ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

Կܣ



ҹУΡԽԽƳͿšΡӦΡΪݹһȷһֻϰ뵽ȱ١ΡѪйδͳ֢֮һĻĹһ̶ӡ֤²⣺ԴǹϣѧڽͳǵġΡִʵͻԵģ˼ǺȻҪעƶȣܿʹ˼ƽijЩʶ֮ʿҲʼĿתĽԴǷִ֣Ŀˣ˾صáˣЩִ˳˼ǣһԵĹͬ㣺йͺóϲ̸̸֮ǰЩڹȥʷָδѧйΪִԽе˼ķξ㿼죬DzޱҪġ

ôʲôΪʲôϹΩķϵάʷڣشЩ⣬òɵǰᡣ

roman lawһַlawĵġӢĵlawӦĸֹһҪiuslex֡ӢѧԹlaw޷ʵķḻرDzıȻд˺Ӧ˵ius ĸӺ弰lexĹϵdz˽Ĺؼ֮iusָȻγɵ ϰףlexָרƶȨϿɡ䲼μʷ£ǰ߳˼ȻԣʷԶ֣DzĵģҲɿڶഫı仯֡Էԭıʮlexӡϵʵ߶ԭlexIJϲ𽥳εġͬiusƶlexʵҲһֲ͡˵lexӦ˾͵ĻôƶlexIJԵġƶߣlegislatorlex˵ߣius˵DzߡϵƶʷɻȨĸߣlawgiverǴ˵еʥˣڽ̵ÿϵlex֮ϣȷiusΪԴȪiusͬʱҲǡ塱һʵʽơӢ֮rightlawϽѧ߽ius naturaleȻȻΪ natural right natural lawִηѧҪġԡLegitimitaet롰ϷԡLegalitaet⣬ʵϱԴiuslexĹϵ

Ius/lex֮СΪǿϰ׵Ĺͬԣά񷨡ius gentium롰Ȼius naturale϶ΪһˡȻius naturale gentiumһʡȻŴﶼΪʲôΩִεأһϰ׵ݱɶǹͬģΪʲôάʷʽֻѡʮν󷨡ķ

ʷϿ ִŷ½񷨵̥˵ѧǰȤϣϵŵõˡ񷨷ϵıơʵϣڹŽ̿УռݾƪȷʵҲ˽ݡôġձԡҲ񷨻˵ȨձԣǣڹΰʷάⲿҪ񷨵ʮȴǡһй˽ԨԴΪʮƶ־һո¶޶ݵƣconstitutionʱڡ÷Ϊֻǰ˵ִϰ߱СѧϰȻΪƶ񷨵䣬ʷѧȴ˽ƶı󿴵˹Ľ񷨵ıǨӡʮԼ֡ݡ롱кֱӿ˽ƶĹѿ񷨲еá ɰѲͽ綨ΪΪⷨɹ涨ݡɻ߷ƶߵͼ۵е߼μѧ˵롷13͹֪뷨ѧҵͼȳλǻۣοޡҡɡȡʷ˼ʷҰ壨res publica񷨣ius۲ִ̣ܵߵ⡣

ǴʮʼģʮĽ빮ȫ͹ùƽ-ЭĽʹΰ֮еʷУļЭǡƽij졢ĿĸҪȱһɡҲɼϵҪأǾ˶ѧ֮ԽԵѿơԳǰ빫ijء⼸Թϣرŵ䣬ܱȽؿ޷Ϊ۹ԭ

ԼڹԪǰ510꣬壬ʵΪġʱɴ˽塣Ϊ˹Ĺ͹˹ȨimperiumλִٲȡҪʩȰ˵IJκιԪԺĹģ͹δʹ˰ϣ˷ָģ弫ױΪͷ壨μʿ£ѧľµĹʵ޲Ϊƽǰμͼҡ551dʾͷƽ֮һɧҵĸԴŵ䣬ֶĽΪ־ƽĽŵƽȻһʱķ٣Ҳˡƽ䡱demagogueתΪɿƻҡµĴѹȺʿӶ޷ҵձŵİȨλ֮£ƽ˶һΪȽ֮·

