ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ȷķ

һ˼

ε

һо·

ɵȷԣΪ巨ѧۻʯ֮һ[1]ɵȷԿԴǶ˽⣬һĵĿȷڶĿȷԣӷĿȷԳǾͿԵõһǾǷоȷԡǷȷԵĻݡִᣬɵȷܵԲͬڵĹܹȷ𣿷Ϊʲô᲻ȷɵȷԶڷʲôӰ죿ĽЩ֣Էȷ˼γɹһ죬ִдڵķɲȷһͼóɵIJȷڷʹһֲɿ˷ìܣɵIJȷһij̶ǴڵġӳԶDzȷģǴϸ΢һȷԵķɹ˷ɷչʷһᄈˣھоȷģȷֻǴһ֮Сĵĸ⡪˼µIJص˼룬ƶȹȻǷȷıϣⲻDZĵּȤڡ

ݵȷȷ糢

Բ֮𣬲ΪǿߵĹߣйʷϾΪ̡ʱǿӦȡȨֻǿߵĹߣôȷԶ˵ǶģΪɵIJȷͳԼǣɾֻǿߵĹߣֹķչɴӵһǿȨͳεĹ𽥵ΪߡйΪǶֹĹߣ[2]֣Ӳ鹫ķ䡪һֶԷȷԵȷϡʱĸۣǾͿԿɵȷԶ塣ķΧδӲȷȷأ

׷ԴϣڷɵĹܺãӺʱͿʼˣո׵ط˵˷ӦռݲȱٵáźǣոױһȷķԷˣԷ֪ͨDzŴģΪʲôΪDzȷģΪոײͨɵﵽʵķ֡[3]ͼҲͬ˼׵ʱΪһҵķӦӵкܴɲȨӦܷй涨Ĺ̶ĹԼ[4]ΪʲôӦܵɵأҪΪķɲɹǷḻʵͼԷɵIJdzһֶȷĿ־壬ȷķǰһֵ̬ʱΪѧ˸δȥһֶȷķɵĿ־塪ȻʱɵȷֻǶԷĵȷûֵԽȷ

ͼѧʿȴŽȻͬĿϿ˵ͳȣɵͳβʧһϺõѡΪʲôأ˼Ȳȫõδȳִʱƫ򡣷ǡǡһӰǵ֡[5] ǿʿ¶ڷȷĿΪΪˣʹΪĸˣܵԸӰ죬ǷھܵıķΪϣǰʷͳζDzȷġΪΪõġǽʵʡпܱΪΪӵġ塱[6]ǰеķΪĸ־ȻǸ־ǾͲһڵľԶı֡ʿ۹Ⲷ׽ȷķɶ塣˵ֹڷɵȷԵûѳܣ˵ʿǺ˼ı棬ǺΪġ ˵ϣΪ˷ɵȷԴѧϵĸôںĹǴʵ϶Էɵȷ˳ԡޣλзѧʵμңתĹзĶãۺʵӰ£з˾޴ãԡ˵ķɣ١[7]Ǹ˱Ų˼Ӱ£۹ʿᷨ䡷İ䲼ǽȷԵʵǰƽһ󲽡Ӵˣɲǹ飬ΪѧҲܹԷɲӰ죬ɳרҵһһƺڱɵȷԽõǺþԪ476ϵ۹һжɢɴӴŷ޴½ʧһӣֱ3R˶ķɲҵԼλá

ӹϣһʱڷȷԵۺʵϵ֣̽ҪǴӷݵȷӰչģʱķɾŨɫʣȻѧռ˹ڷ۵ͳελһʵ֤ڷ˾ϵȷҪȵʲ׼ķΪ֮ġȡ[8]

ʽԣȷԵȷ

˵ִεʷϣһѹһвһе⣬еʽ⡣[9]ʽ塱ɣҪڣ뷨˼ʽķɾص㣺Ƿ⣨⣩ڲ״̬ʶʶذǾһпǣڵĺ׼뷨ĺ׼[10]ֽʵһΡڽ̡֮䲢ϸĽޣɻöĵλ[11]

۹Լ൱һʱŷ޶ʥڽ̷УʷΪڰʱ֮һ[12]ʱŷ޴½ֻǹȤѡáϸжǺΪġŷ͵ĶԪij̶ֳϹҺķ룬ǴǸʱʼִεѿʽԵȷôӹϣʱʼķһαΪʵҲȷԡ[13]

