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֤۴Ҫ
¡ڶ.ŵ֣

ҪˣҲڼеظ½һڵرƼƼǵ¹ѧЭϯ˸ѧŵġ֤۴Ҫƪ·2005ġѧ뷨ѧ۴ԡǺҵػ˱༭ߵȨΪ׸ҡ
ѧ翪ʼע֤ۡһЩҪҲ½ܽźǣǺٿ֤ܶ۽յĴ֮ŵǵ¹ҪķѧңƪȻԼȴ൱˷֤۵ġҪҪǣߴӷѧĽǶȣԸ֤˹۵Լļ⡣ԷΪҵֹע֤۵ĶߣӦ
꽫Ҵվȫ༭͹Աһֱ֧ǵߺͶĵĸлף彡ּ飡

һ֤Ŀ͹

ǵ֤Ϊ٣ݸ򷨵ȷ涨Ǹ֤ǵIJУϷ267Ϸ313ֻеݺ֤ܷԺ34269287Dz֤ΪڷԺΪί˻оΪ±绤˻ϵ·˵ķ֤߱ί˵ûĺͬԷʦ̸ʱDZ跨Է֤ŵҪĺԡ

֤ˣʹŷֻҪ漰ʲôҲУӺͬԷijĸߴӷԺijȷоԿǵĻġҲЧֶ--вŵ¸ЩֶҲ򱻷ʹãDzǷֶΡߵ֤Ϊߣ跨ʹŷ

ֱصǣҪʹ֤ŷʲôԣⲻdzġбоԷ˰ߡ峥ծ񣩡ָ֤ βֱָ˵棬ָȨʹˣҪʹĶԻȷţijַۻijһIJȷġԷԺΪԺӦñ˵оȷо

Ǻʵģ֡Ϊ̾ͲµʣǵijַۻijһIJеġȷԡ? һУͬڲϣصġȦа˹˷ٶԸȨоһ*Ե˺/õĽȷ[1]볬ʵ֤һʱȷ𣿻ߵϴʱ˵Чʵ֤ȷ

ⲻͳΪȷԵij߶ȣɵʱķȷȡѧȻϵȷҪ֮ؼϵ۵־׵ȻϵУеĹԻԱ׼еһܣУԵDzоĹһ¡Ͼ潫Ϊۻķ仯ϵУŷ½ռλҲӢžãȷġɲеı׼ƶģʵ֤ģɹһ¡

֤Ľṹ

1.ʵȷ

ͨƶһԽṹʵɵʱһȷķɽӦȷϻ϶ˣijһ尸ɲеȷԣйع淶ľӦΪǰᣬҲʵزȷʵΪǰᡣӦе֤Ҳȥλȷţȥؼʵǡǡġ[2]ܷɹҲرо֤һ֣ԷԺʵȷȷŲֹ֤㷨֤۵ĺ[3]ĵλ֤԰еķۡ

2.ȡ

һ֤Ļṹں֤ΪһȻʵ֤ƶȡģϵͳвеǰᡣֻеһܹݵһ򣬾ݴˣసӦͬķʽöϣһвű֤ˡһ㻯Ҫ֤Ϊ淶ɣ羭ԭ򣬲ܾڸֻеһȷĻҲܵӦļһּԭֻͬеɱ˯ı˵Ϊıɱʱɱij˯ı˲Ϊʵʩıɱij̵ɡ˵Ȼѧôٵĸ¼ӱȻ漣ڷھôٹ淶漣ҲЩȷĽ취һȷԱ׼ִ֮١һʽУҲУŴ⡣

