ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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һǰĵδ
2000ġĶԪۣҮ˷۵о[1]СУҪڡҮ˷оġһĹ˼ķԼ۽ת̡һʱԵо·[2]Ҿĸ׶ζԹҮ˵ķ۽һԵֵۡ̽ĵһ׶ΣͨԹҮΪʲôδ۵IJתԷ۵Ľ׷ʣʾ۶뷨۵Ľѧ·Ŭ˹ҮоȷʶͽġʽԼΪġȷϵ˽빹ɷ֮ĵġʲôֻ˽֮߼ϵ⡣
ְѹҮ˵ġʽ趨Ϊ̽ҮԡԪۡ͡ԪۡΪķ۵߼㣬ڵڶ͵׶϶ԹɹҮ˷۵Ļ̽䣬Ҳ˹Ү˶ԡȻ롰ΪԪԼԴ˶ԪΪƾͬԵġһԪۡй۵㣬ҽʾй۵еĶصĴڡһԪۡʷʵֵƶԻDZΪһԪۡͳڲù˽һԪʵ̶ʶ⣬һԹҮ˾ɶ֮жơķȷȻΪ֮͡жơֹԼԴΪݵġԪۡ·˷嶨ڲⲿ֮ʼϵĹв˹Ү˹ΪҪ⣺һǹҮԻ֪۵Ļ͹ɵڲ֮ж֮ƵĽ⣻ǹҮ˴Ļ۳ȷ໥Ȼѡ⡣ڷĵĸ׶ϣһָ˹Ү˷µһҪۣⲿӦⲿ򣨻򹫷ܻȱߣȴ˶ڲɲάڲ򣨻˽ڲֲĸ˵жɾͻַ⵽ɱ
͹ҮˡԪۡͽжĹϵĹϵܾеۣҸΪһԵо˵һȽ̵IJϽʾ˹ҮˡԷ򡱵Լ༴һֿʹԷ򡱶ĸжıҪǹҮȷڲԼɴ˶ɵĹϵͳܡ[3]
ȻǰĵȻֻһۣΪҮͼ巨۵ʱ༴ŬȷΪ̽ѰжѭijΪӦԾضƣ༴Щʩ޶ľضӦԣĽγɵֳ֮䡭[]һֹϵһֶ[4]ʱ䷨۵·ȻԤһڵҪ󣬼ЩΪԼ֧ķɹ֮Ĺ淶ԭ˵֮ҮŬ֤ŵʱ򣬾ɡжṹϵͳѧʼݻչĹṩһΪҼǿĽ[5]ɷɹIJͶȷڷ⣬ӹɣʵ۱ʹͺʵķӦ֧óۣǰ͵ĹҮй뷨ɹϵһ۱Ҳʹͺֹ淶ԭӦ֧ЩԷķɵóۡɴ˿ɼҮ˵ķͼЩشôͱй淶ԵҮ˵ķй淶ԵôͱԹ淶Եԭ۲͡

֪⣬Үѧŵǽε·[6]1945ġͨū֮·һУҮ˾ȷָֻʱβűʶؼԷչʱΰijɾ֮һɵıϣҲڷϵ֡[7]ԼʮԺ༴ҮӦȥѧݽʱΪ⿪гһ죬ġε롷The Political Ideal of the Rule of LawڸƣڹȥѾӢ˵롢ŷ޴½ιķԼĻΰɾ֮һ[8]ڴĻϣҮ1960ġԭⲿĵڶ֡뷨ɡжԷ˸Ϊ꾡оù˹²³(Gustav Radbruch)Ļ˵ȷһֵƵļֵιȴÿʳõõˮͺĿʵҪֵƾάι[9]󣬹Ү1973ꡢ19761979ֱġɡɡУǰѷȷΪȫоڸǰи˼Ϊ꾡ϵͳIJ͡[10]ѧArthur