ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

һ忼

ȫϲйѧԺ

Ȼʷγƾõʷȴ飬ʷִҵγɶӴʷ˵һִԵ˼ִεıԡִ֪ʷеһתԵ¼Ҫھ͵ȨκͻĻϴ֮γ˸ԵιңιȻڲͬʱںͲֳ̬ͬͬǵγɳֳιͬеĸԺͶԣеȨרںϣеЯ֣ܵķִΪһΪιͬ壬߱塢˿ڵȻҪأǹҵĻҪأϷԽȨĻ֮ϡ

ȻΪһִĻе˼ʶͬڹŴֶһͬҳϣһضʶһͬҳһΪġִ壬һѧϵ壬干ͬͬҳϣףĵͬҪָǾзȨϵȨҡ[1]ȻִҲųĻ̺Ӹ˵һε˼ʶ̬ҵѹԵҪλ

ɷϣ15Խ21͵Ϊһ˼ʶ̬¾ʷķչ׶Σֳֻı̬һʷ׶ոγɹ𽥶ĶҪͬԼΧͬսḻĻ̬һĻ˫ƽšٽŷҪҵĽ뷢չĵڶʷ׶20ǷСڰū۵Ĺ˶Ļͬʶһʱڵǰһ̬شҵ͸崫ͳĻֳͬȫȨǿĵ׶ο˵20ĩӪĽԼΡáĻȫ򻯽ֳĶڸȫλκĻͬһ׶ĿǰոտʼķչԼڵδʣȴѳ֡ ȻִԵʷϰʮҪĽɫϾһռԵ˼ʶҲԵĸ壬Ϊһ֡мΡĹţĻڽṹⲿ̬Լݱ򾿾ΣֵǸ֡رǶڵйĻ˵Ŵͳʶ̬⣬ԼΪһѾˮ棬ڽ൱һʱ䣬Ӽͻˣһ۳ȫλӦԣرǶйһϵĽ𣬲ܲ˵ǰǰһҪ۹

һͬλ

ʷѴǧ꣬ȴֻǽγɵ˼ۣرǽγɵ˼ۣ[2]ڵĺ󷢹˵ֻ20ʼŴֲһźѧ˵йϵ֮׷ݵǧϣΪۻе⣬ȴǴѻƬս͹ԳģȻйػĴͳĻе֮Ǻ̺ĵ伯кţ䶰л塱ȴһ廰еרдʻ㣬йԼйΪлйִԵʷУ͹˶ʷʱڵĶ죬ͨʷ̵ΡĻϣйΪһлΪȨΪϷԻң20ͿʼִԵʷ֮Сˣ20йʷݱ̬еĵڶ׶ΣĿǰְִԵʷ̶ڻĵڡ

⣬й⣬ǵһ׶ε̬ǵڶ׶ε̬ȻǶֶģһ⣬Ǿͬ⣬ˣķоȴͬһؼ㿪ʼ

ΪͬNational IdentityͬһУԴһĻնһ㶨壬һĻҪ塢˿ڵȣ˻һ干ͬеάϵĻͬ˵һϵͬͬԸγ֮ʹţȻʷϸǧIJͬijԱһӣij˵ȻؾŶڱͬͬġеġĻġڽ̵ġѪԵĵȵȡϵͬϸ˵ִϵͬΪִһͬϵͬҿĵ˵һϵͬźϷԵ塣ȻΡϵͬųĻڽ̡еȷͬ͹ʮеϵΪ̬ϵͬȺҪıκͷϵģҲ˵ͬǽ干ͬκϷһϵģûҵĽͬʧȥ˻

ȣͬһֺϷԵͬͬΪdzȷҪһε̬ΪĿ꣬׷ιͬĶУΪһݻݵõͬͬɾŷȨϵ壬ͻ־ȨˣȨͬĻʶֻȨĿ֮ڣνŻ˴ڵݡΣͬһֶĻ崫ͳļֵͬҲ˵κһ嶼ԼصĻʹͳ塢˿ڵȻҪ֮⣬ᴩЩҪ֮Уһ֮ԾԼĶݣõձͬģȨĻͳĻҲԴڲͬڽ̣ҲԴڲͬϰףʱݱۣǹһ֮ԵԴڵݡ

ˣִͬһ֮ڱȨĻ˫ص壬ΪһִԵʶ̬ĺϷԣĻԡִʷ̣ǿȨʶĻʶȻгģij˵֮Ҳһìܺͳͻìܺͳͻпܵ۵ΣΪһҵȨĻݣرҵĶϵУȨĻΪ֧ȣһǿԴŷִԿ編رǵ¹Ĺ̬ĻԨԴͬһԴ[3]ر20ĺ󷢵УȨĻ幹Щ׷֧š

ȻҲӦÿȨΪһҵԷȨ־ЩʱҵĻȻгΪĻΪһ־ʱʷ۵ĽҲ֮ǰѾı־δؾһȨһ£ijʱڵĹȨδؾĻԴȨһκͷɵȨţĻһģЩʱһĻδؾͱȻҪͨȨκһĻҪȨһڴˣȨʶĻʶ֮໥ϵһ˵漰һĹϵϵ浽йͬȺ塢塢ҡȨȨȸΪĹϵ

ǹ֮Ƿִ֣ԵĻĺϷ󣬴һʼ;ʽʶ̬ij˵ִһֿνġ񻰡Ϊʲô˵أΪִΪִԵĻ̬һʼ;һ⻯ţƺȻؾͰϵһۣ·һͱȻӦóΪһңڳΪҵƺȻĺϷԡȻ߼ʵֻʷڴתִеһضʷʱڵض̬ȻһĺȻԣǷ壬Ȼһ⡣Ϊһελιͬ壬Ҳִݱɵһض̬֯Ҳ˵ִΪһִԵƣŵijǰ͵شIJͬңһֹңǷζһһһɵĵһĹңǷζһͱȻһҪ֯Ϊһ־ȨʸεԪ𣿴ձԵʷȫͬķ룬Ϊһѧϵ֯ϵͳΪѧϵ֯ϵͳȫִ̬ҽ̬ΪһַȨϵεԪ˵ʷϵһ͵̬̬֯ں֯ṹȨ-Ȩϵʲôһֱд֣̽ԣԼе干ͬӰ켰໥ϵ⣬ͬдĿ졣 ˵Ҷ壬ԿһԵۣҵ뷨ϵҲԶɵģ˵ľԵۣɫɫ壬ǿǹᴩҽ֮е壬򹲲ۡ

