ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis


ʩ˹


Ȿʩ˹ѧ֣ԭΪİʩ˹дһ
ƪԣ[1]ȥɸѵȤ͹עγţѧ
бУԸ˻ѱʾлͬʱҲһЩ䡣

һ

˴εб20018µһѧͨΪ¼ͨŵȻ
оܷ۵ģʩ˹ѧ˵ijֻ
ĹΪѧⱾеĹϵͬʱҲΪ
Լԣ˼ѧ⣬˼۵⣬ҽĻ۵
ȶǵر뱣֮һ⡣ˣʩ
˹ʱҵĿͬʱҪճִ۵ijͬԴԣ
Ӷͻʩ˹ѧǶִ۵˫Уͬڹо
ܷͨҲָ˵뱣
ֹ֮۲ǶȳȻԼdzԵһʶȷʵΪֻ
ץס뱣֮DzյҪ˼
򡣴ѧĽǶȿκ˼۶ij֮У
شеĹϵֽǶȿϣĸ˼
ϣǰйأսԺĸսĪ
ϵսŷ˼編ִʵ϶ͨŲӰ
ɴ˲ܲرע⣬սԺʮεش
뱣ַ֮ĽǣӱԵ
ģΪεʶ̬ĵȴΪ
ʶ̬

սĽ죬ȫ綼֪Сʲеν±
塱¡ʵ£ΪСʲıβ´ǽʮ
ǿһ1978꣬ȫѾʾ
47ѡŷ壬ֻ32ŷ壬10ڸָ
мɡ[2]ٹʮ꣬߾١ִԺ1988ѡ
̬Ѿνûӵߺͺߣֻзߺ͹ߡ
( Liberalism in 1988 had no advocates or defenders, just adversaries and
attackers[3]ܵʮλ֪ʶ䩤ŵý
ޣArrowбTobinʷСʩSchlesingerѧī٣
MertonԼӶ˹GalbraithȣڡŦԼʱ[4]Ϊ
绤ǿָϲʲѡɡ͡塱
ͳʥ˵ǡۡdirty wordǵŬȫ޼
£Ϊ԰ʮɡ͡塱ۣνL-word
ٰ㳰ŪڿѴΪֵСʲеν±塱ֻڽ
ʮΪʷ²ܵõ⡣

ѹֽԺܶ˵е㲻˼顣
ѧԺĽǶȥ۲죬ǶļǸʱ
ֻۡҪԽѧԺСȥεĴѡΣǾͼ
ȫͬһ磬бѾȾͳεĵλ
ʵҲӡ֤ɶһɺ
ҪѧرǾӢѧɵֲڼνӵ
񡱣Virtuous People򡰳ĬĴSilent MajorityΩˣDz
Ϊʲôϲʲִıʱ19801992ѧ͸ߵȽ
⾹ȻΪȫεģӶΪʷϵġĻսCultural War
[5]ϲʲλ٩أWilliam Bennett
ԼĿѧᡱϯˣLynne Cheneyɷͳ
ᣩΪʱɺѧ߿ͼǿ
иѧļȷ档1988건Խǿƽ˹̹ѧĿγ̸ĸ
ȫϹָ˹̹ѧĸʷγʵҪĻ
trashing Western culture, [6]ӶѴѧĿγ̸ĸȫεͷ
⡣һѧԺתƵϣɼȲʤȯΪ
Ȼʲô֮ۡ࣬ɻѧȻҲ
ǰұ绤֤ǾûСĻֻҪѧͬ
ʱҲ˽һĻ[7]

