ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 





ԭ

ѹȵġѧѪ¡׼ͼ

ؼʣ׼ѹȡġӾ

The Oppressed Aesthetics

A Study of The Blooded Clothes and the Picture-Politics in Class Struggles

AbstractAccording to one of the principles of literary revolutionary realismliterary works can construct and should describe a world corresponding to the realworld.Many famous literary works written during the era of Mao Zedong have longbeen used as strong instruments in shaping history.The present developments insociological and historical studies enable us to piece together the original pictureof historyand supply valuable references to reevaluate the grand narratives ofrealism as well.Based on a case study of The Blooded Clothes and recent researchesin sociology and historythis paper attempts to illustrate the unusual relationshipbetween historical reality and literary descriptionsand outline thearousing-respondingmodel between ideological oppressions and literary productions.In the endthepaper queries the realist principle of truthfulness in that realism in visual artmay serve as a technical instrument and contribute its visual power to politicsduring a specific historical period.

Key Words class strugglesoppression-resistanceland reformvisualnarratives

һմеġ𡪻Ӧģʽ

κصͳɹȥʶҪֶΡ֪Ϊǰᣬ͹еġʵܿҲƷľһ֡ԣһƷڳ磬Ȼһ´͸͹ʵ磬Ҳһ֪ʵʵ˼յ硣ͨʵѵ͸µijɷֲֳۻҵò

ƷһͲ뵽ʵĽ֮СˣʵDzͬĿ͹ʵͱʵļ[1].֮ƲνĿ͹ʵ˵еıʵ밢ʶ̬еĹϵ[ii].ʵϣڱʵĸϣܹ׽ʶ̬ʵĹϵʵijֱʶ̬ͽIJҪıʽ֮һƷ빹ʵ;һ㣬ں̶ܴϣıȥγʵյľ񡣾ԺͿ͹ԶԣƷʵһ֣ڴڵ֪ͼʽǽṹ棬DZȿ͹ʵǿʽڲ֯òƿ͹ĸʵ棬ƷʩչıԳԽȡԣΪʶ[iii]ҪϡΪʣǿΪƷʶ̬ԼͼӰʵľƷ

յʹƷɱشƵӡˣմҲһ󡢲ǵЩ[iv].ڴ£DZģDZΪӰԼĸξأЩγΪơֻҪǰ뵽ضỷ飬ܹ۲쵽Ƶľáյζһϵʶ̬ƫõľԡжϺ͹ڻƵĸ£ξĿתƷеġݡú;ʽĺϷԡضƿܻǿյԣƵЧȡתķʽƷĿ飬벻ЧܵĿ飬ʵҲǶƶȱķ ˵ƷڹɵģҲжضеܶԡһ棬ڹ涨жߵĴѸϵ趨Ϊжߵ˼һ棬жҲܡڻЩعܻͻϵǯơжߵ״̬ӰƷɹ̡һ˵ƻγijֺıԿĹϵжʹʵ֮Уɱػϵԣ֯Ŀꡢͻͷ뽱뾭ѹءκһжҲض龳еĸ壬DZʱشЩ۸ӵԣڴ˻ϾѡǴӻķƶԸжߵһҰΪĿ껽𡱣ͨΪʶ̬ͷϵɫɫ񣩡֮γɵƷҳΪӦ߼γһӦĽṹģʽԡ𡪻ӦģʽΪǰᣬƷͬ߼ij֤֡ݡȣƷǴʽijɹΣҲġҺʴ̳εġӦʽƷĴʹǻΪָӡ֤ʷҲΪŸ֤֡ݡʷҲǸеοΪʹDz˽ƷɻҲ͸Ʒ۲ƲжߵĴͷӦƷڳʹ֮Լȿ˳ơƲƷķȡҲơƷӾͼƳԼ ʷڹϣ𡪻ӦģʽһǻġֵǿǣģʽضʾյĸȻһִʶܶڣܵʶ̬ѧھʷ£մʶ̬γɡ𡪻Ӧɽṹ˫عϵʶ̬еϣչֵԼչַʽֳʶ̬Ȼλöԣһʶ̬ĽṹܵѹƵ򡣼֮һѹȵڡСܵû֧· оֱѹ״̬µԼͷʽ˱ĵҪĿꡣΪѡ˸һΪ󡣾ʶ̬ĿƷ֮Ĺϵ൱ձԣǣֻеͻʷʱڲ߼߶ȵԡ򵥵˵յڣһʱڵ˴ӾƷʾʶ̬IJѰѹƹϵѸյӾƷӶǣӾƷһͼҲӳѹʶ̬ĿꡣƷ縺ʹʱֵǹעIJӾͼķͱҪǣʲôͼɵĹʵγ͹ʵ֮໥ϵģҪشЩ⣬ǾͱӸʵѧĽͿ֮ȥѰҴ𰸡 ѹȡ׼ڸеת