ôɵȷҪʲôأ㣬һǷݵȷԣǷȷԣߵĽﵽоȷݵȷͨķ仯˶ʵ֣ȷͨԳ׷ְҵײγﵽʵ֡

ݵȷԹ֮ڽŷ仯˶ʼ1804귨طİ䲼ڷ淶걸ϵͳʹԽԽͨһƶķﵽȫƣڽ쿴һ룬Ǹʱȴһ롣ɵı֮˭ΪִзɲܹϷɵȷأִ߶ߵͼĴǻٵĴɫʣ뷨ɵȷDzϵġôǿʲôȷķɵĴ˾ʵлоȷأֻǹijܹﵽĽΤλ20ΰѧ˵

ǽԻศɵIJһ棬ʱϸʽġڹϡһһɼķرķɳһ棬ȨĹڷ仯ϵͳԺܹѵġڵƽȽȡĹõķͬԡֻҪȱһͳֲ˽ϵ[14]

ǿԿڷɴ͵ĴŨѧɫʵķɵʱԻķɹУ򷢻˺ܴáǷɳ򣬽ʵоǷɳĿɲɼԣԭIJ׽ķлһ羴λáڶڷɱķɼҵŬһйͬ˼άжʽײĿʼγɣڷɵȨǰǸ߰ͷ޼ɡһȥɻ˳ϵΡϸעؼԵķɼ¢˶׵жȨ˾ͨԷʵݵķ˶ԷɳϵΣоĿɼͨɼҵIJ룬һ˽ⷨľ̺ʽһ̶ȵķ˷ɳϵΣⲻΪһաӴˣԤȷķŷ޴½֣ѿֱ׳

˵ŷ޴½ķʽ˶˷ɵȷӢȻͳڷռݵĵλȻͨһָΪȹֲƣȷѽרᣬȲȫֲƽȡ[15]˷ɵȷԡDzòͼǵ԰˹Ϊ׵ķʵ֤巨ѧͷϡʵ֤ԡӦȻ͡ʵȻĻ֣´ӷлֳһλĶɴӴ˰˶ԡϡҡĵµĹעȻҲ˿ü塣ϸһ£ǻִᷢ½ϵӢϵﵽɵĶкܴԡͨԲֵķ˽ϴΧΣҲ˼ѧãҲǰֵļʵ֤ϵķ֮ʶӦͨһǶȵ˼ѧ۵һѧĹǴΪѧϵĿ֣Ϊ˷Ϊ˴ﵽ¼Ŀ񹤾ߡƶµķʦͷپԲȱٵģ԰ЧĴճ⡣[16]

ʽڷϵȷԷɵȷҲɶԿѧδﵽ˶ŵij̶ȣΤ롰һ̨ԶۻͶ뷨ʵ˾о[17]ɴ˿ɼǸʱԷʽԵŴﵽԸӵĵزǣôȷ

ġȷԷȷ

ԷĿ͹ͬǵ¹ķѧҮ֡ҮԵʱŷ޴½ϵעͷѧ̵[18]ΪƾһķĶDzܵģһֲʵʵĻ롣ΪȨдĿǷɵĴߣĿĵķɹDzڵġҮͬʱָԷΪķɲ޷ģǻٵĴлС[19]Ү˼²淨ѧɸΪӦ÷ڸǷɵһ̶ȵȱݺͿհסڷϵĿȱҪٷַɹĿģͨԵġԵڹȥƽ໥ͻ档[20]

˵Ǵ½ϵԷɿ͹ԵУôӢأӢУڴһ̶ȵķ취ԶԷȷԵҮ͸ҡķ˹20ΰķټ淨ѧ˵ǶڷԺʵϽʲôԤѡ[21] ڻķ˹Ӱʵ巨ѧDzһּϵضԷɵȷԽгڿࡣ[22]˸ǽIJȷе˼㡣ΪԶDzȷģ뷨ӦϵΪӵķ棬ڷǰǻҵġʹ˸е仯ĪͲʽʱΪɿǾֹĻȷǷԵĹ۵㣬һ񻰡񻰡[23]ֹڷȷԵĻԴһֶͯġ·ָס״̬[24]ΪٵĸԺ൱Ӱ죬ٵƢԡ͸ص㶼᲻̶ͬȵӰ취ٵоӶҡ˷ɵȷԡ[25]