֪һۣҲ˵ͬԴִҵ̡[4]ǣ岢ȫ̬ͬ˵һۣݺ壬ijЩϣڸ岻ͬΪΪһԡ塱ΪϵλţŶڹĻǶһͬҳףˣһضʶȻҲǴҵνвģҵͬȴΪ׼ҲĻΪĿ꣬忴ȻһĺϷԣγо൱̶ȵԣȻΡɺĻĻ˵巴ԱĸΪϷԡԵı׼˵Ȩ͸ԶҺΪҪĶһڹҵĿԱΪȨܵҵķϵıϡˣ˵ȨȻһ壬ߵģӦȨΪʯֻнȨĻ֮ϣΪҵȨΪṩϷԵ֧šĹۣӢĻռĵλӢ˵岢һҲûУҲԼ壬ǵʷҲҵ̣رĹңĹγȻγġǣЩвûִҵݱΪԵȨҲûݱΪιͬ壬ֻԵ壬ԽλʯһΪۻִԵķιҺơ

⣬ִĹij˵ҲһԵĸۣΪһֶصʶ̬ƶȺͷȨϵĻʶӸ˵ҲìܵģڴĹûеλġڹۣڴDz˵ҪָǣԵ۲ͬȻŸӵĹϵųģȻijЩijڵ߼ϵ߼ϣֶкܴԣֶŶԵǿҲ˵ǿԣΪԱΪΪ߱ʹúͬҲǿԣΪÿԱҲӦΪ˹Ϊ˿ʹúͷסĽǶ빲ƵĻһ̬壬˵ǹ壬ǽ빲޽Ӷɵʷбһ̬̬ڴ˲׼ԣ˹άĿԶǡ

»صйͬȻͬΪһֺӸ˵ΪۻҲ˵޷ΪͬṩһռԵۻʯͬӦýڸΪձԵ֮ϣǿģǹģʵ˵ֻģֻ۲ΪͬṩۻʯΪʲô˵أΪǰģֻһмԵۻݵֻһ干ͬΪλοܣֿ֮ڣͬ˵൱ľԣвִԵķᡢҺơ

һͬľԡӶͬһ干ͬĹȨΪĵⲿϵ׷ͬҶijΪһֶελִͬͬڹʷηɿܣȻֹʷϵͬ׷ݵŴ񷨣ִϵ˵ǿȨһʷȨ塣ͬҲǶȨͬȨͬĺı־ҲͬĺϷԺԻ˵һûȨ壬Ȼ˵һϵ壬ֻӵȨλõͬӵȨλҵͬνͬҲŵõ֤ɡһͬʵϾһֹʷϵγϣȨϷͬвкԵ壬Ҳ˵˭ȨʲôʸΪͬ۲ֻⲿϵijϣҪⲿȨԼȨijϡȻֹʷϵij漰ƽȻȨԵȡַ͸һϵйʷ׼ԭȵȣڴ˱IJȻֻȨͬоԵģܹվһߵβ϶Ȩ-ȨϵԵĿΪȨ壬ԼΪ㣬ڹÿһ嶼ԼΪȨݣͺѴɺγϣֹʷеǿȨķ档Դˣ޷սģȻֻԸߵľԵĹΪʯֹʷеԭпԵõǡӦԣԴˣ޶˹ڡ񷨡һIJ͡[5]

˵ͬڹٵڹٵΪһĻôͬ干ͬڲٵΪһмԵۻ޷ģΪڹʷĿȻչѾһϵιʶϹĹ֯ԼϹķļοܻԶûдɣʵʩԶûеõЧĹ淶ij˵ִԵĹΣûʵ壬һϵúƽƻϣңԶĽ[6]ĹỹһҰ֮Ļ֮Ȼ͹˵ִҷչȻҲһһεشΣսʱķ˹Ȩ˹ֵĹƣ˵ִһһԺƣ˵ۻʯϵƶȣϵȨִֵԵȡõΰijɾ͡ˣͬӵһ׶ξڲͬΣرڵڶ͵׶ΣڲͬΣϾЧѰҵԽλô彫µĺڶɺƽٵ Ϊʲô˵أ֪ΪĵģΪԱкԵ壬ΪһεԪһֹһ׼ҵȨΣΪ˴ﵽĿģԱӦôһĿꡣˣ߼˵һǿƵ߼ڸҪǿҵҳףΪ׷ĶΪʵԼĿģԸΪߣĸΪֶεоȻĺϷԡ߼20ĺԽԽΪԵ߼·Щң׷Ҷʵ巢չֳͳγΪѹһеҪˣΪʵһĿģһ֯ŬһȨãǺϷģģһϵУΪԱӣĵλȨҵĵλȨ࿹⣬ܳΪҵԻڵĺձڵģȨѾΪ⻯רƷţҵһȨȨĿºΪ ӦָϵִҵγȻҲٵسֹڷ¶ĹҽʮҪĽɫִܵһĽʵһֻԵתתĻڣЩң𽥱ΪʯϣķƳΪλǿͨһ͵μܹЧؽںǿ߼ŤתһֹҮϵķԵķɼֵԷ[7]ӶʹִΪεһָƷͲ䡣