ڱгֵĸһָһģʽģʽ42֮ĸһضʷʱ֮ڡһʱҲǡرΪëʱܵ˵յģʽʼӰս֮Ͳᳫ˼ģʽһƷ˼뽨衢ӾĻԻʱڡݹëʱ׼νλʹߵһؼʣʻԾ޴ëʱȫκĻʵ׼ʶ̬ҲֱմӾϣӰʱڿʼǵ˽ԺԽ׼ΪĵƷεΪۣΪëʱɫ͡ʷ˵ǿʶ̬£׼ظƳʵϣ׼Ǹ㷺ġȴûȷʵָͬʱжߵĻ룬׼ڴëʱڵļʶ淢ӳǰδеľ޴ ζǣתɶ˵ģоʤĿ֮һһ˵ѽ׼մ⣬ô׼еijʽʲôӾƷΪѽ׼ΪһĽṹʧΪϺõĽ֮Ԥһ׼ͷ׼ĴܣУеĸdzģ磺޲׼⽨ʲ׼ڡ׼ˡڰȵȡȻĸȻȱġ˵жߵسڴˡΪθƥѪһϣյܾǰתɸʵе£֮ȥؽһʶ̬ƫijж߷ܶԵ㡣µ߼ѽ׼ĶṹתѹȡijΪ׼ҵΪѹȡܹΪ׼ʶ̬ƫӾģʽɣȣʶ̬һǿĸʷķչ߼Σж߱ڡѹȡԣܸõؽ׼תӾҲӳʶ̬ľԣȻΪġ׼鶯ˡڴڵʶҲȱеĸȾɿԡˣҪʹý׼λ﷢ʵãʶ̬ͲòƷı˵ѹȡȫϡ𡪻ӦģʽҪأʶ̬־ΪӾʽ ξѧĽǶյҲһɣֻеԴôڶʶ̬ѹɵʧʱֵ߲áӦÿʹһŵĶṹ֮УĶеʲ׼󡣸ҪսʤĶֻ֣޷˵ؼǿֶ֧κǿȡҪһĿ겢ֱҪʶ̬һϵпĿմľԡڳڵĸʵУйһ׷ȺڣԱȺڵսսУЧմһҪ飬Щľᾧγ˵ߡ ڶߵ˫ģǴʶ̬ļֵжϣڲγרҵ׼ֻаλתɾרҵָԵ߲ʻԦọ̈̄ԣ߼䲻ȱٵн顣йߵıģʽǿԿתķҵĻҵһ֡Ϊ壬ҪͨӾʱӳĹȺڵ˼롢飬ǰҵ񣬲Ҫ߱ļֶΣҪʶͷԣҪбͷɵ˼ӶпܷеͱеЦп˼ϷĴ졣[v]

λȻץǽʵʵͬʱҲָемĿԵʡìܵϷˡߵƶ߼ҪеƷ뻰ݴﵽһ¡ϣĴʡ˼롢顢ڡȵȣһ֪͹ʵı׼һ¡ȻһԸʶ̬ƫõһ¡ʵҲѰʶ̬͹ʵȫֿʵĸ뵽ʵ֮УΪʵѧ͡͹ʵԡṩ˺ܴĵԿռ䡣

ʽIJϣʹжѾ˼Ͻʶ̬ĹѵνӾĽжƶʽ׼˵ڼͷIJϣҲһӾͼ׼涨ͲǼIJͨɱֳ˼IJνĻǼȰżְ˼߲ȱһǴ˼ģ˵˼ָżΪ˼񣬼ܴ˼룬ʹļҲΪ˼˿ڻ[vi]λյרҵ׼а˼ԶͼľƲζġھ[vii]ңʵѷʽ뵽һжϵı׼֮Сʲ׼ȣͨųԷԴķЩҪų⣬ͬʱҲѷԳ׸Dzѹ۲쵽յһʶ̬ѹ

