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[Ҫ] ּúƽĹ۵Ȩߵĸ໥ĹϵбȽϺͷȨͨȷǽΪ淶ɣѭɶϵԿһԵƽĹϵõķܹأôƽҽһԤЭȨܵ˵ʱȼ;֣Э̡⣻ҹȨĴءԺϣڸԼȨʱԤȨǽ˼䷨ɹϵĻҪء [ؼ] Ȩ εת Ȩغ

ۺ̽ѾõĻ⡣ʵֹƽֶΣǵõڶѧͬĹ۵㡣ȻĶλںδȥʵ壿ڱ߿֮ãڶ뾲Ľбֳһƽ̬ƽҲֻƽвʵ֡ϣƽֵԽãҲԽΪƵķҲƵƷƽ֣ȨεĺǷֲġ

һ ȨθۼߵĹϵ

һȨ

ȨıʲôճеǵΪǵǰDzԺӵҪ⣬ѧԴҲ˵硣Īһǡһ۵㣺

1.˵ѧ˵ΪȨǷɣǡϹȨһΪΪɡ[1]Ƿ֮ԼǡϹӦһΪԼ[2]

2.˵ѧ˵ΪдԵıǣȨָɹϵеɵΪΪķʽһֶܶΡ[3]

3.˵һѧ˵ڣȨȨ棬ϵıӦõõ棬[4] ȨҪеIJ棬ϵıӦø档[5]

۹Ϲ۵㣬߽Ϊͬ˵ȨһĻû򸶳ֵ̬棬Ҳεľ档УʹȨĻ븶ΪĻú͸Ϊ˵ͷ˵ȱݾȨʧ֮խ˵ƫȫɻɽȨһ֣ܰȫȨ񡣷˵ȨȨͬģ˵Ȩ˵ȨǿĹȽ뽫ᵼȨȨɥʧȨıᡣ ѧеĶλ

ǻһĺĸָϵģҲǾϵģDzƲϵġһθӦɿ͹ۡۺʽҪɡʡҪԼʽͬͨƵġΡԷΪࣺһڵ֮ΥʶԼıʽĵΣڶڼ֮ΥԼΪʽļΣڷ֮ΥԹǿΪʽķΡָָࣺΡ ѧ߶ԷεĶкܶ࣬ҪУ

1.˵ʹǡ˷ɴʵ䡷еķδ£ǡijΪܳͷ񼰶⳥ñķԲ񡣡[6]

2.˵˵ΪǡͷƲáΥΪȻ¹Ȩǿơɭ˵εĸ뷨ĸһڷ϶һΪ𣬻ڴ˳еΣ˼ǣ෴ΪӦƲá[7]

3.˵ѧ˵ѷζΪijֲĺЩѧΪǷƹ涨ģ֮֮Ϊ״̬[8]еѧΪνָijЩΥΪʵijֶʹijضıΪ״̬[9]

4.ɵλ˵ѧ˵ѷεһΡ̨ѧߺ鸣ΪڷϷ֮ΡʱָӦεĵλ[10]

˵ֱӲͬIJʾ˷εıʣһĺԺͿɲԡǷһdzӵ⣬DzŷѧǷѧδγͳһ͡ѧǶĶλǸͬģԷεĽֶֻ֮ȫȫ֮֡Щѧ߶ԷεĸۺϿǣó¹۵㣺Υ֮ʵӦܵרŹһȷϲǿܵĺĸ[11]һ۵˵˵ɵλ˵ĺأǽΪѧĶ塣

ȷεĻԼ涨εķɲͬԷΪΡΡεȣǵı̬ͬȴͬĹܣƲáȺǿơƲõijᣬҪĿģȺǿƵҪڱܺ߹ȴ֮еķϵĵϵ˵ĽݺʵַĿ֮[12]Ϊγ˰֮⣬һòɺӣáڵķɹϵУεñز٣ǽһʹΥ֮ǰɴ˽Ҫɵĺ濼ǣӶεĴڶ£Ȼ൱һ˵طΪԾģȻ֡ԾγεǷֲģ ȨߵĹϵ

Ȩлϣศɣɷָڱ߿Ǿһε㣬Ȩ񹹳˵ױߣƽáǿǼܹĴڣ֮ķɹϵŵ˳ؽУĿIJŵʵ֡ҪεתȨغǻڴּܹŵԳȨ֮ʷչϵϹϵ߼ṹϵĶͳһϵϵĵֵϵϵĻϵϵԼϵֵϵιϵ[13]ûȨҲûȨ״̬£һ˵Ȩ໥ƽ⡢໥Ӧġ

ԭͬһȨϵıӦø档ǿķ治ͬǿӦΪԣǿΪԡְйصģְҪıӦø棬㶼ΪǿԶΣְ𣩣ԣְ޹صIJְҪģΪӦԶһ棬κȻǿӦΪԣ䱻ΥʱΪԱ¶ԶԶӦΪԣDZΪˡᵽָ·ɹϵУΥΣְ޹أɹںıпԷ֣غì֮У ȨҲеϵһ棬Ȩ˵ĽǶʹԼȨȨûһ㣬ͻеӦķΣ˼ලãһ棬Է˵ȨDzݱַģԼȨԸԷȨַĻȨҪеΣ˲á