ԱҪ⣬Ƿһ壬˵ΪۻͬοܵģԴǴ塢

ǿ벻ΣΪ干ͬԼĺϷԻһԵ֤ɣһ徿ǷȨһֹȨȨ˭ʲôʸһϵȻͬĹʷ򲢲ܸʵԵĽΪһ壬֤ɲȻĺϷԣһ˵Ȼ漰һڲĸȺ˵Ա干ͬιϵ⣬ʵȻһ⡣βִҵIJ׷ݵǧĹŴᣬرǹϣijǰΣŴֱִҵĴŸԵIJִͬԵκƲǹŴεļһִҵתͣתен壬ȻDz⵱Σ⵱ơ ǰִָεǴҵģһ͸ִ壬μܹԿһ½ִ˼ʷͻ֣ᷢҵĺϷ֤û߼չǾζһᣬУڵԱҵĹϵһתɹҵĹϵҲ˵һΪһȨϵĹƣһʼԱĸӹϵֹϵûм򵥵ػԼΪԱ干ͬĹϵתΪҹȨķȨϵڴˣǿ߼ˣ˲干ͬһԱҪһŷϵĹҹΪзϵһЩȨһҪȨߵʸ񣬾ͱõҹķϵͬͬȻεIJͳӦõõijͬ ͳ뱻ͳߵ໥ͬϵβ˵һĹϵνҲ֯ʽѡٳȫ룬ÿΪƽȵȨ񣬶ʸѡͳߵijгΪѡ뱻ѡߣͬȵӵͶƱȨͬμܹȻһμܹȻһ൱ӵ⣬ʷϿξƾõʷͳڹϣһʱʱܶǰҲȡľʽ֪ģŴֱӵ̬ضĵ˿ںδͳأûѱһЩ׿μϤ˵ִԴҵβͬڹŴֱһִּصģִԵ һʷͻִ֣ᷢԴ˵Ƶģ˵Ƶͨеģʽϵתһ׶ε岻ͬ20ڶ׶ں󷢵ֵּ˵壬һʹμܹι͹ԳΪλӦÿͨζҵϴŻԵ壬ٻҵȨתΪεѡٳԭһһҵĺϷԲȻеԣȫ幫ͬǶԭµͬһҵͳߣȨĺϷԴӸԴȫ幫ͬʸ衣һҾʹӷϾ˫صԣһΪһֹ壬ȨҵʸţɾͳȴһΪһ壬ȨȴȨ̬˵ִȻڱ̬˵ŶֹʽǷģȨؼڹȨ衣ĺϷԣȻΣĹ㷺ͬ˵ÿͨԼβԼȨνԼ۱۲ģڵ߼εͬ߼ͬ˫ͬһÿڹȨͬһǹȨڹȨͬ໥ͬʹִп·߶չ ĽǶִвȻ壬Ҳ˵ͨƵԵǿ߼ͨһһƱѡƶȣͬеڲϵ⣬Ҳ˵ԭּ˻ԱȺͨ;õЧĽοڣΪһȨҵ桢ĺϷԻԴӦýԱΪҹȨ֮ͬϣڴˣͬΪһпܴĿҪػӦеĵλ˵ȨɡźεõЧءһռҵڣѲͳϵרƶãȥ޼ҵȨרܵսձųʷε̨ԱνԭΪ˹ҵˣϻ˵ǺĹǰΪ ԣ˵ʤ˵εתǿһתν̶20˶ŻĽáЩ˵׷μܹӦȷһģʽģʽȻ׵תҲ˵ӦðЧʵҵҪ󣬶ǰҵʵϣǿȨΣ˵ԱĸͻȨʵνˣһ˵ĺΰǰÿԱĹʹú޳Ϊ۵Ļǿɳܵġ˵ͬӦΪӣӦȫԱΪҹȫѡٺʸȨʵ֡˵ֻβʵĸ˺ͷ٣ȻУΣŻԵľ塣 ǣڵڣǷܹΣǷܹΪṩλأֵ˼˶ġ塷һи׿й·˵͵壬һ֮Ϊ۵IJһ֮ΪۡĹ۵ֱӦŷӢѧ˵ʵϴ˼жǽϵϵ[8]ڰ˶ٿԴ۵岢⣬ΪΪһģʽӸ˵۵ĺġֻǴӳϽȨIJ⣬ûнȨĿ⣬Ҳ˵Ȼοʵ˵ͳΣԴνȨձ۲Чطֹ˵רƣܴƶֹȨʵʩα[9]ܵµıв׼ڴ˱ҪָǣһϵһôͺпܰеרֳȨĸͺܱܿûΪνͳһļ־˳ΪķԴءԴΪߵۼң˶иʷеκ˶ʵָУĻǼ־ϣͳһ־ıҪκ־Կ־κ񶼲Ȩ־һзDZһΪ뵥λⲿءͳͼȴȨϱ仯ŵӰ졣ھȨԸ֮ϣɫɫȫһõͳһ壻ΪߵҪǵĸϰߺΪάԼĴڣѹһȻȨһмȶɡۺʱֻҪijһȷĿΪҵĿģ۸Ŀij׼ƵλҵİȫȨ˵ҸǶһ֧֣ʱרƾDzɱġ[10]

ݹ˶ʷ˶ٵ׿Ƿdz̵ģ20׷Ĵ˷УʹõĻ۱ԴۡǿЩֳͳ֮ĺ壬ڽҵ˶УDZ崫ͳĻϵȨר˼룬ܿģʽεεĺϷԡҵȨνȨϵģΪͬʣ壬ǹң־Ը־ԸǿֻҪȨ£ͻεĺϷԣʵܻIJĹȨ͸ɣνʶк徫ԴͬһȨεĿڽһ𣬱㹹˲赲γһ˸߹һ˵ֵοУԵļֵ͹Ȩͳͳûˡ Ȼڰ˶ٵ߿DzģDZŰģϵһʵʵĽǰеǿ߼ļȨרչǡǡǶεв֮ϻһߵļֵDZǸɵļֵָһ۳ڷרƹһϣûκι֮ͬΪʽһҪأϵأбǰһۣΪڶ˶ʶǧһ棬ںгͳһΪؽбǽִΪʷĹɺͽǷйһδĸֿͳһʹΪרƺ͸֮ԴȴΪεıϺͶԹȨơͳһ˽ȨȴŸıκһͬЧصƼȨܺרƵƣΪһܴڵȺ壻ǿԱ֮ԸһĹԣԷֱڵİӰǣͳߵжͬһȨ֮ɲͬĹ棬൱ڹн̻Ķάƽ⣬磬γɹͬ購Լ֧֣˱ڵһȨĴӵū״̬[11]

ǰ̸һ⣺ǷһͱȻȨҪΪһң˵οǷһһֻһ壬һضҪΪһң漰ԾȨ⣬ȻвܸյĴ𰸡ΪֻһмԵۣȻĽǶһιͬԾεѡѡȻڸ߲۵ԼȻ۶γԼεģʽԾȨȻһѡ񣬵ѡҪõ干ͬڲгԱձͬͳϣԾijӢҵĸ˶ϣҲν徫IJڴˣԱ˵Ĺ㷺벢ͨһֶԭͬʹձЧȡԾȨģʽɱȸ˶ϵģʽҪкԣεһ棬ǶκһͨķʽѡԼε·ԸΪӦõõձأӦڹʷеõͬԵϣнڴˣڵĹУܶ漰ԾȨξȡȫ񹫾ķʽԽ Ȼβյģʽ˵岢ԵֻۣһֶζĿģҲ˵ľϷʽδؾģԵġһȡձģʽȡȫ񹫾ķʽѡĹҵ·ӶԭȴĹһ˳νһضҪһҵۣʵ20ĹǾģôνԾȨӦõձڴȷʵһ⣬ǿ޷յĽһҾͱضһ壬һͱضҪһҵۣôᾭʱʷۺγɵͻս[12]һ£ĿǰΪֹȫǧССȺ壬ǶҪҵζȨλôĿǰеĹҾͻڽ塣Դ˵ۡΣνһȫ񹫾޷ΪƵĽ