ԴΪǰᣬմȥ͸ѹȡijʱѹȡʱ˫صĺ壺 һѹԵģҲṹԵǰζѹȱͷıҪֶΣѹȡΪĵʶ̬ѹӽ׼תġѹȡҲΪʷ˵

ڶѹǿҪԱģԵģж߶ԡѹȡٴ졣жøʽڡѹȡڹ͡жʵȻʵʶ̬ѹĻӦ һءѹȡѾͨߵĻڻжߵʱһѹ󲢲ױ۲쵽ʵҲѴжߵĴȥƵȨԻ򱻶ԡӦ룬ضƻγɡ𡪶롰ӦĹϵʹʶ̬ƫĽ׼жҪʶ̬ġҶ[viii]Ӧѡ⡢ʽȷȻһĿԣджߵӡյʷϣжߵŬ޵ĵԿռڳ˴ԡѹȡΪĵƷӽ׼תġѹȡ⾭ڶרҵжߵڹͣγһϵеͻġӦģʽΪ˷ڱҾֻ漰۸ʵԴԳշչʷԡѹȡΪĵƷױֳͣǷֱӦͬҪͽ߼ 1ģʽҪԴԵĸ־ʿΪ񣬴کߵ顢ηľ񣬴ӷʾͳν׼ͷɵijªαDZ̨ǡ¡֡ѹȡǿҵĸԭָּԡƷŵġָڵġжȵȡ

2ģʽģȺڱʾƶȵĽٺ;ƶȵӢΪģǿIJ׳ģʽǡѹȣзı׼ע⡣Ʒкһġͬ־밲Դ󹤡ȫɽʯġӢ²ȡ

3߿ģʽΪ¾ĸ컻ṩ׼ģʽע⡣Ҫй쵼µظĸ˶ΪѹȽ׼Ŀѣ¶ij˱ԡģʽDZ̨ǡ㿴жô࣬׼жôһƷʽġѪ¡崴ġԺĸɵĴܡũūߡȡ

Ӧע⵽սӾ±Ҳв㼶ĽṹṹľǴԴ²Ǹϲ㻹²Ĵͬ鹹һ׼ΪЧķƶȣ֯ϣʶ̬ﵽߵƶϵͳһЧƶȹڴһͳߵġ£ڲͬĽʵҪж߹㷺ʵΪЩʵʵԻʷԵӾͼ

ʹҰԽ׼ΪĵĴⴴڱҲֻѡһеĵࡪ߿ģʽҪӾƷѪ¡ΪͨһƷ͹ָմеĽṹȻԽ׼ΪĵƷжͼdzȷġѹȡ壬Ƕǽʶ̬֮ĻԵӾ֤ݡѪ¡֮ǼdzͻƷӪĺ󳡾ṩ൱иȾʷʵУǡǡǸʵᳫĵ֪͡Ѫ¡ظĸ˶ΪģйũеİѹᄈУѪ¡һʵʷͼ֤ݡ룬Ϊֹûļʵ崴Ѫ¡Ժʷؽϵۺ͸Ѫ¡ƷԿε⣬һεظĸʷйأΪһ츲ص˶˶ıʵ͹ʵԼҪʲôڶεյĽṹйأ˼ʶ̬ʵصĻﲢͨжߵŬʵΪеĸиȾͼ񣻵εǵڶ죬÷˹ͨЩƷͼѧƳʽ̬ƫûʶ̬˵ߵʣҲ˵ͨԻصͼƲжΰѡDZʶ֮еġ