ɣ֤һ㻯Ҫص㣬ڷͬķʽʺںĵ֤[4]ͬģʽͼͼʽ[5]Уͬڷ[6]֤ģʽҵ

3.ƶͽѧĹ

෴׷ʹԴһ⣬϶Էȣرķʽÿһķϵڷ仯Уƶʽȷķɹ淶ȵ塣ȻΪȷ֤ɲжķɹ򣬲ͬƶ淶Ϊһƶ涨˷ɹ򣬶һзԭ򣬺߲ű뱻ŨΪõĹ[7]һ棬Թʽ䲼ƶԱʹеʵ֤ΪܣڴУdzȷ統̷211ġɱΪıɱƲʱôƶûлشǣɱ˯ʶ--ǻһ--ǷӦΪɱ˱뽨IJͬṩЩǣɷѧͷʵ׷ģɽѧ⣬ȷȻر֤ԣǿԽо֤֤ɣΪṹһͨƶͽѧIJ֤ڲ֤ɣһǹ֤ⲿ֤ɣ[8]

4.еĹȡ֮

ƶѧĹв֤ڲ֤ܶDzѵġǽܡ⡱ָɱ˯ı˵Ĺô˯ӵıAıɱȻġ˺ع۹ϵ[9]⣬ѵǣǷеİнһ򣬴кϺ߼صóʵIJþʵ壬ΪͳһпԵĽޡͼͨʹ߷ԺҪƫһ߷ԺΪлĽѧʱв߷ԺͥIJеȷеһԣ¹Ժ֯12121322ֻҪܹݵձĹϣ׷IJͳһԵĿܵõϡҲһֱʵ֡[10]ԣȵĻߵʮּϵҮաǷΪ̷166ʵϵڽ̱ʽ裬ⲻͨݵһձоش£߷Ժ˵漰⡱⡱ܸһ顣һУоܹһһȻܳƶƳɷԺǵѧѧɷʵ뷨ѧⶨ

֤ı׼

1.Ȩ֤ʵ֤

ⲿ֤Ϊķɹ֤Ե˽ϴ⡣Ϊ֤ɽѧܷʲô֤⣬뷨ԨԴнܵĹֻƶΪԨԴôеķɲйҲѧ򣩱ܹ׷ݵƶϡɲйֻܾɶƶġ֮͡·á෴ǽܷٿ취[11]˳ϷٷΪҪԨԴôΪ֤൱ɿռ䡣£һܹʵȷԵ֤֤ɣߵȨޣǷٵȨṩƶȺϷԡ

һʹע⵽˷֤еĺһȨ֤һʵ֤[12]һɹйȨƶǹӦγĽֶ֧һɹ֧ŵIJгϡ͵Ȩ֤ߵ־ο۵㡢ƶ溬֤͵ʵ֤ǹĹԡĺԡĻЧ

ֻȨȡ֤ϲŷϷ仯ϵһϵ͵Ĵƹ淶Ӧù淶˾֮ķֹڶԷʵķУʵȡ֤ʾҪá[13]Ȼһʱ֤ʵк壬Ϊʵ֤Ȩ֤ԣҪ֤ǣijƶͿΪ򲻺־ǶԷ֤ʵԣȨ֤ʵ֤ĶԪۣԭϱ־Ŷһѡ񣬵ѡռϸûеõ塣رǣڶ̶ϿʵЧΪȡвС[14]

2.֤һ-ʵ֤Ĺϵ

ģ֤Ĺڣ֤Ӧķɲеȷԡڡȷԡ棬ķΪ֤ɵ֤رǶΪΪ淶ĵ֤ڴ˴ԵơǸʣν綨֤һ-ʵ֤Ĺϵ֤һ-ʵ֤ȣһ֤֤ṹĶϵͳ

ѶԴһĻشΪ˵漰Բ֤ͬϵͳй֮ͬķ˵ǵȨйءǣ߼صڿDzеĹԺͺԵı׼ϣвͬڷ˼άƶĹԼ

ɴ˴ĶͬͲ֮ͬıҪȨ⣬ǿӦ֤Ľṹ֤֤ĿꡣӽṹϿڵºͷ֤бһDZģݴˣʵڷϻϱģDZźܴһ¡֤֮ѧصǣijЩķ֤Ե±ҲӦƶ־ߡ۵㡱Ե̸Dzɽܵġ෴ڷѧУڵѧдȨϵ̻ۡʺ񸦣¡