ݼأ֮ʮУ˳ڵνɧҡ֮СƽҪȡԹĸӹϵҪءʵпȡծūƶȡҪȨԼǰ494꣬ͼǰıʵƽծȣɥʧΪūΣգܶԼֶԷѣdisunionΪʹܳƽȨЭ飬άֳǰͳһƽǾۼʥɽ˻٣TribuniƶȣͨʥԼǿ˻ڽϵIJַԣμάʷBook IIIƽͼͨƶȷԼ򾭼ϵIJƽȶɥʧɡʵ֤άƶ͹ĹؼءƶȱζšɧҡδݱΪƽζƽϳ໥ϡƽѡһְλŵӿֵƽ񵳿demagogueٵȨǺƽԵģΪ˰ƽֿɹ嵣εִ֮ȨͬʱҲԵģԪԺзȨƽͨѡٻԼԪԺԸ߶ȼеķʽƽ־ְλ֮ӡ˷ɵԡ۹š뵥ƽͷȣƶȨ޼عǻۣչƽ棬˵ǽ׼ĻȶѹʯڶȰֱѡйعȶķ綨Ϊ˻ƶȵĽʾʮԳֵĹζš˶άνdisunionǸǷΡ˺ʷʵûлƶȣûһصƶݽԻ߽ԣĵ뷨ɵеƶ𲽽еġЭʤеʤٶЭƽԸƶΪʯΪӪ

ƶȵĽֻƽ˶Ŀʼ˵ǰ494֮ǰƽij֡ɧҡĻô˺ĶΪִ֮ġϷʷļأǰ462꣬ʱеһλִȨãרŵίԱ淶ִȨԪԺԶáڶȫ廤ٴͬĶȻδʱѾΪ塢ƽײ㶷Ľ㡣һʱֱӴﵽĿ꣬ٵ˶ԡǰ457ɹؽչ10֮󣬻һ¶âĽ飺Ԫ÷ͣϢƽķɲΪͬƽ干ͬίԱᣬ˫ܺƽȵɣaequandae libertatis/equal liberty֮ɡάǰңBookIII.xxxi.8鿴ºͣʵǰѹִٵȨʱƶһӾ֮ɵҪԪͬ뷨ȴֲƽίԱᡣ˵ˣһѾͬԷɵʽ˫໥ϣһΪƽû㹻ǻ۲

ôΪ˭ǻأ⣬еֻǴۡȨʷʷǣĹƽȨֲ£Ϊϣûӵǻۣһʹȥŵѧϰ׵ԼϣǰķɡѧǵȴȻ෴ڻع˹͹ʷʱֻʮλߵĽܳǻۣȴ˿ûἰϣߵѧϰμޣҡڶ36ϣȷضϣߵǻ۱ʾ˲άָģʽŵ䡢˹ʹʵ൱ͬڹ͹ƣǿ˻Ե˵ĵԣμάάʷۡBook I2طά£Ϊдһľ200ڵĻʻʾȨ޶ߵά¿˳ʵġԭ񷨵ݽģκ嶼ԲѭԼеȻȷ󷨣ضӵԼġĦͬΰΰʥˡ

Ƿѧϰϣ飬⿴ֻǸ΢ʵ⣬Ϊʲôѧ֣µԷأɻǣ񲢷lexDz񷨣iusʵ屾ıϰߣethosϢϢأơϣôհߵķɾأûϣȻѧͳҲû񷨸ġ˶ʵۡԡͳȻѧƽһϵйϵϣȡϣȻ죬ôģЩʮȶأʵڿ˴ϣķϵҪIJǻصʷʵϿ֮

Ƿѧϰϣǻۣһ޿飬ƽòͬһɹ幹ɵʮίԱᡣʮλƶһײ㹲ͬܵijķ䡪ʮǰʮķƶѷɴӹ¢ϵزرֱ׵֣ƽ񡣵һ棬ƶͷȻڹĵǻۡʮĻҲ˵ǻڹĹϰƽĽ¹涨ʷУʮIJԽԽƫײ֮ƽȡά£ζʮһµ񷨡ƽȣaequitas/equityΪ˵Ȼ޿ǹƽͬͳΡҽصġ塱ִδϣʵ͹ҫڡ͹ϯ˼Ժƣ֮УȡģΪһбߵأijЩȨӦϲ㹫񣬶ijЩӦЭ̸һƣconstitutionṩijָ߶ƽȡΣȶ ޣҡһ45˵ı½ײ໥ΪȻǰľ塣û-Ʊһ񷨵ܡ