ShenfieldڹҮ˻1974ŵѧʱԹҮ˵ġιۡΪĸΪҮ˵ġιۡĸ⣺һΪ֮γƶԴ֮жԴ֮ƣˣȥŬ˺ĽչڶһɵУɻDZֵĶDZƵģˣֻͨͳߵ־ͳǾĶβҪҸԭ򣬶Ҳ֮ϡģҪƽȵضԴеˣȴҪΪķʽʹƽȣһΪΪƽȵŬݻٷΡ[11]ҲA. ShenfieldйعҮˡιۡĸǷУҿ͹Գ˷ҪҸԭڹҮ˷ռݵҪλ
ȻҪǿǣָҮ˶ԷεͽDZ趨սᣬ෴ֻĿʼһ֪ڽȡģһϽһ·һŬһĵ֤Ȩԣڶɴ˶ȷʹЩĸȨķɵԣѧH.L.A.Ϊǡּļɵ(The Idea of Freedom)һר׫дд巢չĽǶȳ꾡ѧתʱָΪκϤȥʮӢĹѧˣܻ--ѧѧͷѧĻϵ--ھشı仯ΪǵĿôһΪܵľתḶ́ijʽĹ壨ܹǡʽĻضܹεµʵʡȻµΪһӼϻƽһ㸣ΪĿĵԭ򣬶һֹڻȨ༴˵ľĻɺ棩ԭܹΪЩȨijԼ̵ĻӦЩΪϤ۵㡱[12]ŷ֡ߵУѧ޶˹ֽԼɪȵߣǵҪעΪѧһ̵ĵ»Ŭݵȥ֤Щ۱ԣʹ˶ԣЩŷȻͬѧעۺ;ṩĶƶṩĶǸûҮЩλԡ[13]ʵϣŵij̶ֳҲԱ֡ŷߵеһλҪۼңΪ˴ͳڵĴˣŵ޶˹ۣȴȻάֿʽ޶˹۽ṹΪⲿκԻԶ͵ĸȨʺӰ졣[14]ֵעǣҮ˵֤Ҳֳij̶ֳȵĵ½ر1960ġԭһжǿ[15]һҮ֤ɹԵʱȴû׷ѧתȥһֶĵۣDzֱӽε·
ݴˣбҪԹҮ˷νΪʶ·µ׷ʣȣҮΪʲôѡֱӽε·ѡ¾ڵֽ۵·˵ҮѡΪΣΣصǣҮ˾ݷֲЩԭأߣһ֪ڹҮ˽ķԺ߶ȷָҮ˵ķԭûиȨ֧ŵ޷ϸɵģWatkinsRobbinsHamowyBarryLaz[16]ˣҲɰתһ⣬ҮΪʲôѡΪҪġһԭ򡱶ֱΪDZϸ֮ĸȨ֮·أ
ĵķ·
趨ʵһҪ󣬼DZԹҮ˵ķһȽ꾡̽ΪΩͨоDzпǰشȻҪָǣڲͬķ·ʹͬ߶ͬ⣬Ϊ˴ӹҮ˵нʾҿΪҪĹ۵㲢ųͨΪӶش⣬ֽо֮ǰȷһȽʵط·
Ҷ׵ж۹Ү˷۵ĹдϲȡһǽҮ˵ķι۵ͳ֮ԴҪĴƷǵ(Dietze)ר۳ġҮ۷Ρ(Hayek on the Rule of Law)ȻѭַԹҮ˷۽иʱڵĹ۵꾡йҲΪʵ̹ʵ˵ȴΪԼоȷķ·޷ʾڹҮ˷ι۵㱳·޴ӶҮ˷ڵĸġԡԵɡ[17]ǽҮ˵ķι۵ڡ롰ڡĽַַҪĴǡҮԼԺ󡷣Hayek and AfterһJeremy ShearmurԶ׼ShearmurȡַֽҪһַܽʾҮ˷۽ת̣Ϊѡַֽij̶ֳϾζijֽ׼ĴڡֵעǣShearmur߲ûаĽ׼׼˹Ү˵ġڡ۵롰ڡ۵ǵķбֳij̶ֳȵġ롱ΪһִʱԵġָǵķҲ޴ӶԹҮˡڡ۵롰ڡ۵תijڵʵԽ[18]Զ׼ַעIJصҪǵо󣬵һ֪о趨˵ζڽIJijۿ֧ܵţȴδؾζǷ·ıȻȷɵַڷ·ijȱʧҸΪǵоҲij̶ֳϺ˹Ү˷ֲĸۼΪƾĽؼʵҮ˸ۼΪƾĽ۵Ҫ塣[19]