ͬʱĿѧоġĿѧᡱ(National
Endowment for the Humanities)ҲɺѧձΪʹ
ѡ˼Dzҷʱˡ
ɺѧǵġȷ׼ѧʦ
ƸκڡһԱѧѷ˼ͺ
ڴѧҵ[8]ɴҲͿɼɶѧǺε硣˵
ʵǿʵģΪѧǵĵ飬ʮԺѧУ԰û
øDZøºأ1984꣬ѧʦɵֻ
33.8%,ĸֻ5.8[9]˺ȴΪѧ
ѧԺϵġƸνڡڡƸɡTenured Left[10]
ƸμɡTenured Radicals[11]80ڵ90
ڼȫǿѧѡĻս˰ջ¡ѧϯ
ᡱAssociation of American Universitiesϯɭ˵
ѧ˱߷¸ȿԴ[12]ȷʵڱɹѧһ
湤ҵȽɿ飬磺ɣΰܻǵĸߵȽ
[13]ˣߵȽ븯ܡ[14]ɵĽУ԰ʢе
Ρ,[15]ٺ֪ʶڴݻǵĴѧӵܵδ
[16]ȵȡ

ЩѧУ䶯ҲսģȻʩ
˹ĵӲ³ķ1987沢ѸٳΪȫͷųĴ
ߵȽεʧܣε½մѧĿݽߡ[17]ڹ
ڴѧͽⳡУνʩ˹ѧɡĻε̨
ǰĬĬŶȥʩ˹ҲһγýС

1989֥Ӹѧ˼ίԱᡱѧʱġĻս
ݱҲ³ķίԱѧڣ.¦
ίԱѧڣʱɺѧ߽ء³ķͱ¦3Bɱ
˱Ϊ3B1CϵʦٶDZˣе
İ׹׫ˣеĺСʲΪίԱᡱijԱ
λʦѧϯ˹Edward ShilsͷʷۮףFrancois Furet
ҲԨԴ⻷ȻʹҶ֮
رȤͬʱҲ֮šҷԼıɺɸ
һͬ飬ͬʱָкܴԺγɵĸ˼Ȳϱɵ
Ҳɵϣϣҳͬν
ȡ򣬵˼ĻȽͬ鱣ɵѧȡھĶϣΪҪ
粻ܲɺѧߵŵ˼봫ͳ
ӱѧߵȥƺΪìܣȴã
ĸӵУһй˼ҪǣȲҪȫȡ
ɵҲȫȡɵֻΪĸӹʧȥ
Ϊй˼ߵ

֮ʷ̣ڱ𴦻бȽϸۡ
ָšг塱ⲿȻʶ̬ѹ
壬ûҲܵ߸춨ĻĻ
ŲͨΪνᱣϡSocial Securityϣᱣ
ϲǽָǾƣָһǣг£
ΪṩġϡֱͬʵģҸҪ
ϵıϡ߳ΡûҲҴ
춨ġᱣϡơҲΪˣĻŷķ
David FrumСʲ׹鲢ΪСʲǰ̾
ΪʧȥǹĴСȳΪɾô
ǺõģΪ޿κεʶǺϣģֹ
һ󶼳ǵ[18]Ҹ˶ԡг塰ɵıһ
Ҳⷽһģй
ڱΪνɡԼΪɡ[19]

˼ĻԶΪӡҵĻڣν뱣֮
ǽֻεĵ֮ͬʱ̵͸ڵ˼ѧ
ڡ˼ίԱᡱҪо˼봫ͳĵطЩֱ
漰Ķ˼ⲿʷĶÿһ䡣Ķͼʿ
£ɯʿǻɣ١͵ijͻ⡣Щ͵ijͻ
ʵǼ۵뵱رйءɴˣĶ˼
ʷƺ˲òڹŵ뵱뱣֮طĹ̡ʩ˹
ⷽҵرȤʩ˹Ϊκεдˣʵ
ѵͺִⶼصִԵϡ

