ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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ԭ߰19791010պ16գӦ˹̹ѧTannerֵݽOmnes et SingulatimTowards a Criticism of Political Reasonȫ뵥һԵУȫķƪݽݽԻȨĹʹ֮Ĺϵһִӡ廯ȨĹһΪ죨pastorshipɢĹϵת䡣ģ̬ȨķУչʾȨζԹϣṹγսִϵĹҽϵһ𡣸֤ˣڻ̽һ᳹ĸԡϷķʽãϷĿйأ/֪ʶ/ȨһǸʵʩִŷ޵ڣָһԤһض֪ʶӳŹұʡΪʹҹ̡ʵʩȨΰѧPolizeiwissenschaftΪ廯廯ƶȵĽɫõǿ˵ԣ˶ԸԴ⣬ûиκԵķԤųƶȴԵĿԡ
ݽӢķThe Tanner Lectures on Human ValuesSterling M. McMurrin ࣬ڶRaymond AronBrian BarryJonathan BennettRobert ColesGeorge T. Stigler, Wallace Stegner and Michel FoucaultSalt Lake CityUniversity of Utah Press and CambrigeCambrige University Press1981İ1986Le Dbat
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֪ԡĿȥеǣԭļڡʮ˼һֱνṹԵûԵѷˣһμӴĻԵüǡȻôǰijҲһ֤֤κµðձǰҲĶȥҲԼҲǰһˡ
һ£ҵֻ֮ṩһźͲɵIJͼѧǰͲֲѧԵܣѧҲĺΰˡ
ɵ֮һǴչԱȨʮ͵ǺܿͿʼɻǵDzѱùǿǿʼģһԻԸ˼Ȩ弰ijЩв֮䣬һֹϵǸ㲻DzǴֹϵ
仰˵ԿԽѧþǷֹԽĽޣҲǴʱ--ִҡӶιչ֮--ѧҲͬʱǶԵĹȨ־һδܸϣ
ƽʵҶƽζЩʵڡƽʵҪ--߽ȥ--ʲôرġԭЩʵϵһ
ԻȨĹ֮ĹϵԶ׼ȵ˿ƲƺͼӪʶֹϵǣһԶ׼ʵ
ҪСҿûʲôôɸͶ޹ˡһһ޹ءڶѡԡԣnon-reasonĶ塣һлʹǵһ壺߻ߣirrationalistҷζĽɫ
ҪִĻеġԴɵǷ˸ѧɵijЩԱҲǵ--ЩƷdzҪҲмֵҽȡһַʽԻȨ֮ϵ
1ǵķʽǰĻԻһ壬ǷԻڼḶ́ÿ̶ijֻ飺񡢼ԣȵȡ
2ΪԻһΣյ˵ͼʲôԻʱҪѲǿǷԭ򣬶ȥʾõԡ
3ǵʷԼμķչһdzҪĽ׶ΣԼʷDZݼһЩΪңԶĹ̡
ǰƷеġ硱ľͼȨ֮ĹϵĿǰоǸ߱͵ 廯Ȩ⡣