20°Ҷ뷨ȷԵвûм֮ơԭʵ巨ѧּзѧͺִѧν㷽ҵdz벻һǰķȷԵ񻰾Ȼת֮ͱΪУôʲô˷ɵIJȷԣ ǷݵIJȷԡۻԭôԤ裬۵Ŷ𣬵ɶǰ־ijɷֻ֡Ǵڶ־Ķٵķ絫ûʵĴڵķϡdzϷȨ־ֵʵ֤巨ѧ徫Ȼ˵ʷѧɣ[26]ǷԵIJȻѧ󶼳һ⡣DzȻ־֣ôɵܻŻٵIJһԡ˵ʶIJȫԤԵ˶Էıһ̶ϵIJ֪ԡ

ģʽӦ֣ӦķչͬչǴ˵ɲ֮ʵһЩϵЩϵһȻķҲ㲻ϵ֮С[27]ķɲǶŴٽõģܹġƷڸԭĴʹԸΪܡһ治ܹδȱһܺõĹ滮Ӧ˵δļƻڷܹƵķΧ֮ڵ¡μǺΰͼеݣʵǵķȴDzòݽݡΪκεֻΪɵʱŻߵĵλӶܵȫµһأһѾƶķڱԭʱķȷԡֵijʹ˵ĽΪܣֵijҲһǾֵı溭ҪĿ֮ǴһѽڡκεijķΪеģֵľҲͲɱĴ˳ķСֻҪԵķչԱһԹ򣬾ͲκܹЩ[28]

Ҳ˻ʣȻ˵ƶʱݲԣǷıһƶɣƶõķ˵ȷġµĶҲȷģҲȷġѵȷ Ƿùƫ˵ɵݵIJȷԿͨõȷôڷõĹ򲻵òԷıõƫһ۵أһ൱ʱڶԵõ˷ĹֵøΪأΪپ취Ĺܣͬٵĸ˾ͬһʵֲͬĿΪһǰ˵һƫӰ취ԺĶϰ[29]˵߻ĿȹֲƣȷѽרᣬȲȫֲƽȡ[30]ͨķòͳһ⡣dzķҾͲ𣿽֮ڷ취IJȷԣһΪڳķĹIJȷԵΪ١ΪϸƷƺԼٷɵIJȷԣ䡶񷨵䡷5涨ٶİȷһķо಻ѭķʽо[31]ϵ˹ڡ۷ľҲΪһķ٣ֻʵĺ࣬ǼȲܱ䶯ɵЧҲϸԡ[32]ʵôأڷһıһƶƶߵ־ܹƵķΧijΪٵһжѡ̡ͬķͬһıʱ˵ͬһʱڷٵ֪ʶκ͸дڵĻٵǰıȻӰ취ٶԷɵѡ񣬴ӶоȫͬĽǾͼ˶һģһڲͬķԺнȻصIJ˹ָ̹γɺһַΪʲôʽȡ˭ǡҡ[33] һźţòһܹõһɲĽ˵زɺӡνķɲһżһһ൱ԵҵҲ;˷ɵһ򵥵Ļе÷ɵĹ̡һЩѰʱͨķɼĸӰƺҲһ췽ҹ̷ѧΪѰзʽߵ΢΢[34]

ٴǷı͵IJȷԡ˵÷ɵĹ̵ƫԹϵŬõƫĻôԿ͹۵ķı͹֮Ķһɿ˷ìܡڽһΪڷɵıȷ֮ôͿԴﵽıݵȷԣ֧ŷʽۻ˼Ӱ£ɵȷԲųΪܡִѧķչ׵ĴݻԤ裬֮ľһ⣺ıȷ֮ζıнֽͣͲӽɣıĽʵһ½мͼֵжϵḶ́Ǵ˵ĶǶߵһֻǶߵĴ죬һ̶ǸֵģֻʵȻ[35]ǶʽķıҲ⣬ֻƫȽ١ûСһڷˮ߲˵ۣ[36]һֵͼȤζĺۣDZһֺ֮ĽŹϵҹǰ귢ġݵ϶⡣˶Էıϵķ֮⣬ɵĽͻᷢ͡ĿĽͺᄈ͵ȵȲͬĽͷIJͬϵĴ𰸣[37]ʹ÷ɵȷһij̶ϱģɡ