غľ

غDZ߶תȨغļơڲ֮ǰǰ᣺һȨһ˵Ȩdzĸֻбʹ򸺵ʱŻΪֳǣƽ״̬ȻҪλֻ˲ſԽвһϷڶ˴ָȨָ˫Ȩ񣬶ȨԿһ棬ԿһֲȨʧ״̬Ǵӿʼġ ǰᣬͿԶεתȨغоIJˡ

ǿ԰·ɹϵ˵Ȩһƽˣ״̬£ƽƽģȨȵġغҪڵķɹϵ֮Уغ£β֣˫˵ġȨƽ֮⣬żලã˵ڷɹ淶֮½˻Ϊ֮һγijַɹϵ֮Ȩ񶼻ʧ⣬˫񶼻ӡһԼӦʹԷȨӣͬԷΪҲʹһȨӣȨʵƽ⡣

غ㣨ҲԽغ㡢غ㣩ҪεĻ롣£ҪΥԼȨΪ֮УεĻ˶תתΪȨǰµĵ˫Ϊֺܺô̿ԷֽΪһֺֺܺĺϷȨ棬ʹܺ٣ͳ˲ƽ⣺һ棬ܺ٣Ȩƽ⣬һ棬ֺӣȨҲƽ⡣ڶֺӵתΪΣֻʵֺһȨƽ⣬ܺδõȨDzƽġٶȷתΪȨ˵棩ܺȨ棩ɴˣ˫ֶٶʵȨƽ⡣

غеĽɫ

غᵽĵ˴ºϷΪֳغ㡣ڵ˵Ȩ񽻻Ϊ֮⣬˵䲻ڻáڴ˴˲ɺӵľʾãʹԽ׳һ֮ǰ˼СȻκԾдͲܲᵽΪȨغеáָɾռͳελĽ׼һһڽġƾ֯ıȫʵн׼ͳε֯[14]ҴŹʹȨڱۼغ޲ڹҵȨ֮½еġ

غ£ͨȷһϵеķɹ淶ȷ֮Ȩƽġἰ֧ȨΪ֮ԿԶΪȫ֧䣬չȷķɹ淶֧ģҲΪõҵϿɣǹϵ״̬µƽ̵ֹ̡һϵĽȶķչڹҵͳ򡣹ĽɫߺЭߡ

ϵ汻ֺʱֺ;ֲԼֺܵһֺֺ֣Э̽ͨ˫ԸЭ̣ɹʶֱֺӶԱֺʧȥֲڶֺֺ֣Э̲ɻԸЭ̣ôͨԺϣɷԺҹȨԵ˼ʧ״жϣͨεתǿԵʹֺܺɥʧȨֲֺֺ֣±ֺȨܵ㹻ʱҾͻֱӽ룬ֺԱֺ׷ƲãֺʱIJ֮еһԲκǿԲˣΡ;ֺͱֺ˫˵DZġڶغУͨĻĸԤʹεȷϺת˱ߵĽɫ

ͨƪֵ̽ȨĶ̬ƽ⣬غ⣬Ϊ˴ﵽغĽεתز١ɴˣԵó½ۣ

һȨ滯нȨ棬ϵɹȰ棬ҲȫеȾ棬Ȱֱ棬Ҳ档˵ǹҹȨϵ棬ҸǿתΪȨһ档ͿԽ˲Ϊ𺦷δΪλҪеε⣬Ϊܺ٣֮Ȩ˲ƽ⡣⣬ȨΪͲ棬غĵһǰ᣺Ȩʵ֡

ǿȨ˽еȨ˽ȨַǹȨIJDZҪġ

ΪʹȨ壬ƶ˷ɣжȨƽ״̬Эͻʵתô˽֮˽ڣΪ޾֮˵֮һǿȨãΪ˽иܹзϸΪһͳһȫй淶ǰᵽغУͨȷ˵Ϊ淶ʹ˿˳ȫЧشﵽԼԤĿģеĵ־ɣ˼ԭ򣬹ҹȨ޷ԤģȻҲûйȨ˽ַڶغУ˵Ϊ͹ҵֱӸԤʹֺαͳԽ˽ķΧڹΧ֮ڣֺɴ˿ԵõΪIJ͸ΪıֺҲܵкӦеƲãЩ˽Dzͻģ̸Ϲ˽ַ⡣

εתȨغֻһģʽҪ۽ܹơԷѧָĸȨȶֽۡдĵĿģһµӽǶȨμظӣеĻܹƽһ㣨ҹȨɵǡܹ뻯ģʵбضкܶΣѭת̬ӦDzġ

[ ]

[1][2] ѧǵ [M]ϺϺ磬1984.267,48

[3] . Ȩͨ [M]Ⱥڳ磬1991.12

[4][5] Ӣ. Ȩ̽ [J] йѧѧ ,1996, (1)

[6] The obligation to answer for an act done, and to repair or otherwise make restitution for any injury it may have caused. See: West Publishing Co. 1979, Blacks Law Dictionary, P1179.

[7] ɭ. ҵһ [M],.йٿȫ.1996,73

[8][12] . [J], ѧо, 1991,(3)

[9] ŷɽ.۷ε[J]йѧ,1990,(6)

[10] 鸣.[M]̨壬̷־磬1982

[11] 衢. εĸ[J]ѧ, 1997,(10)

[13] . ѧ [M]йѧ磬1994.263

[14] ΰ.±෨ѧǵ [M]ϣɽ磬1985. 559

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