֪ŷᣬȨԽԽеʽʮʷѧһֱоҼͿƲƵ֯ʽ
νУҽǻԷЩȨϵеһת䷽ʽתܲעĿΪͬҪ--ҪִԡϿݽ̸Ȩҵݽ෴Ҫ˵ЩȨķչЩȨԸΪĿ꣬Ŀһġ־õķʽԸͳΡ˵һּȨʽҲһּȨʽѡ족pastorshipΪ廯Ȩ
ϣҵĿľǹճ֡족Ȩ̬ԴʷijЩ档һУҽ˵ȨĶ--ɽһġ
񡢹һȺˣϣ˺˶Ϥ֪Ҳ⣬ںʱѧƷУڶ۹ijЩıУȻһҪЩ˵ϣ͹ε伮вûгȺ
Ŵ簣̫ȴϾǰ˵ˡ֮յʽϣҲȷ˵Ȩȣ֮Ҳһͱ׾ķšͬʱϵҲλˣǵݵءȷеijԡһװʫ̫ıӣ˳˯ʱ㻹տǣΪȺijôϵۺ͹֮ϵ׽ΪdzеͬʹտͬһȺΰʥ˵ﱻи-һʡ
Ȼ֪ϣ˷չǿˡ족⣬ʹ֮߱һָ߶ȵԣϵֻۣϵۣˡֻһ϶⣺Ĵߴֻһ˱˿ϵ۸ټȺ
Ҳз⣬аĹһֱˣɢȺǼʶǵëֻΪIJҮͻΨһġˡԼֻ֪ǰǡ硶ʫƪԣĦ׵İգȺһ㡱ȻֱԴйصʷ⣬ֱ̫˼ʷϵķչֻܼ˵һЩȨĵ⡣ҽָЩϣ˼IJ죬Щڻ˼뼰ƶнöôҪ
1ʹȨԵһȺ򣬶һءʵӣǣ˵ء֮ĹϵϣIJͬϣӵأҪռо֮Ĺϵϣ-ϵۣShepherd-GodȺĹϵҪĺͻġϵ۸ӦȺġ


2˼ϡ졢Ⱥɣϣ˼дҪƽϢǰеκεжΪʹгսʤͻ뷨ǣ˵ȴǰԭɢʧĸ˼еһһ˵;һ𣺡ҪڣǾۼһ𡣡ֻ֮ҪȺɢ˾ʧ仰˵˵ĵֱжʹȺԴڡϣߣΪ˿Ƴͻƶ˷ɣһǿijǰʹǰĴڶ档
3˵DZ֤ȺĵþȡϣҲ˵ȳǰһֱƣְǷֹĶ֡ȺķʽȻͬȲΣϮ֮ʱһʱ޿̵ġ廯ġռʴȡȣʱ޿̵ʴȣ˵ȷȺеijԣÿļʡϣֻҪṩһȷǡDzҪΣ廯ʴȣ˵Ҫע⣬еÿһֻ򣬶Աˣþˡϣ伮һָ廯ʴȨһ򡶳ǡ̫עΪʲôҮͻѡĦˣΪĦ뿪ȺԼȥѰһֻʧ
󵫲ҪģһռԵʴȡ˶ȺһĿꡣҪôȥˮݷ֮أҪôǴ
4һ֮ͬһֹȨһ֡񡱡ϣ䣬ΪΪ˵ǺȻģȿǸ棬㲻Ǻ䡣һҫ񣺼ʹս䲻ò׳ԼҲijּΪĶеõ˲ࡣû֮£˵ʴȸӽڡͶdevotednessÿһ¶ΪȺáʱ̹Ⱥ˯ŵʱȻտǡ
տdzҪͶ档һġȺææµµľͣڶտǡػȫ壬ϸ۲ÿһȺָơҪ֪ĶзIJݳ֪ڵı仯򣬻ҪÿһֻҪȻءһ򡶳ǡ̫עĦΪһ˵ƷʣĴÿһֻ۵IJݣȻǴһµIJҲʵȥ˵ȨζŶȺеÿһֻע⡣
ϣı̸-ϵۼȺ-flock-peopleͻ漰⡣Ҳû˵Ү·֮ǰϣеȨġΪһȨĹһԹ֮ġ
һЩ⣬һЩġìܵ⡣ͺ̶ִ൱Щ⡣ʷеᵱУǵᣨָǹŴ֮ŷ޴½γɵᣩöԳԵģܹʵʩ˵ıԱ˻ԼЩỹͬʽ̸ıԼķɽṹ֪ЩݻһֵȨּѴΪȺΪˣݴȺ֮佨һ׸ӵġġĹϵ
ʷǶһ޶ġͬӹɵǣڶ˵С켼ķչϸı˹ŴĽṹ
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Ϊ˸õؽָıҪ壬Ҫعͷ̸һ¸ղ̸ϣ˵Ķ֪Ǻ׾һѷ
һǣʷʫڡǵ¡͡µУЦҦɦ̦Ǧ ˦ئͣpoimnla?˵˺üΡ䣬ͻȨΰׯϡˣһͨõͷΣӡŷϵѧжܳڡ並УȻһˡͬͷҲڹŴʷʫз֣ıһò֡