ιʶɥʧֵԭ򶼿Թᵽɵϣ˵ôڷһ̶ϵɥʧһⲿءһķɵȷں̶ܴҪǵκ˵һθ߶Ƚŵɵȷһ롪ΪȨ߶ͨﵽԼȨ¢ϣӶȨĺϷǾͺܺרķôĶ䡪dzͳߵһ淢չڡ޼ɡԾɵ״ڶȷԣǺʵıҪǵִᣬʱһʱ䣬ɵȷȷʵûб˻ɹǰǸʱڵķѧΪɵʽŬʱƣᾭλı仯ֻļѧεѾ紫ͳǰºͣҲǷ࣬ǵ20°Ҷɷ׷ȡԭϵͰһ飬[38]Ӧľǹڷ֧Ҳ߿[39] ιʶᡰԷɼԼУƶȵҲѾʧȥġ[40]֮ľǶԷȷԵķ񶨡

ʱ򣬸Ĺ߲ƣѧġͳѧֶΡѧķϵõ[41]ͳͼͨ׵Ĺһij̶ϵӶ˷ԺͬһϵҡڡҲDzϵĶҡڶԷ̥ԺIJͬ𰸣ҲòڶԷɵȷԲ˻ɣһϵеĿ顣[42] ҾʹһϵҹġΥcivil disobedience¼

塢ȷԣֽŬ

ԻȷԵķɣѧǷ׷Ѱϵƽ֮ԵֽΪעĿڡɵ۹һУֽϸIJĹ۵㡣 ֽԷȷԵȣȴӶϮ壨conventionalismʵпʼڵֽУϮ߳ϷѰоԣٷƶȱطʱѰ֮ɡΪооҪɣѰʵͷ֮Ŀȱɷ취ȷϡ˵ԭȵķ֮ŲһԣǴ˵Ϯȱһԡ[43]ʵ˷ɵȷԣΪʵעֻǶԽԣǵоȱһֶԹȥоļ̳ԡҪʵ߾ȻϷоʱȻΪﵽԸȨİᡣ[44]ڶϮʵ֮󣬵ֽʼΪԵķɵIJ͡ԵķͷѰеоòˣΪϹ˵ȨҲעȥһԡ

ڵֽԷУԭŷͬһ壬ΪԵķҪ󷨹پܵļ跨һǰһµġ͹ƽйصԭϵ򹹳ɡ[45]ƾЩԭ򣬾ͻڷɵʵдﵽһԵĽͣӶάɵȷԡڷɸͷɹԭȷʵϴµŵ㣬˵ǰһƽԭڲͬʱŲͬĺ壬ƾ˾ͿԳ벻ͬij϶ࡣѹֵֽԺ˵ǡһΨһȷĴ𰸡ֽ۴һϻػ˶ԷɲȷԵĹȨۺԭϵܹɵIJȷԣмӾ粻ȷԵơҪΪԭһ̶ϿԽijɹȱݣ[46]ȴ޷ͷɹڲͳһԣ˵ǹԭı롣ΪɵԭпңԶĹŴǷɵĹȴִ˵ķ֮ںӺпܻᷢһµĵطľԭԿں۵ķһһµĺгDzܹıضľĻ֮ìܡֻҪ˵˼άֵͨķʽôԭ֮һٵĴһij̶ֳԭԻ˵ǿɱȴǡǡǸı˷ɵȷԡ編ɶ磬ôͨ˵õȥȷķأ

Щ˿ֽķɵԭһ̶ϻʹɻԡҲ˵ӱ˷ɵȷԡΪڵֽЩѰĽУˡԲ͡creative interpretationʣԲ͵ĺľȷĿ֮һ໥ϵ[47]ԲǾζŽһΪоߵɫʣΪԲͼ˶Ŀ֮ϵǶоߡ൱ѰзݵĽɫνǶ֮һڡЩμӵЩое˵ҪԼνһжϣνҡҲǷ٣óֻǶ˵һࡣ⵱Уٵɫʾͱ൱Ũ[48]ֽȷɿ͹Ի˵ȷԵŬǹһѹֹ˵ķѧͬļˣһɳΪ˵Σŷʼڴ취ɶǷַɣһΪ߹Σŷٴûдɡǰһ˵ʵ巨ѧһǵֽۡ[49]

