ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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Ϊ Ŀ һ ʱ ڣ Ϊ Τ Max Weber ν " " " "  ָ ۣ Ҫ " " һ ǡ

1 Ϊ
һ ǰ Τ һ Ѹ Ϊ һ ŷ ǣ Ϊ Ϊ һ ͻ Ȼ Ȼ һ Σ գ ¶ " " political immatuarity չ ֮ ǿ ʹ Ը ˮ 塣 Τ һ ־ " "Weber, Political Writings, 1994 Τ һ ʵ Ϊ չ ֤ ʵ Τ "κ " ռ Ϊ " " ͬ ʣ ϣ ̨ ս ѣ ա ֻ ս ־ ͳ һ ᣬ Τ ʱ һ ꡣ
Τ Ϊ չ Ȼ societal differentiation Ԫ ɢ һ ʹ Ԫ ɢ Ϊ ־ Ȼ ֻ ֻ Σ 棬 ״ ˣ һ ǣ Զ ־ ȥ һ ƣ Ӧ չ Ҫ һ ͳ һ ֮ У Τ Ϊ Ӧ " " Ψ һ ֻ " " mass democracy һ ͳһ ͬ ʱ һ ͳ һ ֮ С ͬ " "

2
Τ ֮ һ ǡ ǡ ڣ һ " " unpolitical nation ȱ һ ʹ ȫ ƣ ֮ У ֮ ⡣ һ ֮ ƣ Τ ֻ չ δ ״ Ϊ Ծ ֹ ״ £ Ҫ ͳ £ ֻ Ӣ ֮ Ȩ ƽ ⡣ һ չ һ ֮ ׽ ⡣ Ϊ ʵ Ԫ һ ⡣ Τ Ϊ ʽ ע Ҫ û 䣬 ʽ ŷ Ӣ ʽ ͬ ע û 䣬 Ϊ һ ض ֮ ڣ ʷ ̨ " " ֮ У Ӣ ʼ 1867 ĸ һ Τ ǿ Ȼ һ " " Ȼ Ҳ չ һ ʹ ֮ С Ӧ " "mass party ȫ ѡ Ϊ " " Ǿ ij һ ֮ ڣ ͨ ͬ 㡢 ͬ š ͬ 棬 ʶ ȫ ѡ Ϊ ǧ ͻ ⡢ ı Э ᣬ " ʱ ʶ" contingent consensusΤ ǿ ѡ ʵ ʹ һ ȫ ͸ ʹ 㡢 ͬ ʱ "ȫ "national politics ʶ ȫ ƣ ȴ " ϰ "the habit of sharing responsibility ʹ Ī " " " " Τ ԣ ǿ ʢ " " Ϊ

3
Τ ǿ " ǿ ʢ" á  " ǿ ʢ" ͨ ͬ Τ ڣ Ϊ ʱ ھ " ǿ ʢ" ͬ ʱ ȴ "һ ȫ Ȼ ȱ "a nation entirely lacking in any kind of political education ǣ һ " ǿ ʢ" ̣ Τ ζ Ȼ " ǿ ʢ" Ϊ һ " ǿ ʢ" ͬ һ ǿ ʢ Ҳ Ǿ Ȼ ɣ ֻ һ ʡ " " ǡ ǡ Ϊ ׷ " ǿ
ʢ" ѹ " ǿ ʢ" ʱ Τ ν" Ŀ "short-sighted law and order philistinism Ƭ ǿ һ ʱ Τ Ϊ " " " " ֣ ǿ ʱ ͼ ̨ ʮ " ֢" Ϊ " ֢" ǡ " " Ϊ " " ʵ ϵ Ϊ ϣ ̨ Ҫ ԭ 򣩡 " " Τ ɱ 壬 Ϊ ʵ ֻ ǣ ÿ ˥ ȴ ֻ ή ǡ ǡ ֻ