ǿֻͨһ۲ܸΪƵĽȻۣΪһԵۣ˸߲ϵϡԴ֮御ܾһκԣ֮ר壬ʽźܴĺԺԣ߼ȴģһһ𣬲ܵõЧԼƣͻᵼ¼˵ĻҡˣӦͨģʽμֵĽϸȫµĶ죬Դˣ˶ٵӦεۣٵָͬһ֮Ĺ治ɵѱϣǶɵһ֤ͬһ֮ڣǽһһıҪнϴε壬ɵõϸߡ߶˥ͨ͸Ըˡһǿ󡢸ٸܵļ֮£רܻµӰƶƻϵöʧȥ֯Ҫغͳ壬ܹõָֻܵһ֮£ָܹгЧ̡ҾٽںϵĴ¯ܹһ˵Ļ֪ʶݸһˡα߽߽غϣͻͣͲǰͻһ־أͬͬ˵Ĵûʲô֮IJһ𣬲ΪֲΪͬṩ˺ôΪһŦʹһʹÿ˶ԴҵԼ档Ϊͬһ֮£Ϊͬһ塣˵ڽ̵ɴ˵õ˴ٽ[13]

ӹ忴

߾һֹͬ򣬼ǿһֶڹȨȻĻ趨Ϊң彫趨ΪңﶼΪһֹͬʵ岢ȨʸĺϷΪ־ģǡǡһֹͬ㵼ǵ໥ϡȻָģֶżͬı׶ˣܸԵȨλҵȨҵȨӶų˸ĵλΪԱΪҹɡȨȣһϣȻشȻų塢ҡ桢ȨȵķȨλȴѸ˵Ȩ֮ϣΪֻԸ˵ɡҸĿΪֵָкϷԵ塣

ȻοأһЧ⣬ڴˣ԰˶ٵΪһۡΪһܹұһĴ¯Ϊһ¯һֶڹұԵ⣬Ҳ˵岢ֻǵһĸ壬ӢҲͳ͹ңǣǵȴ뵥ҺҵʵԵIJͬȷʵһִ¯¯ǾԵǿһɢϢ̨ڴˣ壬Ⱥ壬ÿһˣûбΪֶκ͹߶ڹҵĿ棬ҲԼĿ꣬Ը壬˵ĶĿΪĿģ˵ұֶκ͹ߣԺ͸ɵĶԵģֶԵĹβν¯пܴӸϽ⡣

һĹԾȨ⣬ͲٵóνһһҵĻۡ忴κȻ׷εȨȨʵȫûбҪͨһһɫʵ֣ʷͳ״֮£ȫͨԵĽʵŻ׷һ嵥һҵģʽŻĽۿҲDzȡģκһںƽľУֻͨദϵijɳвܵõŻһһҲֻĺƽ໥еõŻ͸񰢿˶ԣɹԣṩ˱ɵֶ֯ΡЩ֧˼ʹϵķɣϰ߶Ľ˽ĴˣЩϲͬͬΪǸԼЩɣͳǵĹҡͬһֶһι̵ϣγͬԷɶǷרεƱ·ղһ־ֶΡɵIJרͳεıԣЧľֶαضǶֻĶԣͬһ֮Ĺ治ɵѱϣǶɵһ֤ҲһҪٽأȻġϵ۹涨򣬱ΪִͳһŸߵĽ״̬[14]

ڵڣνΪ¯ĹҲԵļȨңҲûбҪνȨȨ£ӦǶԵϣԴζԵΣȻִԵ߼شijͻӸԴ˵ԴһԨԴμֵҲ˵νĹҲĹңҲĹңǹĹңĹоҪá

ʲôǹأΪʲôܹгΪЧʽأ⣬ǻصʵĹϾѰӦÿƵμܹ͹μֵڵʵоѾгЧijֹڹŴϣһijǰģʽʱȶͷٵijǰһЩŹɫʵʵ壬ﲻǰҵĹõЧάÿȨҲõһ޶ȵıϡڹŵѧУ͹republicԴres publica京ǹͬġ˼β˵ԪεĻģʽЧطֹ˼ȨεһԪרϣͨԼܹɹʵ˹ŵѧϵķκӶʹøڹȨĻʵ˶ļֵ[15] ҪȻŵеõ˸гЧʵ˵רУֹ͵ΪĻԭйŴҲֹйŴҲϵĹ룬̫ʷġʷǡܱǡأʱб췴ܣٹܹ๲ִͬʺŹ͡ȻйŴͳеġ͡republicδشͬӦӦԹ˽Ϊ׼ԺƽDZķʽΪֶΣΪֵȣȷʵ빲ձԭа֮ɽŴͳл49깲л񹲺͹ѡ͡ΪģʽڴҲμֵָ򾿾ںףٴʽȻûһΪıʶ

ɴ˿ɼDzңԶΪ徫εձ鱾ԣΪΪԭ򣬽ȨΪ֮ΪҵйĹͬҵƾ䱾ָͨһƶȼܹ֯Ĺж˵շʵʩĺƽͳǹĺڡȻԹԭĹģʽν͹ĹһνĹһνҡŸԵIJͬ򹲺忴νƵĹһµĺεƣȻγɵȺ壬ֹҵĺķδͳĹ¡ԴˣӢ䡶߼ϵһжڹԭǼòνԭ򲢷ָijֶ˵ĵ⣬ԼҵǻصƫҵļŵľܾЩ˵Щǿҹһ徫ĹټִνԡԡnationalityνĹԭָͬdzޣŽǷѣָЩͬһ쵼£ͬһȻغʷγɵĵͬйػǵĹԭͬʱ֣ͬһһӦһΪˣӦϧһŦѶԷԼͬͬ۹ãͬ飬ΪӱܹζŦ[16]