ʩ˹νѧʵĶ˼ʷһ·ԡŽ֮
̯⣬ʹùŵ뵱ǰδеĽܹʩ˹ʮ
ɵĿִԶɵǡĶжϡĶIJܡ
뼸ʮĺִۼǿͬģּȤȴ෴Ժĺִ
˵Ķжϡζдɡ༴νսд
ʼthe End of the Book and the Beginning of Writing[20]ʩ˹
ʮԼµĿȴǾܾ֡дɡܾԭԡ
ҪѰĶĿԡ[21]ҲΪˣʩ˹Ƕ伮
ĶȻϰͼġԻǵϵġ顱
Լ˵֮ʩ˹ǿȶҪͱͬʱĶ
伮ĻĶʩ˹û塣Ķʩ˹˱ȻسΪض伮
Ḷ́ҶĶбȻ᲻ϻʩ˹ĶǷӶϵϸ
ԭӡ֤ʩ˹ĶĶ˳ΪһղܵĹ̡ҲΪˣ
˵ʩ˹ʲô˼롱ͨǺ壬Ϊʩ˹Լκ˼
ֻչʾĶҲΪʲôǽֵͼ߷šаͼ
Сͼѧ˲ܲԵ̸һʩ˹ͬѰ
д

ʩ˹ͨƺԵرɬ󺣵¸
ʹ߲֪ӡʩ˹дĶ֮ƺԸ
ΪʶظijЩʹرDzϤ
ԺеĹ۵㵱޳ɺŵĿ»Ŀ
ͷʩ˹ԵúҪ˵ĶǶ߻Ųɵй
ʵĿȴǡǡҪǿҵɺЩ类Ϊܵ
ʩ˹һǿĻ˵ѧдظ߶Ƚд
[22]΢Դֻıڵġʵطproper placeŻ¶ⲻ
ıĿˡ[23]ͨԣʩ˹Ϊʺ͸¶дͼġʵط
ıм䡣ڱʩ˹ΪŵѧʥİͼУ
ھ˳ڱ͸¶Ե΢Դ弴õ
ͳΡʱһصĺĽ̵ɲɵǡóȫмλã
ͼͨStephan룬327a,621dڡˣ
ʼ473c-dȫУ

ʩ˹дʽĶʽֿǿԵ˷롣
˶һѧƪעʩ˹һƪ
ʮҳ¡רLaurence Lampertһרƪʩ
˹һƪʮҳһ38Ȼε̸ɵ£[24]һλѧͬһר
ƪʩ˹һƪʮҳңһ40Ȼε̸ŵҮ·䡱
¡[25]֮ˣȻΪձΪʩ˹дIJƪıDz
ི̫ʩ˹ӻʩ˹رȤĶĶʩ˹һƪƪ
ʱ˳ȼɶȻɣɴøĵIJֽṹͼ
ԣʩ˹ġʲôѧ[26]һ66ȻΣȫ
ĿͷƺˡϣʥС顱һ仰Үͻٶʹ
Ү·dzΪ֮ǣᶨ֮ǡthe city of righteousness, the
faithful city[27] Ϥʩ˹дĶɴ˿ܻע⵽顷
ǡҲһ66¡ζţʩ˹ġʲôѧȫ66ɣ
żȻɺϣϸĵĶ߰ʾ롶顷ijֹϵ[28]
һƪµĶȻӻʩ˹˵Ļͼ˸
׽[29]

صĶʽȻʩ˹ˣνмĶ
reading between the linesʩ˹صġ˼ά[30]һ
ⷽ漸Ϊѧһ󹫰Ϊάġм䡱
̫άרǴһĶ[31]άά
(Discourses on Levyȫһ142ɣ˭ҲΪʲô鲻100£
150£142¡ʩ˹ȴƫƫ⣬ָ½Ŀ⣬
߻ͼйءѶע⣬άĹʷάġ
ʷһ142[32]άԼΪ142£ʵǰʾӦ
ά142[33]һͳˣΪάȫǡ
άʷǰ10Discourses on the First Ten Books of LivyΪʲô
άҪ˵ֻάǰ10ʵȴְʾӦά
ȫ142ʩ˹һʾάǰ10ͽڵĹٶʢ
ȫ142һֱ쵽ĸ˥άġάʵҪ
һ̵ֱ𣬰ʾ˥йء[34]ʩ˹ָ
ά֮Ҫرֻάǰ10ĿľҪȿһӡ
ƺĿľҪšҪԹΪִ͹
ǣάͬʱ142Ӧά142ȴǡǡҪлĵĶ߰ʾ
Ȥʵ𣬶ǡǡ˥֮ά
ĿĸҪšҪ¡ͲΪӦóΪ
ִε壬ɵΪά춨ġʽ򡱣
Machiavellis New Modes and OrdersǴӽԺȫִεĻ