ؼڷ֤֤ĵĿϡ֤֮Ŀ겻ȥ֤лɹ۵ڡԡȷȷԡij߶ȸ뵱Чķһ£ȴܲԶ¹淶ìܡڷɲþ±׼ĵطɲҲѵ±׼תΪ嵥ԣڵ־͹߷ԱĿɷԣݵ־͹ķǵΪڵʱǺϷģܽɱ޴ֵϵĿǴ֤ɡϿǴԵӵΪ˶Ƕ뵽ɵϵͳСǸͨȻ֤ṹ²³߷Ժ߷Ժо39115ܷԺܷԺо9596134õı׼ܵΥ塣ݴ˱׼ʵ֤ƶΥﵽܵij̶ȣΪȷķƶӦòʱ ӦƶԼԡ[15]

ʹڵ±׼ǹҲֻܽתУת˵±׼ԷɹϵͳӰ졣仰˵ʲôı׼ڷ֤IJָķɲеġȷԡҪģΩijϵɾָɰѷ֤ͳһʵ̸ǽΪ̸۵㡱μ塢4

ġΨһIJ֮

1.ɲеġȷԡֻһĺԡ

֤ڣ֤ijһеķȷԣôʾڣǷκΰʵֻһΨһȷIJСⲻѧر飬ڷʵIJͬҲԼ䲻ͬķʽˣ߷ԺʵȻijǣΪԺоĵķɹ۵㲻ǶԾǴ޵ִ𰸡ͬҲָһݷɼΪһַɹ۵ȷģǴģڷɿԺͼͥҵҲڴ

෴ڷɿУΨһȷеģʽ桰ȷ롰󡱵ϸ˷dzݵġһĺԡһĺԡķɹ۵㡣ǰһ컹ھԵоΪ͹ɱˣ̷212ȣıɱʵɣ̷211ǶIJΪױʾ̷ѧеIJͬ۵ȫ߷ԺڵڶĹҿ԰ֹ۵㿴һĺԡ漰ĻȨǷܵרŷԺĴоֺʱܷԺҲڡһĺԡһĺԡֻ͡еʵоһԵķɹʱӦ϶ΪԻȨֺ[16]ܷԺɵĸº͵Ŀٶ߷ԺĹ۵㡣

ʵIJͳһӦŷѧе״[17]˵Ĺ۵УκΰֻһΨһȷIJУжԷɲȷҪļۣ[18]Լ֮ʵġʵŵġֵ

2.ΨһȷIJСֽۣ

ΪκΰκηⶼֻһΨһȷIJеĹ۵㣬ڵҪΪɵ.ֽšֽͨһͼ˵Ĺ۵㡣һгķ٣ֽΪ˹Ӧƽӹķ--ղء--Ļɡ⸱ͼʾԶԶʤֵ֤⸱ͼ裬ķɹ۵һʵԣǹڷIJȷԣΪȱȥʶʵʵġȻǡǡţ֮Ĺ۵֮ڷĹǷȱԴ÷ߵʶǷȱȱ˵Ϊͬѧɣɹ򲢲ĶĴڡζţȷǸܹõϵ֤֤ΪȷIJУ֧ķɹ򣩡ǣΪõϵ֤ƶ溬塢ߵ־ƶϵʷʵԡԡ۵㡱ȵȣҲںЩ֤ľȷԣɹ۵㾭ܺϺ֤

3.ȷԶ֤

ɹ۵ȷ֤֮Ĺʶ˷֤ͬѧƵ֤ص㡣Ȼѧ˵ȷԲ֤Ľԣǿſѧʷʱڸʱݵʱ֪ʶ״˵۱˵ܸõ֤ں̶ܴͨ۲ݶȷһѧʷĹ۵ʵǷȷ޹ؽҪȻѧУ۵ȷ֤һɺֵ֤֧ܺȻѧܱ֤Ϊ෴һ֤òļ˵Ҳܻȷġ