ҶԹҮ˼оҸΪᴩڹҮ۽֮еŵԽΪƾγɵΪϵͳġĻۣΪһҮ˵ϵԡĻΪģҮڡɡɡȫġġܽԼ۵ʱָģ¸ΪеʹѧҡοѧҺ;ѧҲʵعעĻҪԡΪЩһֱûܹʶһҪʵµں̶ܴϲǾƶģͨЩھʤĸΪЧƶȵձʢжγɵġĻȲȻҲΪģȲͨŴмģҲǾƳġĻһϰõΪ(learnt rules of conduct)ɵĴͳˣЩǡġǵҲЩΪжߵĸġ[20]ڶоҮ˼Ҳǿָһ㣬Ү۽µһϵҪ⣬ҳ֮ΪĹҮ˹ڡ֪֪֪ʶۡת߼кйؽ뽨ΨijͻչģҲʵֵġҮнΨĹγŵȷ޶ԷΧΪĻĽ塣ˣͰչҮ˷˼뷢չ̵ʱζܺԹҮġĻۡ[21]ҲΪҪģҮŵġĻ뱾оĹҮ˵ķżΪܵԹϵΪΪҮ˵춨һµķι·༴Լ֮ΪĹҮ˵ġͨι[22]߻νġ۷ɡ[23]ṩijʵĿԣҲ͹Գ˹Үѡ䷨ν·ƾԼڽʱڹ۵ڹ۵תɴ˿ɼҮ˵ġĻ۲εĻҲΪǶҮ˷ԼһЩҪṩһʶ·
ˣ̽Ү˷۵ĹнΧŹҮ˵Ļ۶չҰŵĻDZķҮ˷۵һ·ߣǵҮ˷۵ĽǴչģһ棬Ү˶ԸԽΨΪһݻٷεķʵ֤(legal positivism)ʷ(historicism)ɷѧ(free law school)淨ѧ(the school of jurisprudence of interest)͹˼[24]˼Уһ棬Ү潨ķۣˣҲкͽչҵ
ԼΪȷĽ۷·ͬʱǵҮ˷оչ뽨磬ĵҲµİţ˱ĵһ⣬ҽڵڶ۹ҮŵĽԷʵ֤ʵ[25]佫ǿ棺һǹҮҪɡ־롰ĽֶԷʵ֤ӷΪȨ־ġһԪۡУǹҮ˾ɷԿ͹IJԷʵ֤ʵȻӦȻʵ֤СҪָǣƪĽ۹Ү˶ԱΪĹѧУЩй۵ҲΪҪ[26]ڵ۹Ү˽ιľ·۵ĹУҽ̽ΪʲôҮûвɽ۵Ľ·һԹ֮ؽķ⡣ʹ˶ԣҽǿҪ㣺һҮ˸ĵ½۶ȷָκε½ŬעʧܣڶҮĸν۶ΪȨԼŬһ鹹ҹĸΪģŬûи˵Ϊ֧ţҲڸϺκθȨݶݻչʵݴˣҮŴӹӽdzȥһͨιۡ༴ڱĵĽﲿ֣ҽԱĵһҪܽᣬǸΪҪǣҽѭȷĻ۷·ԹҮ˷ҿֵбҪһ׷˼⡣

Ү˶Էʵ֤