ʩ˹ĵ˹ƶ˵е˶Ϊܶάֻʩ
˹ʵǸûж[35]ֵѧά￴
νŵ乲崫ͳǰʩ˹˹ƶ¿ʵ
;[36]Ϊֻץסάıͼȴȫûжά
ͼʩ˹䡰мĶ֤άĵһĿҪ
ά͹Ȩ߸̵ȨڡάĿҪ
άȨλ[37]ͬʱάȫӵһĹԽԽ
Եرάڡм䡱һͬʱ߸άȨ͹Ĵͳ
άûаάȨǡظѣʩ
˹رάġۡδἰά֣[38]ȷе˵
άûάѡŵġ͵ɡõġǡǡ෴
άΪµġǡõġҪ͵ִġ¾Աس
٪塣ϣʩ˹Ϊάִԡĵһλ
ԪףΪάﲻ߸˻̵Ȩͬʱһͬʱ߸˹ϣ
ȨӶʹִͳͬʱѵIJ·

ѧ߳ŭָʩ˹֡ĶʶذѶ
ŪøѶѲѶҲŪ顣[39]ʩ˹ִֻѧ
ʵʲ֪ʲôǡĶΪִѧѾ˹Ŵ˵ġдʽ
ڡĶͼġƪ[40]һУʩ˹עйŰ
ܷȵġͼķƪΪָͼдʽ
ԻдʹԡԡɬԡѽԣҸڣ
ͼдӡʱĵԶķʽֱ
Ҫ˵ͼЩԵͨᱻߺ
ΪѾ϶ͼӲֱԣӶ뵱ȻΪЩֱԵ˵
ǰͼĿֻ˰ͼдʽ˲˽⣬ͼʱ
ֱԵĻǰͼͼ[41]֮νװ׽̵exoteric teaching
롰̵esoteric teaching֮𲢲ܵȥ⣬Ϊʱ
ȥװסĽ̵ǡǡǡ䡱Ľ̵ʩ˹Ļ˵е
⣬Ω⣬ĺġ[42]ʩ˹Ϊִѧ
ֹŵġдʽĶͼҲͬ޷Ķά
ִѧ߲Ըţά̵ǡֱۡ
Եġа񡱽̵ϣάġάзġ̵
򡰹ŵ乲塱Ľ̵ʩ˹ȴ֤άĽ̵޶£
ֱۡԵġа񡱽̵ά̵

ֱȥдƪʱʩ˹ӰȻdzޡʩ
˹ַʽĶдˣȻѧҰϣԼĶԽ
Խáʩ˹˼ȻҲͨ׻Dz̫ܲӰġȻ
ýѾγ֩һξ1987-88䲼³ķ
ĻսǴγʹǿʼ֪ôһνġʩ˹ѧɡ
ڴѧ˼ĻҪ[43]ڶ1994꣬ǵ
ν͵͵ȡڲΡԺΪʷʤʱ
ҪýָƵʱѾȥʮʩ˹ǡ͵Ľ̸Ϊλԭ֥
ѧѧǡӰ֮һ[44]γûв
ʲôЧҪ˵ڣʹ֪ʶҲȻʩ˹dz衣
ȻҲΪʩ˹˵ȥηţ༰