෴ֵ֤֧ķɹ۵ijɹ۵ͨij֤һĺԣһ֤Dzһĺԡζţ֤ĿɽԾ˷ɹ۵ĿɽԡͷѧѧƵصйأѧоıѧĶһѧĽ̿鲢磻һ̷̿ı̷[19]

4.ΪΨһȷIJ

ijɹ۵㣬Ƕɹ۵㾭ܺϺ֤ǡȷġⲢζţߣΪҪشķٻˣȷͬĴͬȷĻһĺԡΪٻ֧һֹ۵㣬ڴ׷õ֤ģΨһȷģС˵ΨһȷIJһģʽΪزٵĹڷʵĹ򷢻áӷٵӽdzֻܴһȷIJУӷѧӽdz漰ȴһʵʶļ衣

塢֤۵

1.ֱ׼

ڡ֤Ķ򳨿ŲͬĿѧӽǡһIJķ֤۵룬ͼȥԷ֤Ĺͱ׼Ϊ֤ʵԤԼķһĿ꣬һֹ淶ԣ涨ԣ֤۵ģʽоڣͨԷıϵͳعڷʵʵѭĹǿԽ˳Ϊ֤еķ-عǻܿǵȱݡ뻯޴ѧ֮̽ڷ֤ķ-ۡһֵȻ͵ص㣻ˣһ֤Ĺ淶ۼȲܷʵѭ֤׼֪Ҳܷ֤׼зӦأйط֤۵ĸֽ·ֻɸص鵽һģʽС

ϸӽ⣬йط֤۵ĸֽ·Ĺ࣬һӽҪáһ棬ǿ԰֤ΪһԵḶ́ô֤ķı֤Ĺ淶ԹӦԭΪıṹĹַʽ֧ŷ֤߼-ģʽҲ԰֤֮еĽ̡ӽdzһַ-ع֤۵ĶͲıҲDz֮Ľϵڹ淶֤۶ԣһӽ漰ľͲıı׼һвֹ֤磬κ֤ߣ̸ߣܹ谭ر۵㡢ԸҪ֮[20]

2.֤߼-·

кܶʹ߼ģʽʺΪ֤عģʽһûǣìɣaa߼򣬶κ֤Լ֤ԼġΥ˼άΪָΥƶһһ棬֤ĺ--о֤ṹԵöӦ˹ŵ߼ͼʽ[21]ˣⲢ֣ʱ֤ں̶ܴϱͬ߼[22]ٶԡڲ֤ԣ۱Լ֤ģʽ[23]

߼ʽʵƶ(ѧ)֮µۣ[24]ԭǿܵġȻУ۵ṹͱȶѡһ֤ģʽȷ[25]Ȼν߼ģʽУзɲеĹȡˣΪǰ߼ȫ⣩߼ģʽԷ֤ĸԲ̫ʡؼԵⲻڲ֤ɣ֤ѧĹ򣬾尸Ӧݴ˱öϡֹ֤һֽ֯Ų֤ͬͶ֤֤ṹȨã߼ֻдҪλ

ⲢųijЩУ߼Գһ֤Ľṹ档ָʲôǰ£ܹתΪʽЧͼʽ[26]رΪƺͷ֮ѡӦýһһ֤ʽ߼ܹΪǰĸǰᡣǣ߼ʹ߼ʵѡ֮ľ߼ֻڳ֤ܽ⡣

3.-޴ѧ

ڶԵһ˴ѧ-޴ѧĸģʽͻ˷֤޴Ͳ԰šǰ ޴ѧۡ(޴ѧ)޴ǽṹع޴ǽṹʽķɷ۹Ķ[27]һǷ-еģȴdz巨֤ʵʽṹ֤ĸرǷеֱ廯⵽УǽһõĿ͹ԣֿ͹Աֵжϡ淶ԵĽ۽΢ἰӢңһ˼·롰з˶ij֮[28]