ϣ˼ͬ⡣һıᵽģʽǾDZϴ˹ѧɵı˵ڰ˹ġƪУΪStobeusáͦϦ̦ϦƣnormosɣһʺͦͦϦ̦ŦԦƣnomeusˣһϵܹƽ䣬Ҳǡ˹ΪϦ̦ɦϦƣNoniosͦŦ̦ŦɦϦƣNmeiosΪַʳִٱҪզɦ˦ԦȦئЦϦƣphilanthr?pos˽ǻȳһˡ
˹ƪĵı༭Grube˵֤ϣϣѧĶӰ졣עߣDelatte˵ϵִۡٺ֮ıϣżʣϸۡ
ҽڿס˵Ȳ*Ħ**Ҳʿ¡һ㲻˳ԾڡAreopagiticusУǿִٵΣǿҪȫȫ⣬ˣûһ̸ˡ
γյǣͼ̸-ִ٣ڡǡƪᵽ۵㣬ڡμƪϸۡǰƪԻУ˵dzҪʱͼЩҸӣʱֱϵ۵ͳΣڷϽʳǡʱִּٱ߱һĵ--˵Ķԣʱֱɽ綨¼ִٵĽɫǾȮһӡϼƪ
ȻڡμƪУȨΪ⣬˳ۡǰľߣ쵼ˣǷԱ綨Ϊһأ
ͼķ֪öֵķ⡣˶Ķʩˣ罨ʦͶĶʩˣԵĶһԹţʩ˺ͶһȺ﷢ʩˣȺʩ˺ͶȺʩˡΪһˣȺˡ
ֳĻֲ⣬ǰƽǺð취Իȫ¿ʼһϵеֽҰĶͼĶˮĺ½ģнǵĺûǵģӷְĺͲְģӽĺͲӽġ޾ͷԻ
ôԻչʧ˵ʲôأַòףͺ޽֮Ҳ˺Ⱥ֮ĹϵȨ˼룬ڵʱġʵڡμƪзμұʵʱӹԻԺľٶǷʱһ̸߰ͼ۵һϴ˹ɵ⣿ͬʱıȱڶ˵ġȻǿȲۡ
Ҹ˵о漰ǰͼڶԻಿķʽȴӷĽǶ۱磬ȻʹǸΧԼת񻰡
۱缫ΪȤϹǷijһ˲ͨȷЩֿͬԹһȺͨ˶Щʲô
˵ʲôɫأһ˶ԴȺڶ˵ǸȺṩʳǻʱչǣټָǣǽԷǾͿԷֶıгõ⡣


ôЩʲôһҲdzǰΨһͷǣЩṩʳ˭أҲṩʳũʦǻʱչ˵ʲôأҲչ˲˵ҽָǵ˭أ˶ԱgymnastǹĻܶ๫citizenǡ֮Ⱥྺ֣μҲкܶ˺֮һ뷢μҵĿͱʲôDZ뽫֮ӡΧĺˮɸѡӶֳʲôˡ
ڴˣͼ񻰣̵תʽ෴
ͷһ׶ΣÿһȺһػ-쵼ȺȺ쵼ḻȡ֮ȺⶨӣֻḴҪǣ˵ˣ಻Ҫơ
һ׶Σת෴ķ˵ˣ˲òԼտԼΪѵõ˻ôμҵʲôǷΪ˵ˣûСĹΪǰ֯һι̵֯ΪμҲζιչ˺͸ζű֯ôġ󡱰ѲͬĵԱ֯෴飨³çĻǽƵģ֯һͳڰ˾ۼɡһԺгΪĹͬ塱ܡ֯õ֯ˣūһ֯˽
ŵʱԺڻҪϵͳ˼ƺǡμƪǵƺ֤һҲԴԶڰͼʱѾdzҪֵоDzҪˣ⵱ʱܵѡ
ҲȫȻѡͼȷʵҽũ˶Աʦһ¡ǵжμҵĻ˵÷dzȷμʱÿһߣι֣ʱչֻлƽʱŻôҽʦһΪһЩ˵ͳɳ𡣵ǣ֮䡢Ȩ˲ˡЩ˵񲻰һȺ˵ǵǹȷǰΪһ塣֮ǣڳǰ乫ĿУһͶĹϵ⡣족漰Ǹ˵⡣
ҲЩƺdzңԶ֮ԼֿЩϵıΪչʾ⣬˵һϵ⣬ֵĶ簡ЩʷһֱڡǶԵȻdzҪ漰Ȩdz֮Ϊ족Ȩ֮ĹϵǰһȨڹͳһķɿһȨְDzϵر֤άֺÿһ˺˵
֪ġ⡱¶Ҫ򵱽ǻ帣ʲôģ֧䷨Ȩ֧ŵĸ˵Ȩ֮γҪ΢ĵһֳˡ
Ȩеķչл⣺ӽ⣬֮ˡֱЩƶϵ⣬֯ʦ̷ֵεķʽ
ģDzΪķչ˵Ҫ棬Ȩ⡣