̸ιҵشӰ죬˹ٴѧάMaurizio Viroli辶ӰĽǶչйڡڰ۰塷һְͨķʹǶ֮˸Ϊʶά￴ڵǰйذ塢塢ȫ۱Уһֵ飬̸Ȱʱȴûἰǧйءɵİ塱һ⡣άĿ죬ǧĻݱУһͬԨԴŲ̬ͬһйذIJͬ۵㣬Ļһ㣬ҲӦԵһʱ۵һЧ; һ˵壬Ȼϵ壬ij˵밮໥صĴʻ㣬ںܶ߿ǵǽң˶ڱȰ͵ͬڶȰڹҵȰǰָģһۣҲһеʶ̬ˣͱ൱ںšΪİ岢һۣҲһĸ干ͬģضʷݡά￴İʵͳ۵ԨԴʼִرʼ18ĩŷγɵ˼ָͬĻԡΪĹҡŵЧȰİڷرڵ¹18Ź㷺Ӱ죬ն¡¡ڸ˼Ƴ硣İһִ⸶ĻԼͬϵУģ棬νİͬ塢⽨ԼһഫĻİΪǵռ޺ոԴնΪûйҵҲûɣԸڹԣҸ̬徫ǾԵĹҾ[17]Ӧָİһĺԣ׵ֻŷ޸İٽЩĹҶ˶Ӷ1819͵ŷθ֡ǣڶȰ̺ŨĹǿȨɫʣݱΣյģ尮һɳ۽һ𣬾ͻȵļȨǿ1920ʷеļμȨ屩¹ķ˹˹ֵĹ壬ɢ尮̺Ķء 20һЩ󷢹չĵֳֿͳε˶Լ̺еǿҵİ־ֿ׵һǵĴȻһʷԺԡ[18]ڣһνһοںţ˵Ȩߵʶ̬ôְΣҲԶ׼ˣΪȰѱȨ۸ģʱνʧȥԭȵԣΪεķţֻԻ˵¡Ȱʵϱ˶ǿȨȰɳȰһС鵱ȨߵıȰȨƻĵķƭȡԴάԼרͳΣ˶İ壬Ӧñ㹻ľ衣Ϊİ岢弫УӸ˵ģȰЧһĹΪǰģĶ󵽵ʲôһҪ⡣ʲô壿ʲôǹңҵĹϵģ͹֮Ƿиߵļֵԭ򣿶͹ӦñУİİ壿һϵȻԵּİ֮С Դˣ˶йѵʶֻۣɣֻҲ壬ҲңҲ壬İȻնµİ壬ʩ¸İŸԵIJͬд͹֮ڰеСϵdzȻǶȴġһð뱾Ĺͬ壬ְ뱾ԭʼмҪǿ󣬵Ǹ붯ԶϵһһȨʵͳΣƶ񣬸Ȼϵһֵµ֮һ֮ڽ̣żͥᣬͬſȺšԴ˽Ȼһ棬ΪǼͥе죬ͬǼͥһǾͰԣǴұıܰҷ׵ĵķչұһֱܣһ񣬴һ˵Ȼĺʶģͬʱһֵ񡣱ܲ˼ͥ˹ҡԲҪҶڣֻұıܣ޷ҷ񶨡ҿƺֻԼΪĿĺͳ߶ȡУ˴ڶҪʵֵĵĿĺҪ׷档İ壬˽׵ķչ־IJвȫ˽ͱܵĻİ֮ͬʻҲе»ֿ߱ĿĻĿꡣΩcountryŲͬΩԹңstateűʾķӡһֶǿķӡһˣһȨڹҵˣھϢϢͨģǶȨȨ[19]

˶ȻǽĶڰעĹ۵㣬˵ֶȰעļֵҪأȻûȷİ壬Ϊһߣ԰ɾⷽ˹ָʷ̱۶ؽʾˣȷⰮ壬ػᵼͬ壨cosmopolitanismһĸԣܽѹϣֻܽںƽϡ[20]άйعɰŰ˶ٵ˵·һ׷ݵŴĹ;άͨдķоְ壬İ͹ɵİ塣ά￴ɵİֶ͹ҵЧҲͬİ塰ǶԹ͹乫һձ鲢ǿҵȰ򲩰þԺ˼Ptolemy of luccaĻ˵İӦڲֽҵ˽ǰľ񡣡[21]άͨоְָ֮Եԭֿɳ֮Ϊ֮Թ͹Ȱ˵Ƕҵ塢غĻȰ˵Ƕ͹ԽķᡢȨȰţˣȰԼĹҲһȻУһֱȷе˵ԼڹIJ飬԰͹ǰȫ幫ƽȨ޵ƣʽȰģĻԣƶȼƶά£ЩһɥʧôҲֹ֮İԵģżᶨ˵ԭ룬ͻȷҪĿꡣְ忴֮DZ̬ģǿҳȨ͸Ϊ۵ĶҵľҳϣרƶΪ飬Ϊƺ;ܾʶ̬ɵİȴΪɺƽ֮ΪǰģְȻԼθ֮ϣǿԭĻĶԪϣձ˵ԭԵĺгǹȨͳһڴ˰빫½Ϊһ壬һͬĹ񲻵ŵϵ£Ҳϵİ黳ֹİεԳչ֮һ

ǿάָĹɵİ岢ֻǴڹŵŴδͳУ͵ĻҲֹر15ֹιִеϵͨѹ͹republica(patria)ϣӶ𽥷չΪִеĹİİ塣ԨԴϵӰͼʿ¡ϣ޾͵ݹ˹ִάϵ˹姬¬ֶ١ˡӡ˶١˹ˡпάֱIJ֡Үˡ޶˹˹ˣǹͬ˹۵࣬еһҪͨԹɰ֣̽Ӷ춨ۻ ֵעǣսԽԽΪһǿ˼볱رںķչйң밮Ϊһ壬ѹǿʶзźͻϵȻְɳ塢塢۵˼ϵһҵij̶ѾﵽԷǷǵĵزرDz21Ժ˺ִ׶ΣáĻȫԽԽΪҪƣִֺۡۺͺֳ۵ĻϽڣԹļֵƶȹ˾޴սͬʱرǶں˵νִֻ̻ǰִԽ׶Σ빫ȨûеõЧţܵ˸ּļѹų⣬ǿȨβڹУڹиӱŰرɱǿȨִν塢ţٵϡȨʷͳǷǣĨɱİжںΪҵ׷ʡһһҵĹɺȨϵƶȻڵİѾȫˣǡǡǹɰΪע⣬ǵİӸ˵ǰҵķΡɡºʽˣǿάָֹɵİڵձеİ廰ﲻ޾ʾ˺áдѧҶԣؽµЧ;ܹܻľܵķΧǿĹţĹΪԹͬɵȰһֵϵٻҲǵʱʵӳҪǵеĹͦ壬ԸܣܺĹͬǸṩһʵĵ밮ѿģνʵǵαʡҪĹ񣬸õģ壩ҲаıǶڰ԰ǿҪ֮УҪǣԱ˷εĺʶľѰijֲʵΣյĵС[22]