˼ǣڽսý׷ٴδ̸ʩ˹
ΪСʲ±ε˼ԴҪʩ˹ѧγĹģ
ǰΣ˷СʲԴͱἰʩ˹ֵĵز[45]
ǰý198719942003γϵôóʩ˹
ѧɵӰԽԽӡ󣺵һγʱʩ˹˼ѧҪѧ˼
Ļһ󣻶ڶγʱʩ˹Ѿ˵͵ġ̸
༴ȫβֱԵӰ죻ĵγʩ˹ѧƺѾ
⽻սԷӶӰ쵽˹εķչͬʱս
شӰ죬Сʲ±ʩ˹ѧĹϵҲʼΪ
ýĻ⣬½̨ۡصý嶼б̸ʩ˹
ѧ벼ʲĹϵ

ΪЩ˵Ƕε⣬˵һ⡣
ǰԣСʲν±岢ͻȻǽʮ巢չĽ
岢ʩ˹ѧɣʩ˹ѧҲ塣
νʩ˹Сʲ±塱ĹϵʵЩ뵱ȻĿǰ
עIJʲĽȫսԶԣʩ˹޹ϵΪȫսʵ
ɴսھһšսʱӰ֮һ
ķJames Burnham, 1905-1987ʮǰġƻǽţ
Containment or liberation?ܿԿⷽ[46]ķ
鱨ֹʣԺУڽݣӰΪơ
ֻǷԵģоġš硣νˡDz
ķϵĽšλǰѧ50ְͿWilliam Buckley
ɵĵһȫܿۡNational Review ڸÿ
ijרΪսսսѾ
ʼʵڶսոս1947ԸԸⶼ뽨һ
۹[47]˵ʹûйʩ˹ˣûйʩ˹ѧɣС
ʲͬγֽȫսԡСĹֶά
ȣPaul Wolfowitzʩ˹ɵӣֶάսϵ˼Ҫ
һʦֶ˹̩أAlbert Wohlstetter[48]ͬʩ˹޹ء

Ȼǻ÷dzͨ׵˵νʩ˹˼벼ʲĹϵ
Сʩ˹ɡ[49]һλôѧߣս
ؽʩ˹ġ̵Ϊ˵Ϊʲôʩ˹Сʲġ̸
һʩ˹άӰ죬ͳ߱롰ƭ
ΪҪǿͳ߸ʲôǡơʲôǡ񡱣ڶʩ
˹ܻʿӰ죬Ϊÿ˶˴DZڵս״ֻ̬ڡ塱
γɵǿ󡰹ҡʹͬһιͬеõԼʩ˹Ϊ
һιֻͬⲿвʱûⲿ˷
ս߽⣬ʩ˹ɶŷõսõĺƽΪ
ʲôСʲҪս[50]

ҲЩǷȷһ⣺ʩ
˹ġ̵Ϊʲôġ̵ƫƫرɹس߻
أġ̵ѵӦøʺķΪʲôʩ˹˼
ûʢķˣʢСʲΪ
޴ױƭһԣʩ˹ڵ¹еӣڷĵӸ࣬
Ƕʩ˹һشʩ˹ġ̵Կ϶
ʩ˹ĵ¹ӻ򷨹Ҫʹνʩ˹̵Ϊյ¹
շ͹߻ôעܳɹֻܱ˳ЦġΪʲô
ġ̵ƫƫ˳ɹأǷΪ¹ɻ
λôѧ߽޷ش⡣

йԼΪͬ⣬Ϊʿٻ
511յıʩ˹ɭڣStanley Rosen ˵ʩ
˹ѧ˵ŷĵطй½[51]˲裬й½
һνʩ˹ѧɣͼʩ˹̵ͬӦй
пܳɹ𣿿Կ϶˵ܳɹΪûһǿʹ
й˽ܵġй˽Ⱦͷͳ߿ԡƭ̵֡
ҶӦá͸ȻǡߡΣй˽
䲻ϲҡϲг˵ĹϵӦͨҡγɵŦ
ϵӦͨгγɵľýϵ˶֪塱
DZеIJı֣й˽콲ľȫ
壬Ҫ繫񡱿롰ʽӹ족˭ҪΪս
úƽȻйΪսӡйһʣô
˿νʩ˹̵أǷαйθ͸
ױƭΪ˱й˸ڡ塱
ܽܡ繫塱λôѧ߽ͬ޷ش⡣