4.Է̸ۣп

̸ۣ˹޲.пһи߶ȺҪķ֤꾡Ĺ淶ģʽ[29]ȷţʵһȷԵҪҲŹ淶ԳԼšˣΪǰǣڹ淶У棨ȷģͼٵij֮䣬ںúͻ֮䣬ЧЧ۾֮䣬[30]

Ĺؼ漰׼Ŀ֧ԣݴ˱׼ܴӴķȷšЧķ֤Ч֤ڹ˹̸һڰпгеһѡIJݺʵʵģdzӽǡؼǣʵijǷ񱻿һĽּڻȡͼ淶[31]ȷԹԻȡij򣬱־Űпһֳۡ

һ۵ĺѡ֤򣬶ǵرŽȷԡڴˣһʵ̸򣬸ݡ۵㡱[32]Է̸ҲԼ뷨̸򵱱

ֱΪͬȺһʵ̸ģУֹìܣ1.1Ҫ֤ţ2̸κţ2.2.aڷ̸ĹУٽһձԹ淶֤о֮ҪJ.2.1֤ʽ ֤͡ʵ֮ҪJ.6ԼֻҪûֲ֧ͬ˳ɣƶ溬־֤֤J.7԰пķ֤ģʽͺۣμ𴦵ľ[33]

5.֤׼ʷĻ

Ȼκη֤Ĺ淶ǣڶ̶ϿԳձԼġʱͷĻƵķ֤׼ʳ˱һʼΪ⴦뷨ģʽѧȻͷ仯ķ򣩵ĹΪ뷨Ľṹйأ漰ʶ̬--ʶ̬ĸڴڼֵʹõġ޿ǣһĻУʵϵõϵ֤׼ǰ-ṲʶӰ죬һʶáȷԡĹͬ綨˿ķ֤׼һǰķͬڷ֤УijһȺΪġСϴЧߣرƷ򣩣DzġԭڱʶĹ߼ֹʶĻDzԶΪǰģ֤ͨʶֹʶ˳ǣġرķΪʶ̬зĶ[34]ڹͬɳŷ޺ƽȫΪ־Եͬеķ֤ĻбȽϷ֮ڷɵ໥ãΪɻоҪ֮һ

ο

п.޲أ֤ۡ3棬1996

Alxy,Robert,Theorie der juristischen Argumentation,3. Aufl. 1996.

˹.³Ү֤ʵѧ1999

Grabowski,Andrzej,Judicial Argumentation and Pracmatics, Krakau 1999.

ܿ.ۺͷۡ1978

Mac Cormick, Neii, Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory, 1978.

ŵ.ڶ¡֤ۡ1986

Neumann, Ulfrid, Juristische Argumentationslehre, 1986.

.ɽ󣬡֤Ļ1983

Peczenik, Aleksander, Grundlagen der juristischen Argumentation, 1983

.Լɪʵ͹淶3棬1999

Raz, Joseph, Practical Reason and Norms, 3. Aufl. 1999.

Ĭ˹.޲أʽͷʵʵ˾2000

Summers, Robert, The Jurisprudence of Laws Form and Substance, 2000.