4
ʮ ĸ ֮ ʹ Ŀ ǰ ͬ ֮ 䣬 ͬ ֮ 䣬 ͬ һ ͬ" λ" ֮ IJ 졢 ì ͻ Щ 졢 ì ܡ ͻ ʵ ͻ һ ⣺ չ ʲ ô ϣ
չ ƣ ʷ " " ⡣ һ ֻ Ԫ ɢ ȴ ͨ һ ȫ Ԫ ɢ ״ Ŀ ǰ ʮ ʢ " " political philistinism 죬 Ϊ Ϊ һ ΰ ʵ ϣ һ ϵ ͻ ν" " һ һ ʵ ǣ չ ʹ " " ȱ Ȩ ͬ ì ͻ ǣ һ Ȩ ԭ ǡ ǡ Ŀ ǰ һ " " ȱ һ ʹ ȫ ƣ Ȩ ʵ Ȩ ༴ Ȩ ȫ ѡ ֱ ȡ ֧֣ ʽ ȷ Ȩ ս legitimacy
Ҳ ǣ ʹ Ŀ ǰ " " ״ ̬ һ " " ʵ Ҳ ˵ ʵ Ҫ 춨 Ȩ Ի ⣬ ʹ ֮ ֱ ȫ ѡ Ϊ ֮ ϡ Τ չ Խ Ԫ ⣬ Ȩ Խ Ҫ ȫ ֱ ѡ ڸ 档 £ ǿ Ȩ Ч ǡ ǡ ˵ " " ʵ "Ю " ʽ
ʵ ϣ ǿ Ȩ Ҫ ѡ ֱ ѡ ٣ ȷ Ȩ Ա ѡ ֱ ѡ ʮ һ Ա ͬ ֱ ѡ ѡ Ҫ ǣ ۣ ͳ Ժ ѡ ȫ ֱ ѡ Ҫ ʹ ͳ Ȩ ֱ Դ ȫ ֱ Щ ּ ʹ Ȩ ֱ ֮ ϣ ȷ Ȩ Ȩ ս һ ɢ Ϊ һ ͳ һ " " ˳ Ӧ ָ ͳ ͬ ȫ ֱ ѡ Ȩ £ ʵ Ȩ ʱ ǰ ȫ ѡ ֱ ֧ ȡ Ȩ

5 Ļ
Ϊ Ϊ һ Ҫ ȡ ϣ Ϊ Ȩ ֮ ʵ һ ǿ " Ȩ " Щ ۡ Ϊ ֮ δ չ ʱ ȫ Ŀ ǰ Ȩ ֮ ͬ ʱ Ұ һ ѧ ʵ ǣ ʲô һ ϣ ʱ ġ
ʱ ȫ ս ʵ Ϊ һ 㣺 λ ͬ ÿ һ ˣ Ȩ ͬ 塣 һ ԭ ֱ Ϊ1781 " " ǰ ԣ Ϊ λ " " Uninion between the States ǣ " " Ȩ ֱ Ϊ ˵ ÿ һ 壬 ͬ 壬 ʡ С 硢 塣 һ ԭ Ϊ 䣺We the People of the United States,... Ҫ ڣ Ϊ һ ᣬ ͬ Ȩ ɣ ֱ Ϊ ÿ һ ɡ Ҳ ˣ ÿ һ ֱ ͬ ˡ
֮ Ϊ ֮ ͳ һ Ϊ ֮ ٣ Ϊ ʯ Ϊ ͬ Ӧ Ϊ ԭ ʷ ϣ ԭ Ȩ ͷ ֮ δ λ ԭ ˵ Ⱥ ȡ ɣ ô һ Σ գ " " Ⱥ 塣 һ СȺ Ȼ һ Ⱥ ɡ ʵ ֤ ν" ͬ Խ С Խ " ǡ ǡ ڣ ֻ С ͳ 㣬 ȷ һ Ȼ ԭ " Խ Խ "the larger the society,the more duly capable it will be of self-government һ ʷ 飬 ʹ Ϊ һ ͳ ͳ Ȼ չ ϣ һ ͳ ͳ Ϊ һ ΰ 壡