ܵ˵εⶼͬĿꡪеĸ໥֯ѹƺ֧

޾ѧĵʵ

ڸյĿУвٷӳ׼Ʒйũеظĸ˶ΪĵġһƷУʽ1956Ĵ衶Ѫ¡ҪһʵѧᳫġӳĴۣĵƷظĸ˶֮䣬Ʒijַӳ͹ʵľ񡣶Ҫڱ׷ٵ֮һʵƷƵġ͹ʵǷij֪֡յȴĵԤıͲ߻ҪͨijЩֶɡҪЩ⣬ͱıƷġӰҺʵϣѴƷ뵽ʷѧоᄈ֮Уͼԭк㱻תӾƷǿ͹ʵƷǻ̽Ѱʶ̬֮ϵķӡѪ¡ƷʷλӰʷɹı˶Ӿͼ֮һڹڵʶ湦û[ix].ȻʷϷ˶Ʒ˶ijһʲôĹϵҪ̽߼Ĺϵش⣬Ӧýڽʷѧظĸ˶оɹЩоͻ˹ٷƣʹܹ¹ճظĸ˶Ķʷ̡ ڽйũ뾭ñǨռλĻǽ׼ѧ˵Īũ׼ҲǹٷеҪǿĿ͹ʵ֮һڽ׼ᄈУйʷϵũ·ܾѹƽҸͶũ񡣡[x]ɵģڽ׼ʶdzϯйũġظĺԵĻݻǵʷой쵼µظĸ˶Ϊ׶ΣֱӦֲͬģʽһ1937굽1945ĿսʱڵġϽģʽڶ19461949սʱڹսģʽǽ1949굽1952ġ½ģʽ[xi]Կ϶ǣٴ1946꿪ʼũ˶Ѿٷ䷢չΪһҵũ׼Ϸ硣ʱǻֵĵڶ׶ΡսģʽǺϡҪ̸۵Ҫָһ׶εģʽ˶ʵĵʷ֡ʵϣ˶֯ذѽ׼ĻģʽֱڸйũṹһʵնԸĽֲ˾޴Ӱ죻ڻIJϣ׼ﲻ뽨һ˶ԴΪĻγһײʷĸܣһ׸Ϊ˶ڼͽԺղũʵ׼ʷͼԴͷ

ֻаѻʵ֣߿һֶ̬ĹϵDzʶΪĽ׼ѧ˵θıйũ͹ʵĽ̡һͨظĸɵʷԽ̱ǹΪʵ͡͹ʵ֮ѽڲ򼫶˵Ĺ̡оһĹ۵㣺йũġ͹ʵũвձĽ׼׼ۻũձҲȫʱйũʵṹνġ͹ʵ׼ĻȻΪ뵽ʵеijβԡνġʵԸʷֵʵΪܽϣȫÿһׯչ׼Լ򵥵͹ӶΪǷҾصٷ䡣ÿһׯԵ͸ũȺ˶Լ򵥵ظݸ۷ʹȫΧڸıеϵûѡ񡣳ڸԭ򣬵еĴׯ׼׼һϷԵжִšơĸš񡯵Ľ׼֮ĶԿ[xii]

һ׶εڶ׶ĵǴӼϢºͲȫתǿӲĽ׼·ߵı仯Ϊʲôһشתط1946ǰ쿹оָת򱳺ʵԭ򡪡ȫ淢ظĸǵʱȽսǰϦйսʱԱĹؼԾٴ룬˵ йߴӼϢĵתͻȻԣΪʱʼϲΪڿսʤǰϦ1945굳ߴë󶫸ոձʾڿսԽʵмϢߣսڼ䣬йһ󲽣߸ΪϢߡòȷģƶ˹񵳲μӿգʹĵǷյߣûϰǽսʵȥȫΧʵּϢȻȡʵķвشﵽһ꣬йͷġָʾͬ1010հ䲼ˡط١϶¡ļʽظĸ˶Ѹڸݵع㷺չôʲôԭʹй̵ʱھͽлߵأԽԽѧΪһͻȻתΨһܵĽ;ս[xiii]

ʽһ㷺˶йũĻṹҸȤĻظĸ˶ĺԣ˵йеıҪԵ⣬ҪעĽⳡ˶ĶԱṹ˶ʽظĸȻصٷΪģȻȴٷΪʵϣҪǺأͨ˶ȥǿ㷺ġ׼ìܡּìܳɹתɹսеʤʹйũвڹ㷺Ľ׼͹ʵҲʶصһ־֯ıʵǿȡ˶ıƺ·غͲƲȻϣԽ׼Ϊŷ˶ΪµĽ׼ֲ㡢Ϊ˵߸еͽµĹȨͬڼ˽ȵս״̬£ⱻսԱͷıҪٴ롣ԣ˵˶ĺʵҪȥƳޣɢһճеĸͨһʽתȫũеijʶdz޵ľѧΪʲôҪǿ׼ĻΪŽ׼ʵΪʵֻﱳϺ;ϵʵ档ϣ׼ʽظĸΪԴͷȥԭƽ⡢ӴģԿȡıֶΡ ԣʵҪǵһλģʵظĸѸٵݻһȫԱʽ˶ʽ쿹˵ԴͶԱȺڵǡй񵳳ڡĹΨһܹռơķ롣֯IJϣйܵʶпչһҵȺ˶ַЩũƵıԵȺdzΪⳡ˶ֵܳǵĽ׼ޣγһͬΧԱͳͳⳡ׼֮УᶯԱĿľʹﵽˡ[xiv]