ȣǶһڹŴе۲п죺ChrysostomCyprianAmbroseJeromeԼʿĿDZϿءϣĸ淢˱仯
1ȣΡǿ˱ΪȺÿͷ˶Ρڻ̵ĹУÿһͷ򣬶һΪ׷ƶнϵ飬˶Ҫ
ˣ̻Ϊÿһͷ֮䣬͵ԵĸӽѭҲˣٵʱҪͨȺõȣԼҲõȡҪԼȺͰ;ľأˣԼͱðΪ˶;Σաȷʵ·ˣΣյĽȺǰЩ۸һߡҵĿֻǿ˺ȺÿԱһĵŦ͸֮ǿŦ漰˵漰жϸڡ
2ڶҪı仯漰ӵ⡣ϣĹУһˣȺ־ɷ
Ϊ˺Ĺϵһָ˵ĺȫĹϵǻ̵ġ족ϣ˼ĸ֮һһϣ˲òӣӵǷɣdzǰ־˳ijˣҽ˵ҡʦر־Ե˵ôȥһΪһϸȷĿ꣺ѧһգѵѡ
ڻУ˵ŦһָԵŦһӡ˳˵־Ϊɷһ£Ϊ־ֻɷһ£ҪΪ˵־ڿġ޵ҪּУԵ£ЩУʿִϼ׵õȡ˳һ¡ζţ˳ӲϣǴﵽĿĵһʱֶΣĿġһõ״̬Զ˳ˣsubditiͬʥϿ˵ʿDzԼ־ǵԸ޵Ժָ֮£ambulantes alieno judicio et imperioϣ̳˳ӵ״̬ΪѦЦȦŦɦapathiaʺݱζϣѧУѦЦȦŦɦʾ˽ԶԼʩӵĿơڻ˼УЦȦϦƣpathosΪԼԼʩӵ־ЦȦŦɦʹǵԴнѳ
3̵ġ족pastorshipʾʦÿֻ֮һ֪ʶ
֪ʶԵġԸ塣˽ȺDzġ˽ÿֻڻ̵ġ족֮ǰһѴںܳʱ䣬ֲͬķʽǿˣȺÿԱҪ֪ˣ˱ڱҪʱΪԱṩҪ֪ڷΣÿһԱʲôԱġ󵫲Ҫģ֪ÿԱжʲôҲԱġܵڳʥĵ·ϵĽ
Ϊȷһ壨individual֪ʶŲϣʵеҪֶΣ죨self-examinationĵָ̰˹൱ı䶯
֪ڱϴ˹ѧɡ˹ѧɺ³ѧйΪǶƶÿֶΣƶڸ˵ԵġܶһƵĵ·ϵĽչкҿƺͶԼסĵָijЩȦҲʢУҸֻһرѵĻ£簧ڣһܴ۵ļ尾ʱʱҪǮģ
̵ġ족ܽʵһ棬ĵָγɳԼ򲻽ҪΪʤشԽѹؿڵʱÿһ붼Ҫһ״̬ͼӱܣǾͲ;ˡǾõһ仰ǣָܼ尾ҶƮ㡣죬ĿIJʶ֮Уʹʶָȫ¶


Ԫһͣпޣascetic and monasticı漰ָ֮ϵЩıʾЩԻжôҪѾжôӡǿǣϣһַdzֵij֣Ǿǣȫ˳ӡҵʶ˵֮ϵˡ
4һֱ仯ҲҪı仯졢ڡָ˳ӣЩ̼һĿģ˴Լġ˼mortificationȻ˼Ƕҵrenunciationһÿ춼ٶһõⲻǵһηһͬϣȨΪǰ̵Ŀ˼һִҵҵĹϵǻͬɵһ֡
ǿ˵̵ġ족һϣ˺ϣ˶û뵽ϷһֵϷҪ˳ӡ塢ͬϷƺͨǰϷ޹ϵԴǵɰϷǰϷˡȺϷϵ˵ִңǵȴDZһħᡣ
ҿѾע⵽ˣҲҪ⣬һ;Եһ뾫񲡵֮һֱоЩơǰѸǣ漰Ǿ飨񲡢ΥԱԺ֪ͬʶѧҽѧѧѧѧȨھ񲡺ƶȡԼ˿йصƶУʹõȨ֮Ĺϵ
ǵѾչӵ֪ʶϵ΢Ȩṹ͵֪ʶȨͳʲôˣʹûо쵽Щڷ񲡢ʹࡢ͸ԵĻʲôʽ֪ʶȨ֪Ҳ𰸣ⲢζǾͲȥ⡣

ϴҽԭʼһ֡족ȨȨͨչʾ϶Ը˷ãϴһˣijЩãʵָĽ֮⣬һȨϣ˼Ƕôظ롣
ԽͣһʱΣһʱαͨйظ˵Ը˽ʷرҪ