ġ忴

һ˼ۣΪ̬ͬؼͨһ干̬ͬ֯ΪһȨĹʵ壬ǰǷֱ͹ڽṹʶ̬֯жʽ˶ķָһֻĶĿܣֿǶͬȫµĽֽ͡ͻ˵һµλ趨Դ͹̬иӶʹ𽥰Ծޣرǰ˶˵ֶԪںϵĹ¯Ǵһȫµѧ˵ΪṩԴڵĻӦÿ壬ǹ壬˵ԲΪṩʵۻΪ廹ǹȱһʵԵμֵƶȰţˣ˵͹ĸͨκõɡҲ˵˶ϵұιңΪԵɹͬ壬ͨƶԵʵ֡

һ˵ִĻһֲǰִҶĸһ־ԵۣĺļֵġƾõʷִֻIJһҲƾõʷҲִֻIJ[23]ʵ˵ĺͨȨģʽʵֶڸȨĺϷԱϣִ۵ĹؼǶ壬ǿĻһΰɾͣҲǽŵ㡣ڴ֮ǰǻһصάȣͨ壬Ϊ뷨صģǺΪһģûзҲûij˵뷨ͬʣ˵ǰǷεĽ

塢̬һҲ塣һǴʷԴԶڹŴоʹڣһΪһ壬塢塢һֶֻǰҶһִͬۡͬҲijھ;зȨ壬һʼ׷һҵĺϷԴڣ⼯еرҶȨʸȷϡȨһ뷨صĴʻ㣬ζһҵķȨʸǿΪελȨλĺϷԱ־ִ˼ʷУά˹˶ڹȨеķ˿ԵоǵȨ۱־ִѾʼбڹŴǰͷ⽨Ƶִת͡ȻӦÿڷεȴشƫ˵ִҵĺϷԽìܵչģһ棬ѷȨܹڹʷı֮£ǿʷһҵķɵλڴȨͬĹؼ֮ڡһ棬ִҵĺϷϵڹڷĹҽһҵȨͨͬõȷϵģʵϿٳһйعȨȨԼϵάȵķμµʽֳ˵Ϊڷ»ܷ趨ĸҵȨϵһάȵҵķɻؼȨϡ

ǿȨȨ˵ʷеͬķɵλԼеĹͬķɵλߴһʼͼ໥ģìܶģֹϵεһڳͻҲйطϵһ֢ᡣΪʲô˵أΪͬڷɵȷҪúϷԵijϣȷεԭ򣬵εԭһΪ干ͬԭ򣬾ͻֳһֶƷν壬ָǷͳζΣκֲͬʽʵ漰Ȩ뷨ĹϵǷȨ󣬻˵ǷĶͳΪһ嵥λձΪйطһ⡣ͼ֮дﵽһͳһʵϴһ˵һϵƭ忴һͼѭԭôͻڱԵ죬Ҳ˵ͬԾһ뷨εĹôȨʸ񣬻ΪͳߵȨҪܵɵԼرܷԼֻŽ÷һ干ͬļ棬Է֤Ȩͼһֻ룬һƭȻԭΪṩϷԵ֤֤һԷΪ׼ôͬܵһԴڷԭĸ߱׼Ŀ飬׼Ȩ׼˵ڲÿԱΪĸɡȨǷܵ˷ıһ׼ļ顣

ɴ˿ɼ岻ΪȨṩ֤ΪȨṩ֤Ȩ˵һȨ⣬һ漰ÿе˵ϡɡ׷ҸȨ⣬λΪȨṩһձ顢͹۶ֹĹϵڷһ干ͬ岻ܹԼԻԵȨΪĿ꣬ΪߺֶΣεֵܹΪṩǿıϡһķҪµϣҲǴϲģʽҲ˵ڳΪַṩʵĿռ䣬ܹΪȨĺϷṩһ֧֡岢յģΪע˭Ȩ⣬޷ΪʲôȨ⣬ڴˣλԽԾʾˣȻʹͳκϷֺϷֱԴķɵͳΪ׼ŶڶԭԵλ˵ɲǵͨ˵ͬƶģչҮ˵Ĺ۵㣬һڹϵļֵDZϸ˵ȨɲⲿǿȨַһɵķۣͬͱ뽫ȨȨĿ֮ڣ˵ȨȨķԭ

ʹӷ壬Դˣʵϣ˼Ҿⷽʶʿ¾ָһܸ蹫ṩȨϵijǰβһִӷԭдԵزһֽڷìܵ;ǿͨ;һìģһ棬ųҵȨλΪȨṩɵݣһ棬ְȨڸߵĵλΪƶȵĺDZȨΪˣʵ϶ȨȨȫλ죬һʵеҲΪʷ֤ɵƶģʽƶģʽǿǽЧķʽ

ȡ͹ЧԪأΪһҵĴҪ߱ȨķʸνĹң干ͬɣǣͬеȨʸΪһַϵʸȻһУij˵һֶԪεIJֶԪǹζԪҲζԪֶԪṹɵĹ壬˵һָϵĶԪ壬[24]ιͬҲʹӷϰѰ˶ԵֶĴ¯ϵĹƺϷˣ˵ҲΪṩ˷ϵݡ岻νһһҵĻ߼ΪһʷͳγɵĶ໥ϣֳ˵塢ѪҺƤء˿ڡĻȱ׼˵ڰ˶˵ʷγɵĹԭ򣬼ѭԭܹΪķٺͷչṩɿռ䡣ͨһָ϶Ԫ̬֯ԶԵںΪֵָصʶԹɵܷʶΪɻλΪ̬ʵеĽǿǿеģΪܹ޶ȵĽȨȨìܣҲ޶ȵĽԾȨͳһȨìܡ

ķԭΪϵԭ򣬰ѸȨΪĵļֵǿһִεһͻҲǴִľԵĸһα׼ӷܷĸ߶ȶԸȨıϺ;ȼãΪṩһΰףһ˵Чس͹вһؼ⡣ָģֱǼȻÿƽȲȨûһƶȵļֵ⣬ˣ20ϾΣԴͨϽͻݺΪβһԺƵΣıرǼȨIJпͳѾʵΪһƣһ㱾˵ֻͬǾڶԪεƽƣôеĹԺ;ӢģʽͻרƺͶϵı׶ˣĹȻ20ʵкѳУˣпԵڹĸ죬һĸϹƲ徫ľʷԵƶģʽΪ˹Ƶķԭ򡢹¡Ӣģʽǰ£ɵijεƽȼֵ㷺ؽһ𣬴ӶһּܹרȨܹϸɵ̬