ݹڻƽоظĸ˶ҪﵽҪĿͨһϵн׼ȨȫũļʶԴھɵеͬУӶǶµĹȨͬףҪũĽ׼ʶ[xv]ҪﵽĿ꣬ҪʹֲԣһҪʹճеļתձԵĽ׼Ѻͽ׼ޡڶͨ֯߿ᣬͨһʽǿ׼ѵձԣܰѴͳݵũıΪˡ£ʽͳΪ֯ԱũıҪֶΣҲ˶ĺݡǵоģظĸΪĶĽ׼ȨԷֽΪµIJΣȣǽѹȡġѹȡʵԡйУ򵥶Чǰѵһݳ׵ħ趨Ϊũ׼Ķ档ȻͨƶũȡԭеȨ֯֯߿ᣬ߿ʽͳʶ̬µĹȨͬıزٵij׼Ҫڣձ߿ഴ˰Ѹ˵ճΪ׼޵ļӱЧӦͨһϵоϸµķͽ˼Ĺ͹۴ڵʵȻԵıʵ߸ԭеķϵҲͱʵ߽⡣ǰũһ״ͳķԭ򡪡ƶԵ͵¹ϵ֮Уʽ֮ԭ㱻׼ȡشͳµĸũҲͼԵתͬһ׼ijԱ

ѷе߿දԱģʽΪ˶糡˵ԱʵҪͨһ;ͷʽģԱĹģԽ;ͷʽԽҪԽ档Ϊһĵ˶йиĻʽսеظĸ˶Բֵҷ񶨵ķʽ˶˶ڼ䲻ԭг򣨰ͳսϵ飬ϧƵԼľӪĻ֯¯˾޴۵ĿֻһһŶгԱij˶γɾض˶糡ʵֶԱ[xvi]һУ벻ޡѵļ򡣾˵߿IJɿһʻ㡪롱øũ񲻶ϵܿĸԴȥѹȵĹͬˣȻй㷺߿ࡪĴᣬʽijУ׼ޱɱظƺţЩÿÿű¼ݣԴﵽǿ׼޵Ŀġ

߿ࡪʽеı棬쿹оҲ֤ʵһ㣺սѹǰ¡ԱѹһеߺܿͱΪûڽ㷺ʵУʱ׵صΪҲDZ뾭ǿзĹָ̡ʾϿɡѲƲӳ˱תƵ޲Ʋеļֲͬаصijۺһط䷽ЩþͱΪڶ԰ߺ޳ͷʵСıҲȻԡꡯʽıʽУﵽԱĿģͳһսֻ֮Ϊ·[xvii]Ƕע⵽߿Եı໥ǿֶΡ˶ļ¼ܿ췢չʧصĵزȻ߿ࡪʽijЧӦԶԶڱ󻯵ĸӰ죬ÿһ˼ϻϵũ嶼޷˵ͶʽȥΪ׼ʶ̬ѵʱ˶еıʷǺϺ¡ ġѹȡʵͼ¼Ӿµĸ

ڡԴͶԱȺڵʽаŶôӵݣյΪζԱ͹ĵֶȴйڳڵļභȡõı֮һĿ֮£չ߱ʹȥѣȶΪĵʵϣظĸΪģȷʵܷ·ı£һʵũе߿ࡪʽһǶʽһж߰ռȶߺ˼ʶ̬Ҫɵ ͨоDzѷ֣ĵȺڶԱʵʵչսʱԱĿ˴ٷת򷢶һϿ׼ı˶ʣǣⳡ˶ĺĴطתƵ˶ԡ췭֮ʽʵIJ棬ǽ͵Ž׼ִÿһׯĻѡÿһׯƶԵĵϷݵĽ׼ͼԱеũͳ֪ʶֵ֧ľһ˼жʶ̬ʵһĿġУ׼ˡĸҪһԺ͵ԵĸһһԷ롣[xviii]ȻھĶԱУĵĸݱձĽ׼˵ȡȥһʽġ糡ЧӦڻƽ˵ȫũݵ߿ࡢӪһַdzʽij˵䱾ʽʽʽᶯԱرڸıĹҪĻ֮һ[xix]

