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֯(NGOs)ȫ

Adam Heyd


ֱӳΪNGOsѳΪȫεһҪɲ֡ŷ֯࣬ҲDZڵ⡣֯ձҲĴɻЩ֯תĿʲôʵֱͼ͹۵ز֯е͸ļ⣬ͬʱ̽Щ֯ӰҺᡣļȷ֧ǷԷ֯Ĵڣǽܹڷ֪֯ʶθıȫġ

Ϊܹ֯ȫеúҪԣбҪΪһ塣кܶ˶Ը֯¶壬ҪѸʽ֯ͻһѵġڡʷʵ䡷У֯Ķǡһ˽Ӫ֯ڹΪ˽Ӫ֯ơʷٿȫ顷ͷΪѷ֯ΪЭ˽Ӫܹ֯ͨڹзáܵ˵ЩĶΪָ֯ͼΪԱȺļṩЭ˵˽Ӫ֯

ļйʷ֯Ҳйڷ֯ڷָ֯Щֻڹڲڲ͹ڲõ֯ʷָ֯ЩڹҺIJͬ㼶õ֯ҲһʵʩĿҲܳԽͳα߽۽񡣹ڷ֯ڽڲʱӺҪãҪֹ̽ʷ֯ʷʽԼ֯Ĺϵ

Դ

֯ǫ̈̄ԸʽѾ200ꡣCharnovitzΪ֯19ͳҪŷʢ[1]Щ֯ҪŰϳūơ֧óסǿʷáƽ䷽Լڵķ֯񡰡ϳūơ š1775ȫƽˡ1866ʮֻᡱ1863ѻƬóס³-š1874ȡCharnovitzҲָ֯ҲʱסԴ19ͳֺ󣬷֯ȫIJ1934굽߷壬սıǿȨƿأ֯𽥵ᡣս󣬷֯ԹĽõ˹ٷϿɣȻսԭֱ6070˽Ӫ֯ſʼڹ̨Ҫá

60ѧΪ֯ĹκȫӰԽԽشⲿڷ֯Ѹӣ1948꣬ϹϿɵڹʲķ֯41ңֹ1998꣬Ѿ1500[2]70ϹΪ֯ķչ˴ٽã֯Э߻ٿһЩʻ1972ġ໷˹¸Ħᡱڹȥ30УϹĹչ緢չ˿ԼʳƷԮΪ֯͹֯繤ṩ˸Ļᡣ⣬սĽֹε͹֯ʼ绷ȨŵиҪλáĸӣȫ໥治ϼǿΪ˽⣬֯ĺѾԽԽձ顣

뷽ʽ

֯׷ĿĹге˺ܶĹܡΪ֯ĹҪм࣬˵桢ѡṩƶ[3]ЩǷ֯ΪҪȺṩķȻ֯Ҳṩչ˻֯Ҳǿʹܹұ֯չ˵ص˺ͲˣҶǶ͵ĵ[4]֮֯һЩҪĹܣ򵱵֯ṩԮԴȡۺַַ֯ͨʽԽЩΪ޷Ըĵطȫ⡣

֯øַʽʵ书ܡSimmonsΪЩʽɹΪ֣ı֯Ĺ⡢ڳͻʹ͸͸ӶϷԡ֯ʱĽʵ[5]⣬֯ͨѡ١Լ̳ȷʽǿ

֯мʹЧʵĿꡣЩ֯ܶ඼ģС߼ģԴҲܶ־ԸתģСҹõʹЩ֯ȴģ֯ӦطԱθҲʹЩܹ֯ɹܶ֯չľ鲢Եطϸµ˽⣬ͨDZ֯ʺϽijЩչ⡣Ҳܹ뵽޷Ըе⡣

ȻڽչһЩƣ֯һЩ⡣ȣַ֯ЭͨȽѣˣ֯ĿظЧ⣬Ǹ֯ijЩⶼûչ˵ʱȱЭܻᵼ֯ΪĿֱӾھԣڸ֯ƿеĿڶܷ֯񷢻Ҫȡھߡ֯п˶ֻ׷ߵĿꡪֻͨרעڶĿʱеĿdzЧӦ󣬾֯ΪǣΪǣܹشĵȺ壬ʱҲȻZaidi˵Щ֯Ϊ롯⡱[6]Щ£֯ŬٳɵĹܻᱻΪƻ

