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[5] ƶγɵģѷĹ£ȽϷо1998һڡ

[6] ǧϵϲᡤܷҳ43йѧ磬20007µһ档

[7] ǧϵϲᡤܷҳ43йѧ磬20007µһ档Ϊӡ

[8] ɽȨȨַĸΪɽķ໹Ǻܾġ

[9] ǧϵϲᡤܷҳ45йѧ磬20007µһ档

[10] ҸЪٵĶЪٵ˼·IJ²⣬Ъдʵĵǿˡܷἰthe constitution itself is first mentionedȻڵڶˡڹܷthe particular phraseology of the constitution of the United StatesĴǣһˡҡ⣬ͻóЪܷλߵжϵΪἰܷ

[11] ܷѧܷ˾ָʵijܷҶ϶ܷϵĵλҹܷҲ⡣ҹ1954ܷ1975ܷ1978ܷûȷܷһλֻ1982ܷ״Կ϶ڣܷ˾ҳ34йѧ磬20002µһ档

[12] See: JEAN BODIN: Six Books Of The CommonwealthChapter VIII , Concerning the Sovereignty, abridged and translated by M. J. TOOLEY, BASIL BLACKWELL OXFORD, downloaded from http://www.gongfa.com.

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[14] Τ룺ҳ32йٿȫ磬19971µһ档

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[16] Τ룺ҳ31йٿȫ磬19971µһ档

[17] ܡǮȽܷҳ12йѧ磬199712µһ棨Ű棩

[18]

[19] ر̨塶йʱӰ桰ΰʼĩ http://forums.chinatimes.com.tw/report/assembly/assembly.htm

[20] 飺ȽϷоҳ118ѧ磬19989£һ档

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[22] ǣۡҳ34ɳ磬20015£ڶ档

[23] ׵ϣ롤Үض룺ɡɡҳйٿȫ磬200010µһ档

[24] ȷ˵սʱڵйῴıȴҲһ磺ЩΪ˧ȨǵȨھӡܹɱˣԲҪӣԼ֯һ֧ӡ

[25] ׵ϣ롤Үض룺ɡɡҳйٿȫ磬200010µһ档

[26] Ү˴ƪ͡Է򡱣׵ϣ롤Үض룺ɡɡڶ£ڲⲿйٿȫ磬200010µһ档

[27] ˼ʧ򣺱У԰ռķѧоϢѧоƵĿhttp://chinalawinfo.com/research/academy/details.asp?lid=2298

[28] JOrtega y GassetתԸ׵ϣ롤Ү룺ԭҳ183顢֪ ꣬199712µһ档

[29] һ󣬱ͼݵռ򣬲ءŽIJҵ˴ȨʹͼݵְоЩǡƻͼռϰߵȻҲDZѧΪ깤ʹǵԸͬͨѧͬͨѧΪ˵飬ﲢ֣ͨѧΪ飬ȷ˵ռϰߣǵȴϺǵ棩˵ͨѧǾߡߴƴͳ𵱵˵ĵӣһձѧרŶԴ˼оӢʷѧһ˹ķдһСӡͽbanditsڷͽij͵˶ԷͽĸʱĶԴͳƻⱾʷѧ뷨ѧѧйصоǺвοֵġˡ˹ķͽй湫˾20011µһ档

[30] ͼijЩ˶ռͶߣһ׹򣬳׷ռϰߣڵԷռϰߣȴdzĸ뷱ͼϰʹҪijɱȻ׹⵽˵ĵơDZƳĹΣڣΪͬϰ߲ͬȴǺϷĻƶĹе˱ԴΪݶԿʵΪǷԱϿɵϰߣ˻ңеijϰλڱƳĹеijDZƳĹλϰߣʧˡ [31] ĸܷθձܷڵĻսͳױά£ŷ޴½19;רʱڵ³ʿµܷٶܵ19ŷ½θӰ죬ǸֱӲΪ˷ֹٴηܡ20͵ĸܷIJҲͬϵ

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[34] һҮ˵ĸμ׵ϣ롤Ү룺ԭһ֣ɵļֵ顢֪ ꣬199712µһ档

[35] ĺܶ١ʢ٣ʱڵ䣬Ա롰ʲ׼Ӫ [36] ־÷

[37] ɼԭ̩ 룬Ф͸Уܷʷҳ87ѧ׳磬20001µһ档

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[41] 編İ蹫磬¹ĹάͰͷά͹Ӣ˶ԼҴڵİҪĹ˶ [42] תɼԭ̩ 룬Ф͸Уܷʷҳ114ѧ׳磬20001µһ档

[43] ǣۡҳ35ɳ磬20015£ڶ档

[44] ɣƻƽ֮йΪһ壬ҵ֮Ĺϵµķֹƽ֮Ľױǵĸ󣬽Ʒ޵ʱĵ񷨵ûдڵļֵˣάתġĸ֡ͷļˡ

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