֪ЧԨԴǷѧеĺ֮һҮҲ漰ԵҪԣⲢζŹҮ˱ضȻ뷨ʵ֤ϵijͻչۡʵϣҮĽ岻Էʵ֤˼УҲΨִȻΪڹҮ˿۶ԵĵĽΨΪġҸΪҮ˵һŬΪִѧķչ˼Ĺף˵ŬΪڸIJʶִ⿪ųһµ·[27]ȻΪźǣƪֻܶԹҮзʵ֤Ĺ۵չۡ
֪˹˹(Thomas Hobbes)ס(Jeremy Bentham)Լ˹͡(John Austin)ѧ˹ɭ(Hans Kelsen)[28]ⷨѧﵽִʵ֤͵ֹ20͵20ȫ֧˵¹˵ķ˼룬ѸٴǷʵ֤֧µ˼״ڹҮ˿Ϊʵһⲿ򣨼Үν֯򹫷ͳڲ򣨼Үν˽򣩵ķƶ԰ṩֿԣΪʵ֤߽Ȩȶ֮Ĺ۵༴ҮȫеġһԪۡõʢ[29]ߣʵ֤͸ƶ԰Ż˸ΪΣΪɱ䡰ʵԷιΪʽķι״ݻ˱ϸɵķΡľ忼ǣҽĵһ۷ʵ֤ԷεΣɴ˽ʾҮзʵ֤ıҪԣȻڵڶжԹҮзʵ֤ʵԹ۵ۡ
һʵ֤ԷεΣ
ҮΪȼ̳ͨҲڵǰΨȻۣһһΪǰģ༴ֿʹǶĸΪȨеضȷֵǰЩڷιеڲͬʱҲԷ͹ҪĹ򣬶ȨΪ֯ĿĶضⲿ[30]Ү˵ģִֻλΰѧҵķеõ˼ΪȷIJͣλΰѧҾǴӣDavid HumeŦ£Immanuel Kant[31]
ȻִͼʽԴķʵⲿȴִеĸƶ԰Ŷڲ򲻶Ͻͳϻ̣ʹڲѵõӦеıϣһҮȷָģЩձΪ༴Ԥ貢ϣܲƵԣһֱΪǽΪָ֯ԴDzַڱˡڹȥ80100У˽͸ζ֯ΪʵϹݻٵĵҪʽ֮һ[32]
ȻҮ1960ʱֻǶij׷ʣ͵µζԣʵʽ޳ͨκף֮ΪɡǣЩиôʽķУֻһЩ--ͽֻͨмСһַ--ǵ˽˼ϵ˽Ҽϵġʵԡ(substantive or material laws)󲿷νġɡǹҶԱָעҪҲ쵼صķʽԼõֶΡȻڵĸң涨ֶ֮÷ʽĹƶһ㹫صĹ򣬶ͬһ˵һ־ȷĹϾһֱȻ̬ݴˣҲܲʣֹǷͲһ֮٣[33]ʵϣҮֻھ꾡оԺŶԴȷIJͣܽʾʱռ֧λơ˽͸ȡǰһɵԷһ֯ⲿ̵֮һ֡һһһֱ֧ᷢչ̵µĽһ棬ᡯ򡮷䡯ĹȡЩš塯ָΪ򣻶һ棬ܰƶڲ(Ϊ)Ȩֳеָ֮Ļȥƿءں̶ܴϽǰֱϲͬͬһȥƿص״ݻΪһձΪķΪָضµķ֮[34]
Үִָ֮ʢⲿ͸ڲƶƣԭ[35]ҪԭȴΪᡰʶ̬֮һķʵִ֤ʵִѧķչռ˾Ե֧λ[36]֮һַʵ֤۶ijϰѹҪķɲΪΩйǷڹģͬʱǻ˽ǴӹǴҪķɣ϶˽ķֻǸձ棻ڶʵ֤ߣǿɭгһԹʵϵķʽķɣƶеķ棩֮ĸ𣬶һͨЩɺȨ䲼ĸͳ֮ڡ淶֮УӶʹ಻ЩΪΣ뷨޴֣[37]ȴȫһʵάһЧԷѭڲԨԴԡܵݷ涼֧һ֯ⲿȫͬȻʵִ֤ܹ֮ռ֧λں̶ܴӦڵʱĹѧңһҮָģʵֻ֤ڱЩ˹֯ʱеģҼΪҪǣнִܳʵ֤߶ǹѧߺ--Щŷ֯༴Щֻܹ֯ˣȫ18͵˼ҾΪܹʹԷ֮͹ȫ۱硱[38]