ȷִ֮

һԤڵķƶǹִεļʵûзɵȷԣDzǻᵼִεĸ[50]һ⣬ΪʲôôظŷɵIJȷһ⣿ȻΪʲôᵼзѧҹ

ɴӼǧǰIJȷȷʷĽôڷֳIJȷʽǾζ˲أشȻǷ񶨵ġɴӲȷȷǶķӦͬĵȷȷҲǨʹȻ

ΪͬһⲢͬһԭ𣬷ɵIJȷҲˡڼǧǰIJȷԣִзɵIJȷԸDZһַɺĹϵǰʱз뵱Ȩߵ־֡20ǰδеٶǰչ뷨ɵıԲһìԡɴһߵǫ̀ϣֻǶԹȥһȷϣ˵Ǵһ̶ȵѽڣǿľġһѰͻõѡ˵ȷʵǴһIJȷDZʱڷɵIJȷһǴһ˵ǷɵIJȷ˱ijɱΪûһȷԤڣһDzҲǼ˱䷨ijɱ

ִķɾ巨ѧʵ巨ѧ˵ǰ㲻ȷIJȷֻѰУһ£ǻﵽһԡɹ淶IJȷԿ÷ԭȶֲIJ㣬ⲻʧΪеķ煀˵ģɵȷԲǿһԤƵģɹϵãͨһԭϵԼЩԭú߼͵ϵá[51]ǻע⵽зѧԷѧķȷʽڷɹķȷԺʵķȷչΪ֮ǴԶ޷˷ìܡ[52]зѧԷIJȷԵֻDZ˷֮ĽܹϵDzܹųⷨȷʵŶķصһ档

ˣȻеȷҪԺ˾ΪӦԤȵĹ򣬵Ƿɵȫȷֻһ룬ָеĹӦһһϸ涨Ҳ

ζŷٵоҪԤȵйһ¡䲼ĻķɣֻǶԭһּƵıжжЩԭظֶǵı[53]ԭһ̶ȵĶԷɵı룬ǶԷԭıѣ̸ǶԷεĵ߸

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] 쾰ģɴͳսй磬347ҳϸıģȷԣ͹ԺϷԣڶӳṲʶӦҪıȻзѧԴͳ巨ѧУ

[2] Ϊߣ˹屩ҲߣԶֹҲμӡ߳ӵĴﺫҲֹһεı˼μǡ󼡷ڷĺ壬˵ǷԢ⣬μĹ¡ءƶγɵġɽѧ磬1999档ƽ桷ءɵĻ͡1998档

[3] Richard A. Posner, Overcoming Law, Harvard University Press 1995, p.2.

[4] μǺĬѧѧ뷨ɷ룬йѧ1999棬9ҳ

[5] ʿ£ѧ룬ӡ1997棬169ҳ

[6] μʿ£ѧ룬ӡ1997棬179ҳ

[7] Cicero, On the Law, p.461-462.ת˸ѧʷ١йѧ1993棬65ҳ

[8] ΤѧʽԵתΪһȡḶ́μΤѧΡ룬֪1998棬37ҳֲμ󣺡۷ɺ˾ġȡΤ˼·ѧĸ塷20011ڡ

[9] μ[]ִеķɡ¡ܺ룬йѧ1994棬189ҳ

[10] νɵڵ롰ɵڵ¡Ҳͬ˼μ飺ִѧѧ1992棬63ҳ

[11] ƽѰȻеĺгйѧ1997棬325ҳ

[12] κᶼһԣŷ޵ҲֲͬĿѧΪ͵ŷִεѿεԨԴͿԴ׷Ѱμ֣ŷ޵ķѧɴͳеԨԴءѧͷѧ۴ԡйѧ2000棻ɴͳγɡ룬йٿȫ1993档

[13] εIJ̣ɲμɽβʷԴսʾءɿѧ20016ڡ

[14] Τ̡ݷ룬ӡ1995棬200ҳ

[15] źŴ±ࣺ˼ʷѧ19901棬321ҳ

[16] J.W. Harris, Legal Philosophies, Butterworths,1980, p.86.