˹.˹̹е֤裬1995

Stamatis, Constantin, Argumenter en droit, Paris 1995.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* ¹Ϸ˸ѧѧԺڡ

ѡԿ/˹Ĭ/ŵ࣬ѧͷ۵ۡ7棬2004꣬9¡ԭStruktur der juristischen Argumatation׷ڱ۴Ե6 (2003) ꣬Ϊµһ±7ʱŵֶԴ޸ġ̶ؽΪķԱ½ڵĵĴԲ䡶ѧͷ۵ۡ6棬1994֮꣩뱾֣룬ɳ磬2002꣩

* Ȧǵ¹ҲϣصһƷþһǣһλӸӵĸףһֱ侫ϵĸĸȨƶ涨ĸиȨǵӵҸٰ˹˽Ȩиĸ

[1] ԴǾĶֵ, άغնأѧ1968꣬12ҳ¡

[2] ֻҪ򷨣Ϸ26712䣩Ӧõ-涨ͻᱻʵͷѧڵ½Ϊ-涨

[3] ̽ʵȷ֤ףμƺ/˹֤ۡ1982꣬271ҳ¡

[4] Ե׼ڶ˼롷1992꣨Ӣԭ: Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Methods and Point, 1981166ҳ¡

[5] ĵ314ҳ

[6] ĵ299ҳ

[7] ڷɹͷԭ𣬼ֽ𣬡ԴȨ1984Ӣԭ: Taking Rights Seriously42ҳ£п۷ԭĸ磬ԣ̸1995꣬177ҳ£ϵĹģʽԭģʽ1990ꡣ

[8] п֤ۡ3棬1996꣬273ҳ¡

[9] ĵ312ҳ¡

[10] һμףɷеĹͰغձ/ŵ/˹࣬˼άеһ㻯𻯡ѧѧĻ㣭45ڣ1992꣩101ҳ¡

[11]ȷоǷжԴ⣬ġ۵׷ΪٷΪʶԨԴģشģѧۡ6棬1991꣬432ҳгСľģգɻȡۡ2棬1976꣬243ҳ¡нԴģ˵˹߱1985꣬153ҳΪٷƶĸ淶ģƿжۡ41977꣬143ҳܷԺûгϷٷƶƵԼ(ܷԺ84212227)ȴϷСԵطɷ֡Ȩ(ܷԺ34269287)

[12] H.֤еԺȨءۡ6ڣ1975꣩145ҳ¡

[13] ܷԺͥовеĹ֤壬Ҫμv. άᣬ̷淶Ŀԡ1967ꡣ

[14] ȫײμЪأеĽȡ򡷣1995ꣻμļ--ΪɵIJн1995ꡣ

[15] ²³գƶIJͳƶķ1946꣬²³ȫ383ҳ89ҳ

[16] ܷԺ96375ܷԺ85248ܷԺ82613

[17] ײμֽ𣬡ԴȨ(ע7)144ҳ£448ҳ£529ҳ¡һμ״/˹ѧۡ3棬1995꣬60ҳע131

[18] أѧۡ4棬1998꣬24ҳ

[19] μأѧۡ4棬1998꣬13ҳˣ֤Ļ1983꣬142ҳ

[20] п֤ۡ3棬1996꣬362ҳ

[21] ŵ߼ر298ҳ¡

[22] յϣԺʶۡ1973꣬3ҳ

[23] п֤ۡ3棬1996꣬273ҳ£ƺ/˹֤ۡ1982꣬48ҳ¡

[24] ĵ299ҳ303ҳ312ҳ

[25] ĵ312ҳ¡

[26] ŵ֤ۡ1986꣬34ҳ

[27] ܽ׼. ׷.v. ʩң޴ѧͷѧIJءۡ32ڣ2001꣩μŵIJ֤ۡ1986꣬54ҳ¡

[28] μS.P.ǴʵӢ۵ơءۡ22ڣ1991꣩ڡз˶527ҳ¡

[29] п֤ۡ3棬1996ꣻȨۡ3棬1996ꣻԣ̸1995ꡣ

[30] һ˵μŵ֤ۡ1986꣬78ҳ¡

[31] һ֤μŵ֤ۡ1986꣬78ҳ¡

[32] п֤ۡ3棬1996꣬273ҳ¡

[33] ŵ֤ۡ1986꣬78ҳ¡

[34] ׼ض˹޵Ľ--۹ʱ˽ıǨ5棬1997ꡣ


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