ֵעǣʵ֤µⲿڲͳϻ̣ΣԱϸɵķεĴݻ٣Ϊͨѹ뷨ιȶ֮Ĺ۵ʹʵԷιתһʽķιҮָһֹעӦʲôԭ򣬵ǡʵ֤һʼͲͬ򷴶Щ˷ԭϵġι֮ijԭԪԭ(meta-legal principles)෴ЩȨƵԭ򡣷ʵ֤19°Ҷĵ¹Ӯõ޿ĵλκҶ޴ӱġ֮ʣεҲڵ¹ʵݣһն֮ʡʵԵķιΪһִʽĹǰҪɵĹһЩȷԣֻҪеĹжõȨɡ֮νɡֻDZһ㣬۵ȨʲôֻҪȨΪʽϾͶӦǺϷġˣͱһʽϷ(legality)⡣[39]
ʵ֤ǾʽιŶʹιйҵԣרƹҵԡڹҮ˿ֹ۵ȿɼ֮ڡⷨۡһŵţǸԷδ֧λķϵ벻ڷεķϵн֣ÿһַȨӵȫԼ֮Ȩַ򣬶Ƿεһʵ[40]ȻֻЩԷʵ֤ҵʶ⣬˹²³ּᶨŷʵ֤˵ҲֻóϣǷʵ֤ʢУʹ÷ɵʿרƾʱú޷֮ΪɵʿֻҪ˷ʵ֤йÿһֹҶһַιĶ壬ôǾͱѡֻܰտɭŵֹ۵£ɭΪӷɿѧĽǶɴͳ֮µķ(Recht)ҲǷ(Recht)˵Զһ״ʾźȴ˶Ƿɣ[41]˹ֱ׵ƣϣյ¹Ӣ򷨹һڶȨǾɷתԪϽǷι[42]
ӹҮ˶Եᾭⲿ͸ͳڲƶ԰ŶΣεƵʾ˴ʹڵΪܲڱ֧ŵķʵ֤۵㣬Ҳ˶ַʵ֤еıҪԣΪ֪ӹҮ˵֤߼ķƶҪԷʵ֤ŵּƶָڷɵȨΪԨԴôŷεݾͻⱻ׷ΣաϣҸΪҮ˷۵ʵԽԽΨΪӦִҽҪִΨѧʢ˶ķʵ֤۵ijʵֵģһҲ40ʼĶԽΨе߼չݴˣѭŹҮڱҪԣмв͹Ү˶Էʵ֤С
Ү˶Էʵ֤ʵ
һҮ˶Էʵ֤ԽΨΪģҲΧŷʵ֤ŵġһԪۡĻںˣֻȨ߻߿ƶķɲķֹ۵㣩չġҮΪܷʵ֤ߵľͬȴһָ߶ͬԵķۣ༴ǶԤһܹзЧԵȨԨԴĴԼɴһԨԴķɵΨһԡͬԵԤζţзɵЧԨԴȨߵ־κε»йؼֵ棬Ȩ߾ͿԸԼ󷢲κηɣҲԸԼ־ƶƾκݺκʽķɣͨǿʹöȷʹǷķɡѭһ߼ǿ˵Ȩڷʵ֤λڷ֮϶ܷԼ
ֵעǣҮзʵ֤Ԥʱȡһ־ɷʵ֤ĺĸȻȷĸֹ۵Ϊĺķ·ڴ˻϶ԹչʵԵСҮΪڡʵ֤塱һijֲȷԶҸڵµķѧҲָƲͬĺ壬бҪͨۡʵ֤һԭʼ̽һ۵ʵԺ⡣׾ĶԪָۡģҮΪǧʷУϣġġ롰Ȼġַδɵһֱ֧ǵ˼룬һֲʹõĸ֮УڹԪ2ͣһλ﷨Aulus Gelliuspositivuspositusһϣthesisthesei֮־֮ⴴĶ֮ԵDz˷ȻɵĶ˺󣬴ŷԶʵ֤ġ(positive)չ˷Уһ֡ġɼʵ֤positve law[43]