ɴ˿ɼ͹ĺҪ֮γƶģʽͼֵָ򣬾ΪṩһڼֵƶȲϵĿԷγɵ׷ι򣬿˵ʷѰҵϷϷܹЧͻͻڵĸͻ𵴡Ϊʲô˵أΪ岻ȴܷĸ߶ȷ˸ȨĻֵΪʵֵּ趨һϵеƶȰţһпɲԵķ棬Ҳõձͬĵط֮ڡȻ͹ӲͬķΪͬṩһ֤ҲѸΪһĵļֵǶṩһʵеƶȰţǡƶȰŲܹرDzͬ漯šͬͲͬ

ǿṩģʽЧĽԪ;ǽԭϵŹ;ơֳֿܷͬĵȼΪͬģʽ磬ǴӢ۹ƣƣҲŷƣӡʽƣЩȻڲͬʷ塢ڽ̡ԭΪ̬ͬǶһƣԭǽһιͬλϵģʽһ͵ģʽЧؽ˲֮ͬĶʽijͻӶѲͬȺһȨ̬ϵĹ֮ڣ˶νҵĴ¯ϵ¯ͱط˵ΪǽЧķʽȻַʽǴܵԭ˵ģԲͬھIJϿ϶̬ϵIJͬԭȴһµģԭĺҪ棬һǶڹȨƶϵƣǶڸԱȨĺϷԱϡ

йΪһص⣬ٵȻǶֶģҲǸӶģĽDzֻܹǵѰһЩϵʱӦԣҲЧġȻʵеĽйִ⣬ѳ˱ĵĿ⣬ڴָǽйһԭ⣬ԭ⵱Ȼйߵģձ壬ҲڽִеõЧʵģǿԭԭ򣬻˵һԭ档

һĹһ˶ϵĶ干һΪֵĵĴ¯ʽĹҡҵȨʸȻΪУֻ־еij壬ij˻Ҳijʶ̬ĻĹҲǹ񻰣һܷϵĹ¯Ȩģʸ߿κһߣνȨԪȨʱȨΪлСеȨֻȨӢλһʵԵľԵλֻ⻯塣һνȨҵȨ㲻ܹܷͨϵȨʸһ˻ԱijȨǴţǴ塢ҵţĿ塣˵ȨֻһֹߺֶΣһ⻯ķɷţĿΪ˴ٽĸ塢˵ɡҸͷ٣ΪĶĿĶ趨ģȨʸDZġ

ڶȡ˹ȨʵԵλƶΧƵıǶԵԭҲ˵ԭΪεĻԭ򡣵ȻβǼֵ׷һһҵζ󣬶һΣÿ嶼ιͬȨڱĻݵǰµõεܷܷͬͬԭľݡģʽƶȼܹȨֵȣڲͬʱ͵ָIJͬͬпά̸ƶʱдû˱ҸʶƵŵ㡣Ϊƶ෱ٺɵǿ֯ʽ֮һĽѾƶȵĹҵˡ[25]

ĺǰ˵ͨһ׷ƶϸ˵ĻȨַ漰һԭǸԭ򣬸ҪԭˣָԭĽǶ塢壬֮ҪܵϣΪĺͻʯԭҲڴˡ͹嶼ûнԭΪԭǶҲ޷ﵽĸ߶ȣҲս⣬֮Ը͹壬ܹЧ֮⣬ؼҲȷ˸εķԭ

ڴҪǿǣĸβһֳǴӷȷ˸εҪԣ˸ԷرܷԵķɵλܹ֮壬ǿͨһ֮ЧķƶʵֵģΪĽǶܻرԱ֮εķ⡣ȻһҪ棬Ҫһȴеĸ干ͬĹϵ⣬Ӧ뷨ĹõϵĽҲ˵Ṳͬһ̬ελܺԱȺȺķɹϵ⣬忴ֹϵܼΪһֹͬڲ֮֯ԹϵһַԵĹϵܷԵĹϵֹϵУļֵӦڷȷȷϡǶֽΪĿƶָȻۣҲͬ

ѱЧֶΣҲһ屩ŰЧĽⶾĶԪ⣬Ӧߵĸ߶ȣͨķģʽԱȺ壬֮䣬ҵȶ෽ȨϵԼϵĻϵԶԪĸϵΪܵΣ֮ЧģھһһҵĶԪʶìܵġʵʷԷµǿܵģ֮ϵԪҵһ䷶ΪĹΪһָϹ͹ƣȷʵŰ˶Եִ¯áڴˣʷеĵķΪλģֶԪϼӵҵȨʸͬʱҲÿҹеĻȨַܹǶԪģεģ̬֯ĺ͹͵ģĿɵĺάȨģʵ˶ڹȨƺ͸Ȩıϡ˹ķдܶڡļĿƪһ⣬Ƿͨ˼ǺѡǷԶעҪǿģʽ˼Ǻѡ񲻽ҪͨĸͼıķʽԤʵֹͬĿԣҪľͽѵһ嶼ŵսڽһ֯ʵָ㷺ĺƽɺĹУŬǷչһֿڸ໥ϵģʽȨܷһۡһֿн̽Ŀԡпάڡбܷԭ򴴽Ƶ鴴һͳᡣгҶΨһѡεᣬУÿһͳߡпάĿѧʵ[26]

ǰǷֱ塢濼Ϊ̬壬ָ׷֮ͬڵλԼڵļش⡣ΪЩ˵Ĺϵ⣬ųпܱһδѱȫȨʷУȻһĺԣȻһԣͬȻһͬԣںıŰɷ֡ȵԹ޵Ķȴ൱µģͻҷѣĿºĸãĸȴٸǡԵ˵Ȼܶʶ֮ʿֿµǰվڲͬƬϲǻίĻԹǸƲĹĶЧؽ⡣ӦÿΪһ20䵼µصķһʷȻԵģΪԴӦøͬ⣬Ӧøһֽеѱ͸죬Ҳ˵ϵ⣬ǰһǷܵ⡣

ΪʲôҪ⣿ձIJǵٵһҪ⣬ڵй˵ҲһΪе⣬ΪͬԪθУںǿDzɱģرڹȥǿȨʶ̬ĸѹɶͽ֮ͻرֳ֮˹ٵһ֤ԴˣȻȥǿȨĻϵӲѰȻЧģΪӦûѰһ־Եۣɴ˽һЧƶȿܼԽ塢塢ģʽΪṩЧ;ΪνĶԪǿȨΣҲרϵʶ̬ΪʶķţṩһԸ˵ȨҸΪĵοܣͼͨ뷨ε;ԶԪΪƶ̬ڹЭУ⣬ʵҲһۡ