ʷִϵĹҵγйءָʷϵȻǰʾȨһ̵Ļŷһǧʧˣ˵ǵԤ෴һ׶βǡ족ɹĽ׶Ρԭкö࣬һЩԭǴõģһֳвеľ飬ͳڹ㷺ƶ徭ЭһЩԭĻʣ족pastorateһӵļҪһĻˮƽҪˡУҪȺҲСԭνṹйء⽨ƶڸ֮䷢չһ롱족ȫͬ͵ĸŦ
Ҳ˵˽ʽĹ͵Ľ̻ȫʧˡʵڣ˵ʾǿʵ֤һ㡣ȣ̻᱾еĸĸر޻ĸĸѴ޵ԺвϽɫɫĸĸĿʿ֮ؽϸ족ĿꡣЩ´޻ᣨһͷøᣩʹм俪չ칤ڽϵΣУ̻᲻ͣͼָԼְ˾Dzֹڴˡϰм䣬ǿԿһϵķչЩĿ궼Ȩ̻޷Լ߾ܾ̻ܽĽ̽ƣѰԷĹͬʽֹͬȺҵԼҪˡԸָķʽ׷ȨʱdzĶVaudoisʱǺƽ׷ѰFreres de la Vie ͬСʱ˶˹ɣʱAmis de Dieu de l\'Oberland޵Ⱥ塣ʱЩ˶ܽӽˣڱ޻ʿһʱּ̻ỳͳ˶15İᣩ
ᵽЩΪǿʹ˵족ͻûΪһЧʵõĶ˵ҲǽϵĶгڹעĶ͹ؼ㡣ͣǶ֮䰲ϵͬʱӰ˼Ƕǰľ޴롣
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ȻҲγɵ⡣Ҳ̽ԴIJͬáι̣ΪȷԼ䱸IJͬƶȺͻơֻһЩɢ̸̸Ϊ֯ĹҺ͹һƣҲڹȨʹõԣ֮һЩ⡣
һᵽȥ̽ΥĹȨԴڹֵ廹Դڷһ㣬Եʲô
ף棬ʵڿѧʵʵеIJʲôһԡreason in generalijԣrationality
ĿǣȨԾз˼ԣreflectiveȫ֪ԼԡûԷäĿʵijֻԵķܽ͹ԡڹԺΰѧ˵õ꾡IJ֪鲻þʹƫͱĺ⡣ִγɵһʮ굽УǵĺҪڿ
Եѧ˵ͼ˵׼ͷβͬϵ硢Ҹͥ޵Ժŵ׼ͷ
ΰѧ˵綨˹Ի֮Ŀʣѧ˵ӹõֶεһʽĿʡ
ˣҽ˵ԵϵͳȻҪ˵£1÷˳۹ԵһҪҽҪΰۡ2¹ʱܵԺΰƶȵࡣҽʱĺ͵ס

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ǴӹԿʼһЩ壺
BOTEROڹγɡǿάõֶε֪ʶ*
PALAZZO۹ҵԡ, 1606ʹǷڹ͹ڲƽķĹ
CHEMNITZԡ, 1647:й񡢻ͼƻҪеοǣΨһĿǹҵάź͸ΪĿģסѸݵֶΡ
ЩЩͬص㣺
1ԱΪһ֡աҲǣǷضһּЩ򲻽ϰ׻ͳ֪ʶԵ֪ʶ죬һʹ뵽רᡱ򡰱ڵʱͷҵļеԡ
2۸ݴӺζ˼Ļش˷СȻشܼ򵥣˼ʹѭĶʣҲǹҵʣԵġ

ڣٵϵǺijִͳѣִͳǻ̴ͳǷɴͳͳġӵһķϵ˷Ȼ񷨡
Щ⣬ʥ˹һ൱Ҫ顣**˵֮֡УЧȻ֮Ȼwhat nature carries out in its ownֻԵġԼЧϵ۶ȻǰҪϵ۴磬Ҫ긳ʽҲǵյ㣬ϵ۶Ȼ죬ָôʲô˵յ㣿ʲôŶ洦ֻҪҽʲôŶԲƸ洦һܼҾ㹻ˣҪʲôŶкôҲҪΪֻҪһʦͨԼ˳ҪΪͨĵ·ڴͨʵhonestumĵ·
ͬǿģյĵ䷶ϵ۽ɷʩӸʥ˹˵ģͲʮʮڡԡ׷ģָܹһʵԭһԣЩԭȻձ鷨޹ء漰ǹҾʲôҵĵ֮ʲô
ܹһоڽ̷߿˵ΪʲôԱͬۡرڷᄈв˵ͨ롰ۡϵһ
3ԻһͳڡһУάάּ̳лػּȷʲôάֺͼǿ֮ϵǹұĴں⡣ΪʲôԵۼڽܿάãDzܳǵάͬ෴ЩԹԵ˽µָάŲڡۡдɺһͣЩ˵ۣԻDZ־һά˵ļΪͬȻֻijЩ棩Գˡ
ĿǡǡǿͳȨĿǿұʮʮ͵ص֮һԵǣǵҵԣܹڲ޶ܳʱѹĵˡֻǿһ㡣ĵҲô롣ֻάԼĹѡ۵dzҪһµʷϵһ𡣲ֹ۵ζţʵĴڣĵڡڲ޶ܳʷʱܹĵˡ
4ǿԿԣΪܹǿԤһض֪ʶĹɡֻ֪ҵҲֻˣά֡˽ҵԼչһֶΡҲ˽ҵµĹұ뿹ҡˣҪģǹ᳹ԡǻۡձԭһ֪ʶز٣塢ȷƵ֪ʶҵйءԵʱͳѧķչϵһͳѧDz֪ͬʶ֪ʶȷ˵Dzɻȱġ
֮Բ񷨡Ȼ˷ļաһҪ˼ձǺ͹һĿһΪĿĵ
* * *
ˣʮߡʮ͵ġΰthe policeǽ˵ļΪͬΪʲôЩߴ󲿷˺͵¹ˣһֵоDzġΰڹڲõһƶȻƣһֹеǹҸԤ򡢼Ŀꡣ
Ϊ˼ҽһı˵ıаʽģһƻΰҵа֮һϵTurquet de Mayenne 1611꣬Ѵ׸ʡܶڡ·ʮĵѧScience in the Government of Louis XIVһУJ. King ˵ⱾֵҪⱾĿǡơAristo Democratic MonarchyԽʾ߿ʲôҪģһҪĿġҶԣЩ֮ͬѡѡǻһTurquetȳΪǰ͹ֳΪΰ
Turquet֯ġλ߹١һλƹ˾ڶλƹܾӣλƹܲҲǹ˰պ룻λƹΰλԱְƺҪǵ·ġTurquetĿӦơڡҳϡ͡ʵ֪һִͳĹ±֤ǣ漰ϸʱͻͬ
TurquetÿʡжӦάַɺIJšˣ¡йصһӦлԵķ档仰˵ע漰ÿ˵İú츳IJⶨ漰ְҵõЩְҵѡÿʮ˶עǼԼְҵЩܴù˱Ϊҡ
ڶŸ棺Ҫˣѹ¶ʧҵߣЩҪˣϢʱߣˮ֮֡
µĵһרŸƷƳƷָʾӦʲôгóҲơһŸأdemesneռ䣺˽˲ƲŲҪƣȨҪĸ·ɭҲ˸
ıںܶ෽涼͵ʱڶайϵҲڹԺ;۴۷ͬһʱ÷ӳʱΪĴͳϽĹҵʲô
ı˵ʲô
1濴ΰ ˾ӡһͳҵһšǶԵġʵϣTurquet˵ģ쵽ǵķ棬¡ΰ˾;ӡ
2ΰǴһַdzĹ۵˵˺±Ϊ˺֮ĹϵϵĹ棻Ʋ֮ĹϵĶгнĶҪܽϵļ¹ʡΰյǻġġԵˡTurquetһͬѰ˵ΰĶ󡣡
3˵ĻָԤǡسΪȫģtotalitarianԤָԤ׷ЩĿꣿΪࡣȣΰ߾ȫΪǰṩװ㡢ʽҫҫһҪƵĹҵҵ͹ҵĻˣΰ֤͹˹ҵĻΣΰĿǴٽ֮Ĺó׹ϵԼԮͻTurquetʹõĴȻdzҪΰ뱣֤֮ġϵĽ˽޷Ҳȶʵܵв
ΪܹһҪĹ۵㡣ΪʩȨԸԤһʽΰΪṩһ⣨extraͨΪṩһΪṩһһͨԡ˵ĹͬʳޣĿﵽ

ҿܻᷴ˵ֻijߵаѡ㼸ܴƵκҪĽۣҪ˵ʱŷ޹ҶдTurquetֻеһʵǣⱾڼȻϸڷḻõ¶ڱҲԷֵЩص㡣ҪǣҪ˵˼벢ûزۡʮߡʮһֱΪӦߣѧ壩Ϊγڣ¹ΰѧ[Polizeiwissenschaft]ˣ¹½ڽνѧ[science of administration]ģ