ڶԡʵ֤ԭʼ̽УҮ˲˷ʵ֤˼ʷԨԴɴ˽ʾ˹ᴩִʵ֤ĺ⣺ˣȨߣ־ⴴеķɣΪڷʵ֤ɣӶϽֻ˵־˼γɵɣ;[44]ζʽϷԣ༴Ȩ߻־ԹǿΪߣǷ֮ΪɵΨһijִʵ֤Դͷ༴ڻ˹ΪйطǡӵȨĶУǿطǿеķɶȨ־ⴴƵIJĹ۵㡣Ȼһ֤߼༴һ֡־߼һƶȵЧ̣ƶеķɶֻһ֣ȴһԱ֤ʵӵ߿ȨȨġȻֵ͵ʽҲԴӱߵ֤мһȷΪģɡԱΪ֣ĵһЩƶķ--ЩձΪȷȨȨĻƶķɡɲֿԡ֮ΪHTHʵġHTɣ༴ʵڵķɻƶķɣreal law,really existing law,legislator-made lawݣӢܹУȻԡHTHƶHT(statute law)֮ơһַİţԱνʵķɡڵķɡķɡƵķɡٵķɺͷķ(unreal,not really existing,imaginary,fictious,spurious,judge-made law)ӢܹУһַʵɡHTHͨHT(common law)͡HTHġHT(unwritten law)ЩʲġûɫġIJǡָƵġ[45]⣬߻һָǿԽɶΪһȨõһϵ־棬漰ij˻ijЩһ±ӵΪЩڻӦȨߵȨ[46]ˣڷ˵ΪʵĶǿ(mandate)Ǵӱߵ۵У˹͡ݳķɹۣеķɶһԵĴ(an intelligent being)ƶġҡûΪҲͲзɡ[47]ʵ֤⣬ִǷ켫ıʽɭġⷨѧĻһ翭ɭԣ涨֮ΪĹ淶ֻԴ˵־˵ԡ[48]
ֵעǣʵ֤ⲻ͹ԳйءͬԡԤ裬һʹʵ֤һţۼұһͬԭȥеķɣ֮ۼұ衰ɡһֵһͬԵĶ岢ΪɡõΣ˴һɶĶҲ뱻ΪķɡǹҮȴָѾΪֱǡ(ָIJȨǿƽκ򣬶ѭձΪγɵ)״̬ܶͣУɡﲻһֱ編ΡιȨһЩĺ壬ҲǸиΪƾʷӷΪɵķɹĺ壬ܷбпܷȨƾҷĽԺ˵DzұչеκһأôǾͲӻάķ˹ƣʹõÿһִʣȫָָĶ--ֺ![49]ΪڹҮ˿ӸΪĽǶȽijЩУɡһһdzĺ壬ʹ֮еĺ壬Ǹضϱ֮ΪɡĶпڸ涼һЩ౻֮ΪɡĶ[50]
Զ׼ǿԴӹҮʾķʵ֤жȻеݣһһֱȨ־ľ϶µǿ[51]Υ߽ܵǿԵƲãڶڷɵ֡ʵ֤Ʒʵ֤ġʵȻϸ޷ʵ֤ġӦȻ˷Ҳ;˵²Ʒ෨һ編ѧҲǺĬԣʵ֤Ϊֻʵ֤Ƿɣνʵ֤ǿǹȷķɹ淶ѧҶ˹¶(Julius Moor)Ļ˵ʵ֤Ϊᷢչʷͳƶġֹ۵ΪɽͳĶӶͳκζҲͶǷɡʵ֤߻ϸʵ֤ϵΪʽϷԣ༴ӹƶĹ[52]