塱ȷʵ˷ġûкʵƶȿܣϣ˵Ľ׼ֻǵ˲ΣǰȶҵûȷһȶϵϣʿͽйΪ꾡Ȼȷۡڡѧľʿָ˰ͼ©ûзھ塢ƽ񡢹ͷ֡塱֮⻹ӵĻ壨μʿ£ѧ1293a--1293bɸײȻԶ׼򣺼ĵԡͷIJƲƽɡȫ׼ҲɳΪ塱ˡƲ롰ɡ׼ϾֱΪpoliteia˼ǡ塱ͨӢΪconstitutional governmentľӦΪ塣µĺȡpolisǰpolitees񣩡politeia壩ߵϵȷΪ塱ʤϣ֮ǰpolis /civitas֮񷨣civil lawִ֮ᣨcivil societyԨԴݡʿۡ塱롰塱ʱؼԭƽײ𲻾õУ塱롰ͷؾ޷ֱ桪ڲƸȻڹУϵĵ׼ʵΪƲ׼ڱΣӹ֮ʵɱΪͷʱĵ׼ֵֻܲתƵƲУεȼƽƽȻȼϸߵġšУμͼҡ415a-bּϣֻ˵ġ߹ԡȴͨʵǻ۵뷨ѧӢDzʵˡʿµķʽ˵ǹʽģ˵ǹʽġʮƶĻԵƽ֮ΧծūƵĶʾʿ¹塱׼򣺹ͷ֮Ʋ֮ɡȻΪҪصĵԲδȫȻʧصشҽμһɢķѧУʵǻۣprudenceѧʵǻۣjurisprudenceķʽá˵ʵʣԡвǹԵ׼򣬶ԵĶij֪ʶijһ׼ԡҲɡ塱򡰹塱ݻһɡ ֪ʶԲķʽͳΣԲ͵ķʽ֮ǹҽԡĴͨʵֵġǸĹͬ壬ʵʹԵһǰǰĹضǹʽġûԡĹ壬ûǸĹ塣޵ƷУطǰߣмУͬط˺ߡ

һiusΪ֮ݡͬһius֮档ʿ޵Իı绤ά֮жһԻȶһԻƽȡοѧһҪ׼Ǹܷ񱣳ȶϣʿ¶Թ塢ͷƽ֡塱۾ڻ塣屾ֹһ֣ȶԸ⡣ȶȡھвͬ׼ĸ׼֮١еġ塱Ҫ׼˱Ƚ׼Ĺѡڹͷƽ֮УвƲɵмײȻΪԻ壬˿ȶѹʯʿ¿ȶĹ嵱мײ塣޷һӴԻͼ׼мײ㣬Ǿֻ߳μڹͷƽ֮ʵоͳΡмײֻʿеѧ룬ûϣҪǰҲûҵ֤ʵʾ˻񷨸Դȶʵǡͷء롰ƽءĵϡֻͨϡЭɵĵءƽȡisoteesҲɳ֮Ϊءڵмײ㣩Եõij֡ЩȶУݻģҲһµ֮˵ȶ߽׼ͽΪμյĿҪοѧ֮£ǸĿԵġƽȡѧ⡣ʿ´Ӱͼϳ⣬ǹŽ֮Ĺؼ֮һȻƽ֮ϳйŵ䡢¿ִ͸ӹŽľӡ

ƽȲDzڹŵѧʵһ֤ƽȵִѧ޲ᴩŶԹŴ֤ʿͷƽȸĸԣȿָһͬġĿϵƽȡһƽҲָԶԵġֵϵƽȡãʿ¼˹ͷľԲƽȣҲƽľƽȡԼijЩʵһоͬ״̬һЩʵмֵƽȣƲ״̬֮ͶãʵѲԾ빫Ӧĵƽȸعͷ͹еֵǣ֮ûӴмײΪеƽȵĵڲIJϵȻȶأʵϣȶ񷨣iusԴȻƽȡ͹ĵмײ㣬DzͷάҵķѧǡУܽΪƽ֮˵Ȼ񷨲ŻǿسɳԼ¾ǣΪһ壬ȫƽ˹ƽIJࡣƽȵʵֹҲ͹-۹˥̡һУƽѾԵתΪǵƽȡƽķǵ֮𣬶Ҳ֮۹Ϊᡱ֮գҲ綥ϵ֮ʱķֽձֻĻһͳһУһе˽Ϊ˽ˣһƽȣֻСֳԲŰϵڸѧԭ357ڣ

Ѿij̶ֳϰڿ֮СʮĹ͹ζʲôأʮͳά˵ζƽ֮˵Ȼԡʮ͵Ŀȷ˸ʷҰ˵ǵƽDZ֤ںˡ֮ȡ롰֮ȼۡġƽȡƽɴķѧҼΪάĵĹҽιҡ۹ƽƵĹҽͬҡthe universal and homogeneous state۹ĹٳһΣǻʷսˡȷȻϸΰĺڸߣȴԶȺֹ۵Ķࡣʵϸΰĺڸ߿Ϊȷѧǰ᣺Ͷμȷ򣬡Ȩѧ١35-37ڣԷֻǽ׼׼ѹȵĹߣ͹ڶƾУ¹ٵġĿ֣μ˼ԡԼ˹ͥ˽ҵԴλصij߿ҵĿȫʱġƽʷǶǺͽ⡣ѧдĶֻڡĹУӦηãμһ£ʹβܵĶά¿ȷΪʹҿܵĶƽȣߣΪ˳ϵĶ
20033

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Kojeve,A, Outline of a Phenomenology of Right, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers,INC,2000
Vico,G, Universal Right ,Amsterdam-Atlanta,GA 2000