ڿԽһΪλͨɵļôѧ޷ش
⣬ֻ޶˹˹ͺִۼҲ޷
⡣ս˼ʷڣ˵
ִƶҲΪʲôս˼۽綼
롰ʧ֢ԭڡȻ֪˹͵˶ڷ
ֻͨսȺڶеһֳʶ̬ȣҪʲô
֪ƼЩۼûҲ޷Լۻִ
ṩһֻ֡ͨ͡һؾɥ޷ֹⳡսȴ
ͨ˸ⳡսͬزܽΪʲô񡱻پ
ѡǿҵҪսҲκι۷ԶȻᶨ֧Сʲ
սǵġۡӦDzᷢģDzӦ÷
ġڸý̸Сʲʩ˹Ĺϵֻý
󵼶ѣΪЩ˵һֿʩ˹ѧɶεӰ죬ͬ
ʱȴǡǡػرҪԵ⣬ǵԶΪ
ڻ

ӻع˵ĽǶȿɺ۽ʵһһεص͹
̣ΪֻǶݵģܿͻʧ󡣵
𲢲ǿô׺ӵ󣨰ѧɱκʱ򶼸
أֱʩ˹ɣҲʩ˹ѧӪ졣ǡǡ
෴ֻдȡһУDzΪʲôʩ
˹ѧνɹغǹĵԡԼҪְƷ
ۡ[52]Ҳֻд
ıУDzܽΪʲôʩ˹šԸɡѧ
ԽԽӰ졣

20036


עͣ
[1] ʩ˹ɱ½棬£ѧۡ
ϡᣩʩ˹19211932ȻȨʷǰ
ͼ·ѧоСȻȨʷѾ20031³档

[2] William Berman, Americas Right Turn: From Nixon to Clinton (The John
Hopkins Universtity Press, 1998), p. 65.
[3] Patrick M. Garry, Liberalism and American Identity (The Kent Sate
University Press, 1992), һ£ʮ
ˣرܷӳͨѧ߶ԡ֮顣
[4] ŦԼʱ19881026.
[5] ⳡĻսȻ׷ݵʱڣɲIra Shor, Culture
Wars: School and Society in the Conservative Restoration 1969-1984 (Routledge,
1986).
[6] μWilliam Spanos, The End of Education: Toward Posthumanism
(University of Minnesota Press, 1993), pp. 209-210.
[7] ˹̹ѧγ̸ĸ꾡ϻɼThe Discussion About
Proposals to Change the Western Culture Program at Stanford University,
Minerva, Review of Science, Learning and Policy 27Summer-Autumn 1989, pp.
223-411.
[8] ˱Ĺٷȱ棬Lynne CheneyTelling the Truth: A
Report on the State of the Humanities in Higher Education (Washington, D.C:
National Endowment for the Humanities, 1992), p. 28.
[9] μRichard Hamilton and Lowell Hargens, The Politics of Professors:
Self-Identification,1969-1984 Social Forces 71:3 (March 1993), p. 608¡

[10] Stephen Balch and Herbert London, Tenured Left,in Les Csorba, ed.,
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ͣijڡ顱һ26ڡ
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зעʩ˹һٸ䣬δһشѾһ
˷ܵ˵66顱һʱ˼¡
ΪֹƺδרŴӴ˽Ƕ¡
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κһǰҮ·Դѧ⣬Ͼ˵潫
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Ĺ磬ͬʱһ̲Ү·ʲô֮һʼ
̯ˡŵ仹Ү·䡱һʩ˹νҪ⣬ʩ˹
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