طʹоҲӦᵽҪ̸һȫadministrative compendiumȻһ¹̲ġ
1ÿʷѧҶ֪DelamareCompendiumʮͳλٳеΰµı빤ԴԴϵṩи߶ȼֵϢҪǿģӴĹʹһDelamareٵóһΰ
Delamare˵ΰ븺ҵʮһ񣺣1ڽ̣2ϰף34Ӧ5··6ȫ7ģԵ˵8óף910ۺͶߣ11ˡ
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Щ̲ܷʲôأ
Huhenthalġ顷Liver de PolitiaΪҪĿڽ̺ͷףʳ˺ͻİȫرᵽˮ֣֮˾ıͿ֣λȡμƣȻһϵйںɭ֡ξס½ڣǹͨũҵó׻ȡƲ½ڡ
ڡΰҪPrcis for the PoliceУWillebrandȺ̸˷סó׺ֹҵȫ̸˳͹滮漰ĶDelamareû̫
ǣЩıҪVon JustiġΰԭElements of PoliceΰضĿȻΪеĻĸˡVon JustiŷвͬоνġҵIJstate\'s landed property棺סʽ壩Լסߣ˵ʡǨƣŷˡҲƷƳƷͨ漰ɱáЩ⡣һ̸˵ΪǵķסǵְҵǵijţԼطɡ
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һΰĺ֮Von Justi綨øΪ˵νΰʹҳȨĶһ棬ΰùҸҸΪ桢ضҿִԵĿ꣺չɸҪأʹЩҪصķչҲҵ
Von JustiΪΰ ͬʱҲƺ͡ΡDie Politik֮IJͬλһξǹҺΰȴһΰҪͬʱ͹ҵ
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ֻжVon JustiŻ֪ΰһTurquetаҲһϵͳĹ´ȫVon Justi Ҫдһΰѧ鲢Ǽ򵥵һЩ涨һܣgridܹͨ۲쵽ңҲԴ˿ڡȵȡVon JustiѡͳѧԹҵļļսΰѧһļգһַһϵ˿ڵķ
ȥʷ̫ԶڽĵҲԵôҲHermann HesseߵôԶ˵ֻСϵزʷȥŴз˶ijɹǾңڶҡǵȷźͽ˵ʱԵĶʽʷȳҪЧöࡣʷʱ䣬ڽ̲˵ʷڣǵĸѧ˵رдԼʷдʷɾش塣
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4. һֱǶηʽ֮һ
dzҪǣָҼǸ廯أ廯ԭֻҪ˵ĹԣΰʲôǾͿ壬һʼҾͼǸ廯ģԵġ˼͹ҶͰѸ빲ͬ弰ͬҪһΣա
ѾʷгɳᴩʼաΪǹԡıȻǸ廯廯ֻжԵĸԴЧ𹥻ڽš
* ŵ۱ңٹ쵼ϣǰԲ˹۹ϣɥʧɱ
** ŵ۱ңϣ˵ʧܺɱ
* ʮ顷Уע
** ۻʼͳΡУע