мڴˣǾҪرעʽ齨Ȩ֯ݡ߿ࡪʽ֮⣬ѰҸŵĵǿʽЧҲǷdzҪֶΡյĹܳձͱӪЧߡǿƲ⣬ظĸ˶ǿ͹ʵݳʷԵ¶Ϊչߵĵdz˿ռ䡣Ǹմ档Ҫǿһ£ַ߿ܿܵڸյ飬ӸյʷʼһֶԱȺڵЧֶ֮һ߿ࡪ̨dzϸѡĵı׼жԾؼ뵽ʷʱƷ¾עҪΪԱȺڡʷķʽ֮һ ̸ѾĵʵתƵµij¼ԡ͸ˮ档¼Ǹʵѧеġʵԡйءȴֲһĸڶԡ塱⡣ӳĸʵѧͬǰ£ղһʵϰʵɹ̡Ȼ˶Ϊյ¼ʵԹijֲַϵȡʵԵĹ̡֮˶һʵһֱʱ¼ʵԾ½֯Ϊһ壬߼乹һɵ͵ߵķֲϵͳչߵ֪Ƕȳʵ˵һ㣬Ҳײ飬Ҳ¼ʵڣڶѾֵʵж߲ϣ¼ʵģֱתΪԣ˵㣬Ҳ߲㣬רҵжߵľĹ˼ĴϣԱΪ͹ʷԡȻȴֳڵĹӻʵʷ͹ʵŵʵҲԷΪ㣬ܹܿתɱַţΪʷŵọ̈̄תϵ£ 1ʵеķšķϵͳʵʵֹģñ֤յȵȡ

2ķŻΪмϵͳϵͳеʵѾʽʽֶΰֱڻ磬ӣḷ̌껭Ⱥڣרҵݳȵȡ

3ŵʷ߼ϵͳרҵչѳֵ򣬰ִͻܣ磬ȵȡ

ͨȼϵǿԿ߿ࡪᣬ䱾Ȼijֱ߻ʽȻʵʵеĵﵱȻʵġҲijֱѡߣЩȻ¼йصʵָһ̶ϣ͹ʵֻеʵгֵĵתи߼زʱ¼ŻᱻΪձ¼ֻʷIJϣԽſʼԽ¼ʵԣʵѾٳˡ

ںԣǻҪصؼ֣ΪǵĹܺصȻͬͶԱΪĿġƷȷʵ˶ͳ׶ΣƷΪ˶ӰϵͳⳡȺ˶һɲ֣˶֮ҲͲڡ[xx]ˣҪӵ߼ϵͳЩרҵж߾ĴƷضʶ̬ʹ֮ڣҲֻһƷŻᱻʷԵͼ֤ݣ칫ڵǻǰӵ۽ظĸ˶ΪĵӾƷϣڴƷУʽġѪ¡һֱռͬƷĶ㡣ǿԺŵ˵ⳡ׳˶Ⱦʷͼ񣬡Ѫ¡޳ҵƷȻر˼ǣʮڵĴij1946֮˶ձ鷢ķ߿ᡣĺʹַѪ¡һdz׼дʵʷˣеijױڵʵʷ֡ȻDzԶģѪ¡ж߾Ĺ˼ƳӾͼʵ빹˼˫Դĵڶε⣺׼Ӿͼ͹ʵзĽ׼֮䣬¼ԡαͱģ

ӡѪ¡֮﷢Ѫ¡ϵֵʵУƷصġ¼ԡȷʵָҲǸʵѧġĵ䷶Ʒһ㣬ŵдԣ˵Ӵ衶Ѫ¡ͻƷ֤ʵʽšǿһأĻϵõ˳ַӳǿ֣DzҪ飬ҲǺ飬Ҳǿdzһ㡣ǿ飬DzҪ֣ǺʽʽʽУѾĻǣʽɣرũĿ̻ũ۽ϵһߵбȺתۣ޲סߺͻߵң޲ץסʵΪݡ[xxi]⣬Ҳ밬ֵĶԪ߼һУǽһΪΪʽ˶ʵʵĹ۲᣺ܾҪϤȰũΪˡת䡷ġƷھ춯ص˶УΪƶũΪǵıΪԵжгߡһҵĽ׼̵ؽҲӼҪӳһشĵԸ[xxii]