ȻⶨΪһִ׷ҵԾȨۣô岻ϵ⣬˵ֻܴⲿЭǣΪһһ׷չڷչԱĸҸĻôܹԵʣɴ˲塣ʵǴӹϻǴϣٵĺ⣬ʵְ˶ϵֽΪÿһԱٷչĴ¯⣬ڴˣDzҪ֤һ壬ǿĹؼͨѱ壬رѱںĶأͨķʽ壬ӶʵΪĶθ֡һڵĶԪУνܹͬﵽЧЭһҲſܳΪұĴ¯簢˶˵ɵIJרͳεıԣЧľֶαضǶֻĶԣͬһ֮Ĺ治ɵѱϣǶɵһ֤ [27]

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[2] ŷеġ塱nationһԴnatioΪһѪԵϵĶһ壬ûжεĺ塣ִһ𽥻ԽԽ壬ԭйѪԵԡϰסڽ̵壬ǿΪһṲͬ壬ճԽĻķ룬Ϊһη롣1844ѧ壨nationalismһʻ㣬ǶһҳףΪһͻͬʶģGellnerErnestNations and NationalismCornell University Press1983BreuillyJohnNationalism and StateUniversity of Chicago press1994

[3] ¬󡢺նµ˼ҵĽʶڵĹǰ߻ڴ־Ȩۣ徫ͳһһ壬Ƿֱ𿪱˷¹ʷ֮Ⱥӡ˶ָʷԼȨĸʷ֮Ӱĸ塱һģذ˶٣ȨǷ룬ӡ2001档ڡ壺ıյһз˶ĸԴڵ¹ⳡ˶ԷֵķԼļ־Եľ˿Բ뵽ĻУԹ۲ġּ־ı֣һ۵壨壩ıʡ֣ʷļ룬ֳ2002档ģBreuillyJohnThe Formation of the First German nation-StateSt Martins Press1996˹ءҵ񻰡룬ij1999档

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[5] μ޶˹񷨡ءĻ빫ԡ ࣬1998档

[6] ⷽμ£ʷļ룬ӡ1997棻ɽʷսἰ֮ˡʤǿ ԭ룬йѧ2003棻William.Galston Kant and the Problem of HistoryUniversity of Chicago Press 1975Carl J.FriedrichInevitable PeaceHarvard University Press 1948.

[7] ڹҮ˶۹۵㣬μ׾塪Ү˵ķ˼롷ѧ2003档

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[9] ۵ȱݣ˺Ŀ÷һЩӢۼͱؽʾμļпάƶҮˣԭJ.L.TalmonThe Origins of Totalititarian DemocracyLondonSphere Books1952. 磬˹ָƶͳһڲ֤ЧķӵֵġߣӶȻһǡñûпȫڣûŪڡǣǶԶԭȷԺ԰ҽٲǿңǣǶûʶϣԭǽκġ μ·άϣ롤˹塢뾭á

[10] 塱һģذ˶٣ȨǷ룬ӡ2001档

[11] ͬע

[12] ʩأC. SchmittڡܷѧоΪͬͳǰᡣ˵"һҵǰڵͬԣҲͷνԭ򣬸ԭһһңһҲһ塣"μʩصġܷѧVerfassungslehreBerlin1983231ҳ

[13] 塱һģذ˶٣ȨǷ룬ӡ2001档

[14] ͬע

[15] ˼άMaurizio Viroliָڹۼ͹һϵʽҲ˵һĻ磬Machiavelliálove of vivere liberoǶ乲ԼЩ֮ϵʽʾܡͬʱ͵򽫹͹Ϊһijʽμɵİ塱һģءִѧ2000棬184ҳ

[16] תάġɵİ塱һģάﻹԮ־ᣨMazziniĹ۵֤־дңpatriaָһƽȵ˽һģΪһȷĿֵܰ㲢ܶ塭ҲһᣨaggregationһЭᣨassociationûһͳһȨ㲻ϵĹҡ˵һطͳһȨִȼȨԼרַʱôط㲻Ϊҡ

[17] μMaurizio ViroliFor Love of CountryAn Essay on Patriotism and NationalismOxfordClarendon Press1995ڸʷѧʱ룬Ϻ1999档

[18] ڡ£Ϊ֪ԴȪһָڵ¹⵽ӡȻ⵽׾֮ƸΪԣʱԼԶŷ޶Էǿ밮ֿ˶նһˣ˹˹ĹͬĴͳϰסԡͬĸģ֮ˡڵỷιϵỷǸʷ޾̬ػõĽ໥ãʹÿʱÿᡢÿִͳÿĻɫͬΪлġġԵġĻġʱᡢͳĻԵֲֿ׷֮󲻾ãϣд19ͳƣҸͲǸˣȺ壬塣ֻǹеһӣԼӹаǾ֫壬Ǻ޼ֵƬɥʧ壻壬ֻϵл塢弰ռݵĵϵвγɡɫйϵϣ壨Hebraic-Christian House of Israelװ汾һΪһصĹͬ壬Աֱ˴ˣ޼䡣Ĺͬ壬˽ͬijĻΪij̻ᣬ˵ij塢׼ּԵҹ˸˵ʽгԱĿꣻ˳Աǵļֵ̺Щֵƶȣ㡢޵ľľʽһȨϣءȣGorresգMllerأArndtǵ¹ĵˣij̶ֳҲ˵ŷĿɽ档ЩΪѹȡԡܺߵ壨ͽ׼ѹѹ֦ҵطϯ˵ġչΪһĿһеԺУһֿ񱩵ʶγɳȵäĿİ塣μ롣

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[21] μMaurizio ViroliFor Love of CountryAn Essay on Patriotism and NationalismOxfordClarendon Press1995

[22] μMaurizio ViroliFor Love of CountryAn Essay on Patriotism and NationalismOxfordClarendon Press1995

[23] ۣνţ䶰μҮˣԭ룬1997棻ֿۡ룬1998棻Carl J.FriedrichConstitutional Government and Democracyrevised editionBostonGinn and Company1950S.CorwinThe Constitution and What It Means TodayPrinceton University Press1958.

[24] μɭء˹ķϹƵۡë룬Ϻ1999棻John.DeweyThe Public and Its ProblemsDenverAlan Swallow1965William H.RikerFederalismOriginOperationSignificanceBostonLittleBrown1982.

[25] μпάϾ룬192ҳ

[26] μɭء˹ķ塷ѫ룬Ϻ2003棬İ

[27] 塱һģذ˶٣ȨǷ룬ӡ2001档