֯Ĺϵ

ͨΪ֯໥Կ෴ĹĿꡣһЩݣ֯Ļ196070ܹŲʧ顣˽Ӫʱ̬ȣһЩ֯ԼĴģҴȻͬWapnerڷ֯ǿȨ£Ȩܻ[7]һЩ£֯Ŀֱ߲ͬսߣʱӰΪԷ֯⡣ͷ֯жһֿһĴڻһĽչ[8]ֿɱش˫ijͻͬʱ¸ĻɺͷС

ܷ֯ij̶ֳϵĵ⣬Ϊ֯ӸԵĿġǰͳֶһβɷָ--֯ҪӵĹϵ[9]Ϊ֯Ƿһģʽеһ֣ģʽУͬһЩ⣬ڹͬЩʱ˫ĹϵǸӵģܼ򵥵ؿǶԿϵ£֯ĹͬŬܹΪһһṩõĽʺϴ۾þߣ޽ά·Ȼʩܹ֯ΪṩмֵİģȱͷչԣСϹ㣬֯͵Խȱ磬1992֯Ϊչйṩ80ԪԮռԮ13%ұϹṩԮҪ[10]Ȼ֯IJֻȫĿĿģҲӳ֯ڽʱĹϵǻģϵҲDZҪġڷ֯ͨĹΪȨĹУ֧ͨDZҪġЧؽĹУ֯俴ìܵĹϵȷµı仯ЩҪǽиط⡣

ֽܺܶ֯ܵϵԶǰ߱־ͻɡܻΪЩ֯ĴΪҪĶϰշֻҲDzɱġȷ֯ܶͼٽز벢ǿĹᣬЩΪǶȨһв⣬ܻ֯ʽ𣬲ɶʽԴԹޡȻ֯ķչҲDzɱġźܶ⣬ͬʱŷ֯Щij˶Է֯еѵģҲϸ档һЩչйҵѾʼϵͳ˹Ѿʼͨչְҵ쵼ȷѵַ֧֯Ļ[11]ϣ֯ռ͸͸ΣʽĺܹಢԷ֯ĵܹ١

֯NGOĿ겻ͬʽͬķΧܹ֯Щ֯Ѿһʱ䣬Ὺʼٵµġӵʹ˽Ӫ֯ԽЩ⡣Щ֯кܶ⣬κȫԻձ顣Ϊ֯ڻ䷢չռ֯ҪԵһҪ⡣ȻЩѡƣ̽֯ʽĺйظһߴԡʵݵѡ

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[1] Charnovitz, Steve, Two Centuries of Participation: NGOs and International Governance. Michigan Journal of International Law, Volume 18 (1996-1997). p. 190.

[2] Simmons, P.J., Learning to Live with NGOs. Foreign Policy, Issue 112 (Fall 1998). p. 84.

[3] See Categorizing NGOs, at http://docs.lib.duke.edu/igo/guides/ngo/define.htm

[4] Streeten, Paul, Nongovernmental Organizations and Development. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 554 (Nov. 1997). p. 199.

[5] Simmons, p. 84.

[6] Zaidi, S. Akbar, NGO Failure and the Need to Bring Back the State. Journal of International Development, Volume 11 (1999). p. 266.

[7] Wapner, Paul, Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics. World Politics, Vol. 47, No. 3 (Apr. 1995). p. 335.

[8] Sinha, Dipankar, Government-NGO relations in Asia: Prospects and Challenges for People-Centered Development. Journal of Third World Studies, Fall 1999. p. 190.

[9] Bill Clinton on This Week with George Stephanopoulos. ABC News. September 18th, 2005. Taken from The New York Times Online, September 19th, 2005. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/18/politics/18clinton-text.html

[10] Simmons, p. 87.

[11] Streeten, p. 207.

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