ǿ԰ѡѪ¡͹Ԫ1943ľ̡⶷һͼѧȽϡƷֱӦڻǻֵĽ׶Σ19371943Ͻģʽ19461949ĹսģʽҲɳΪºĺͼģڡ⶷ĻУԪֻǶԵΪŵijڻеĵҲֻ˱̵ȼߣũ͵ֻǵŽΪʶѡԪƷӳʷʵ⶷׶ε˶һҵĽ׼ڡѪ¡ĻУǸڹԪľĵȻųгȴѾɱɳ˵ĶԡѪʾеĵ֮⣬ȵũϹ۵̫šַӵȵȣڼܵȾų޺ͷŭʽȻץסӾµҪ㣬ǰ߿һĻ磬ôǰһĻȻϵǰ飬ǰһĻضǵϲƵIJпһĻȻҲǶԵѹ Ҫ׷ߵл飬ôǿһʣ⶷͡Ѫ¡ԱʵƷԴߵ黹ǷǵξأԳƷIJҲԺԲƣΪڲͬƷȻֱָ治ͬʱڵ·ߣ߶ȵĶӦDzò˼ԣǹԪûй۲쵽ũĶУ߶ԵжٺøУҲʽһеΪʲôǹԪʽ˿µأΪʲôʽ˶ѾԺܹ˾ӾĻ棿ΪʲôڹԪƷǰʽƷĽ߼ҲܹҲЩѻش⡣Ǹ˴𰸣˵ʽͬ־оϣëϯ֪ٸ֮ҹظ׶εҪݣũڹëϯ쵼£Ծᶨ֯ǧѹϵķ⽨ƶչһҵĽ׼Ҫ˼Ӧǣ¶׼ũIJпѹȣֳũԷ⽨ij޺ڶľ񡣡һҪʽͬ־ȷѡһ˶ķչ߳ȺڻڿߵĶڡ[xxiii]һζڡ¼ԡֱ׵Ľ͡ȻǻǿԴλпijֶжߵĹ۲ܵڻĵξĿƣʹԾرθӾ֮תװãһԾĹɹУĸںʺϵ϶ΪһһﵽĿ꣬Ϳʼ˵ʱλҲתȾˡ

ʽġѪ¡ǰԪġ⶷Ƿֳº͵Сʲ׼أźǣʷоش⣬ǻǵôʷѧоѰ𰸡ڹԪʽƷУڵĶ壬һ̰ͼ˵СһӯħͷƷеתʵζķƱϢϢء˶еĵԼԵǰڻƽṩij֤ݣ˵ظĸ˶УҲDzȱٵǰࡣһ룬ڵʱҲ˵ҪӰͬʱҲҪǡɨءķʽ¶ijЩ°ܻʵаŮ̡ԺζĵȣƷϳ׷񶨣ǶϿںŵʹã确򵹡ijijֻѪծȵȣijЩñĶ¹ñʹԼ⡢ĭȵȣĸУЩʽDzİͨһϵе¼ԭũʵΪũηΪ˽Կɶķ󡣡[xxiv]ʹţ߿᳣ݻΪԵʵʩĶʽٻعͷѪ¡£ǺֵõijΪʽûѡڻƽľһشתơӾµķڿߵĵߡѪ档תʮ˹㷺ۡһҵ±۵еľѪϣѪϣڵϣڴӵֱҲʲôģֻͨѪ²ʹ̵˽ĿⲻѪýöﵽ¶Ŀ𣿡۵⵽˵ڴ˲ܵ˵һ۵Ľʵʣ˵±ǣһͨϣĻͨ˵ģܿʲôijġ֤ҵһ۾ܿ[xxv].

ڹڻƽУ߿ࡪıΪʵԵ˵ģʽƷȴرֱԵıǰӾµĽʾе֤Ѫ֮ϣ漰ʵյһ⡪δʵձӾ󡣷оĵʱһнĸһ+˵ڡ߿࡯Уһѹ¡ܱΪӰǸ˵˽˹£ҪһЩıԡǿıͨһָ޴ǵĽ֡ձ顯ũ񡯡Ƹ׼ʱҡǡ긴һꡯӱ¼ƺϿ˳ǧ¼ҲͿһռϼӴʱϼӺľᣬҲ׷ŭ͸пˡ[xxvi]