[17] Max Weber, On Law in Economy and Society, trans and ed.Reinstein, Harvard University Press,1954.ת͵⣺Լַıͷ׷ʡƽࣺɽ⡷ɳ1998档

[18] עͷѧԴ18͵һҪѧɣԳķΪΨһо󣬶ڽͷʱΪļߵԭʣԽ׳һ﷽ϸμڻѧʷйѧ磬1996棬127ҳ¡

[19] μ³??Ү֣ΪȨDZࣺΪȨִ֮編ѧйƳ磬2000档

[20] μԣʮѧ˼оɳ1996棬130-131ҳ

[21] ķ˹ɵĵ·ǧƱ룬Ͼѧۡ2000^š

[22] ʵ巨ѧڷȷԵУμ飺ִѧѧ308ҳ¡

[23] ͬϣ330ҳ

[24] ͬϣ331ҳ

[25] ͬϣ341ҳ

[26] μ󣺡Ȼ˵뷨ѧĵʹ뱾򣩣︥ϣ??ά᣺뷨ѧĵʹ룬йƳ2001档

[27] ?˾̵ʡ룬ӡ1998棬75ҳ

[28] ϣ??Үˣɡɡһ룬йٿȫ2000棬120ҳ

[29] ڴ˴ƫû˿ı壬ָֻһʵͬڸIJͬͬһ¼ŻٵIJͬ

[30] źŴ±ࣺ˼ʷѧ1990棬321ҳ

[31] ޿˹?ӵ:ͨľ񡷣ǰ꣬ģѩԭ룬ɳ2001棬127ҳ

[32] Montesquieu,Esprit des lois,LIV,XI,VI£Ehrlich,Die Juristische Logik,101ҳGny,ǰ76ҳμFlavius,ͬǰ40ҳתǰ48[]?飬77ҳ

[33] ľŷ򣺡ȽϷ룬ɳ1999棬264ҳ

[34] Overcoming Law, p.9.

[35]͵⣺Լַıͷ׷ʡƽࣺɽ⡷ɳ1998档

[36]ĴһɽֲֹʵDzֹ߲˹ʵ˽ڷѣ˷˷Ƿֲʵ߲һ⡣ְͬҵĺ巢顣ͨϰ˵ѻᱻΪ߲ˣֲѧһ򺣹Ա˵пܱΪˮμ͵⣺Լַıͷ׷ʡƽࣺɽ⡷ɳ1998档

[37]͵⣺Լַıͷ׷ʡƽࣺɽ⡷ɳ1998档

[38] ˹Ϊ20ʮѧԺֻº͵ͱ֮𡣵ǵ70ԺѾ˸˼˼塢ŮȨ塢ļ˻;ϵȸۣѧԺдգһӰμPosner: The Decline of Law as Autonomous Discipline: 1962-1987,Harvard Law Review Vol. 100, 1987.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid.

[41] μμ䱾Դйѧ

[42] ͸ðIJͬӦɲμеķɽ⡱ƽࣺɽ⡷ɳ1998档ҲɲμBurton M. Leiser, Values in Conflict: Life, Liberty and the Rule of Law, Macmillan Publishing Co., Ing, pp.30~94.

[43] Ronald Dworkin: Laws Empire, Harvard University Press, 1986,Ch.4.

[44], Ibid, Ch.5.

[45] Ibid, p. 243.

[46] ڡɵ۹һеֽĸΪʼԷԭĽͣǰĬԿƵˮС㰸ְͲʰЩνѼУ󼶵ķٶ˲ͬоǵֽݴΪǷڷַɣǶԷȷԵı룬ΪЩоĺ涼˷ԭľ޴á

[47] Laws Empire,p.52.

[48] See Cornelius F. Murphy: Descent into Subjectivity: Studies of Rawls, Dworkin and Unger in the Context of Modern Thought ,New Hampshire: Longwood Academic p.76.1990

[49] Hart, American Jurisprudence through English Eyes: The Nightmare and the Noble Dream , Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy, Clarendon Press, 1983,p.144.

[50] ˱һֿڷһĿȱ״̬ĴڣӰ˷ɵȷģǴӸ˵εʵҲֻһԸܱɸʵμTimothy A. O. Endicott: The Impossibility of the Rule of Law, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Vol.19, 2000.

[51] ޿˹?ӵ:ͨľ񡷣ǰ꣬ģѩԭ룬ɳ2001棬126ҳ

[52] μ쾰ģɴͳսй1996棬 350-354ҳ

[53] ϣ??Үˣɡɡһ룬йٿȫ2000棬183ҳ