ӾУҪĶתӾͼҲ뷢ѾġһתɳġձļֶΡΪʲôѪƷģΪѪӾСӱĹؼءʽڡѪ¡Ĺ˼ǿģѪҪġԿס۸֤һ㣺Ѫ¡еġԿסĸֳѪһ͵ں˲䣬ڱɽѹեǧūѾվˡŤת̬һȷı飬ޣѪ±ʷ֤ǶԷ⽨׼¶ȻȷЩ۴˴󲿷ֹߵĸܣôѪ¡ijɹͲ⡪ѷڵһеĵһ¼תɱѹȡܿѡ׼ͷѹȵĺ£ӾµĸϣƷȷпԵʷ塣 ڸʵѧиרŵ͵ͳҰֲԳΪ͵ĸѪ¡һаܽΪԭ͡زģд衢Ĭдϰһ̡ԡѪ¡λ˫ĿʧĸΪɶƬϺϳɵĽаüֱַȡڲͬʱͲͬص㡢ͬԪء롰һ+βIJƣ͵ĸǡһ+󡱡õõӾйھ¼ԾͱɹתձҲдʷԵӾͼȻֻй۲ߴж߾Ԥıͼѳֻе۲ܹڸ˵Ļ֮͸Ӿ½ṹпʵѧαʵIJֶΡ

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Ѫ¡ͼʹ̸ǣضƶ£մӪʵĹߡжŬӪӾʵУں̶ܴʶ̬־ƷƾеģʽΪʶ̬׳СѪ¡һѹȡĹ£ǣɹ̺ʹȴձʶ̬ѹȵʵжʶ̬ĹʱᳫĽֻʶذѵƷ۹ͬᄈʱDzſܹ۲쵽մеġ𡪻ӦģʽԼģʽĿơ ڽ׼ĿȸѾΪʷ֮ʱʷѧҶ˶ʷĸԭdz׼ںڶʵ档ҲʹøʵĿŶ⵽һɡ⻹ֻˣԡѪ¡ΪʵԽ͸òʵڵʷͬȻθԤ£ʵпʶ̬ɺıľ棬ҲΪʲôǿθԤյʶ̬ڹʵ񣬲ķʵԭ򡣱İʷķʵѧһ֮ڣʹԭֵDZͱˡ˵κԴʵӾҪڷһӾµļֶΡǰȻʵDZʶ̬IJôӾͼı䱾ʵȻҲԵġڸʵļֶΣ־κһ͵߷֮СʱӾã޷ڸ˵ͼ֮ı翴ȥһ [1]ڱʵͿ͹ʵĸμڡйеũ׼ĵĸʱڵıʵ͹ʵһеĽ͡

[ii]ʶ̬һμϵӭʶ̬彨ʶ̬ۡйѧ2002.

[iii]ͺսμ۷ѧۡйѧ1993

[iv]򣺲϶ĸμ϶뻪¡ʵ뷴˼1997

[v]༭1958һ

[vi]ͬ

[vii]һμĻȨҡ룬1994

[viii]˹-˵ĸμɽ

[ix]־63רſһ̸ԡѪ¡ĿкӱһдΪʱšѪ¡һЩеԹаӪиƶũŮʮûкӣ˵˸һкܸˡҵңΪĵǰİˡѪ¡һ˼ȥңǸӣԭѺͻȥˡ˵DZ޶ӡ쿴ˡѪ¡뵽ܹ˵޶ũĵˡͺӸңҪݣ˳ޣޡһҧǵȦףѺˡ¸ʯͷƵġʱҼò֪αʾźã¸ҺܴʮһѮɽ壬ԱڿѪ¡һһ𺦹ҺͼĻӣũҲҡҡͷ˹˵⻭ϲˣϸ룬Ա⻭Ŀôͬ [x]гũѡżסйо࣬ѧ׳2005

[xi]ǡйеũ׼ĵĸʱڵıʵ͹ʵй

[xii]ͬ

[xiii]쿹⡶ظĸ˶սʱԱ ѧ˼롢

[xiv]ͬ

[xv]ڻƽ߿ࣺһũҹγɵнơйѧ20024ӡ

[xvi]Աṹ˶ģʽظĸ˶19461949Ĵѧйо

[xvii]쿹⡶ظĸ˶սʱԱ ѧ˼롢

[xviii]ڻƽ߿ࣺһũҹγɵнơйѧ20024ӡ

[xix]ͬ

[xx]ʮȵķӳ˶ᣬǣijȺļ¼רҵûжӰ졣ʱ죬ֻһЩղذлв档 [xxi]šͻ̸־622

[xxii]Ѫ¡ʽĴ·־773

[xxiii]ͬ

[xxiv]ڻƽ߿ࣺһũҹγɵнơйѧ20024ӡ

[xxv]־63

[xxvi]ݡ¼еġʵռ䡢䡢ת͡Ϻ2001

2005-5-157-18ڹ

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