1Ү˶ԡɼȨ־֮Ĺ۵
ʵ֤ڷɼȨ־֮Ĺ۵㣬ڹҮ˿һļΪģᷢչĹֻһ͵ķɣȨ߸־ƶķɡߣһʵ֤Ωи֡۱塱(methodological essentialism)[53]ڰЩڵڲиͳϽ֮еǰϷܵõҮ˼ָڷʵ֤˵ÿһɹ򶼱ԴһʶΪÿһλʷѧֹ֪۵ʵϽһ󡣵ǣʹΪִķʵ֤۵ִļҲֻͨʶΪڸЧַʽԱģȴشЩݵԴ⡣ɴ˿ɼʶʽʵǰʵ֤۱һ˼Ϊᷳ˵̣Ϊ۸ûи˾ȨõЩοֵܱġ[54]ΪҪǣҮ˻ָܹԿƶƵķʽγɷǰѴ˺ܳʱ䣻˴ӾϽʷеһɷָIJֱ֣˱˴֮Ļϵͬʱڲڷ档Ү˾ݴΪڹҵijֶڣ֮ӷɷѧϽɲκȨĴ֮Ҳ϶κȨߵĿһǶȿԼܹƶƷɵij֣ڹҮ˿ҲֻʼϣŵʱڣܿʧˣٴγֲõǸ㷺ܵʱˡͨڲڹҲԼڷķ[55]Ү˵óΪʵ֤зɶǶӦȨ߻־֮Ĺ۵㣬һʵϵ
Ҫǿָǣʵ֤ڷɼȨ߻־֮Ĺ۵㣬ǶԽΨһɱʵһҪĻڷʵ֤߾Ȼ۵۳зɹݶȨ߻߸־ȷĽ֮ۡʵ֤۵лһţȨ߻߲ԺָʾȷϷɵķʽһشƷɵݡ翭ɭָģκݶԳΪɵݣκ˵ΪҲΪһɹ淶ݡ[56]ˣɹ淶Ծκݡ[57]⣬Ү˶Էʵ֤۵ľַ꾡У[58]

ⷨۡ򡰴ⷨѧĴ■ɭһͬѰϼֲиصȴ󵼵ʹйȣͬʱҲΪҪģΪǿɡ(law)롮(rule)֮Ĺϵɭá淶(norm)һȡ򡯣۸⣬á淶һȥνġ淶(individual norms)༴ÿһÿһӦȻ(ought-statement)Σɭʹõġ(order)һָһʵ̬(a factual state of affairs)ָЩ涨һضŵġ淶ݴˣҲͷһijЩΪ򣬶ҲijЩΪ򣬻ijЩдʹһγɣdzԭ򣬲űһЩĹɭ۹淶ʱ򣬰ѡڡ(existence)һﵱЧԡ(validity)ͬʹ(˵淶Ĵڡ롮淶Чͬ)ЧԡֱΪֿ߼ķʽȨߵij־Ϊлӡ淶(basic norm)ƵĶģҲһӣɭáơ(creating)ȷ(setting)趨(positing)(༴erzeugensetzen)С֮Ϊɵġݴˣ֮ƵIJҾ﷨¹ǹԷݻɵĶҲ뱻ǡ涨Ĺ淶Ҳʵ֤Ĺ淶(positive norms)ǰǰ(༴͵)÷ôǾͿԷһ֡HTH˫ءHTĺ(a double ambiguity)йһ淶һضķʽĶԣпζŸѰij꾡涨ضʽγˣֻһеĹѰһضķʽЧԣҲпζţǾһԵĹ̶ⷢġ ڷʵ֤ŤʵзɹݶȨ߻߸־ȷĹ۵ߵУǶԷʵ֤۱֤ɶԣ߿ܾиΪҪ壬ΪҮΪеķʵ֤ԴߡӦΪԣԵȴһĺ֮֮԰ʵ֤߿عijЩҵѳΪ۵Ĺ۵㣬ЩҵѳΪ۵Ĺ۵ܹʮȷ͹Գʵ֤һΪƾļ鹹ʡҮָһʵ֤й߾ӦΪɵţܽζָʾʵʩɵĻԷֺǷɡǣʵ֤ȴţֻҪ֤ʵˡ߸߷ԺԷֺǷɡһгķƶʵģôҲ֤ߵ־˷šԴˣҮ˼ָ߸߷ԺԷֺǷɡһδؾζŷɵġHTHݡHT߾ģҲζҪ֪Ϊɵݡ߿ָʾԺͨҲָʾԺʵʩϰ߷򡢱ط(native law)ҪԺѭԭƽԭ򣬵еУҮǿ˵Ӧʵʩɻԭݣȴ϶ߴƳġֶзɱʾ־Ĺ۵㣬Ƕʵá[59]
ڶҮ˽һָɭ׷߼ֲáơ(creating)ǸΪ֪ҵõصϵͳʹDzϵһЩ۵ǰи޷óĶԡʵϣ߸ЧԵǸϵͳ֮߳ǰѾˣͲƵIJҴݵĽǶǸϵͳǶߵ־ڵģ֪ġҮΪ棬ӢͨĹϵͳһȸṩһܺõľ鷶ΪһԷҷƵĽһṩһ˴ЭĹܣΪԺԤ˴µķʽӢͨĹؼ֮ڣҮָйͨϵͳĴںͳߵ־ΪƾĻֻǸȨߵĬ϶Դڵ˵еģǷʵ֤ȴ˶۳߻Ȩ߸־Ǹɵ[60]ΪͨϵͳݸͲκض־IJǸָķˣǷ٣֡ͻĽЩݻҪ꣬༴һͨЩضĹйķĽͻγɵĽ
ҪǿָǣҮ˶Էʵ֤ڷȨ߸־϶·ǿĹ۵УûΪָ۵ʵͽʾ۵֮ей߻Ȩ߿ƷΪֹ෴Үڴ˻϶ֹ۵ΪƾĵȴΪԵһ۵㻹˸Ϊ׵У۵ǹҮɹ֮ʱȷָģַʵ֤ѧͼеķɶһʾ־ӸϽַչƾһִĹռԵġߡȨȨԡȨضDzƵġ[61]ʵϣȨ߲ȨԼĹЩʽ巨ʹʵȡ־ķʵ֤˵һ߼ıȻΪֻҪַʽ巨ɣôߵȨʩԵĸַԼڶϾѾȫųˡ[62]
ҮΪȨ߻ŬάһչԷĹУֻҪʵĿģôͲѡ򲢸ЧԡȨ߻ߵȨ֮Բ޵ģΪȨʵһʵΪģʹ֮ЧijЩ򲻽Ĺ򣬶ЩҲضЧԵȨơȷҮͨȨԨԴκ֯ġ־һкϷȨ߼ȨȨĹ۵㣬ҪǿָǣҮ˵۱ԷѧеһԺĸ־롰ľϸĽΪݵġչҮ˵Ĺ۵㣬κβϽͷչķϵͳУֱʵ֤֮߳ΪȨ־ЧԻ˵ֱȨ־ķɵȷԣȨ־ΪģڸȨߵ־ЩǷָڵĹͬԱΪƾ[63]Ү˾ݴΪձеԶ֯ȨƣΪֻҪߵȨij֯־ʵʩδȨijжôֹͿʹǾܾȨ֯־ߣֻҪߵȨԴij鹹Ļ淶ǴǶȨƶĹֵձģôʹڲһߵܹȷʾ־ΪȨ£еȨҲȫܹܵƻԼ
2Ү˶ԡ²桱۵
һǰʵ֤ѷɶΪ־֮Ĺ۵㣬ڰ־бʾΪΣˡɡ֮УΪ߿ԾɵκݡȻ۵ȴֻǷʵ֤йˣȨߣ֮־ⴴеķеһ棬Ϊ⻹һҪķ档ǿ԰£һڱ֮ΪɵIJͬij֮䣬ݵȷԲɽǵҪ߶ȣڶΪҪǣκ϶ܳΪʵǷɵһأǷʵ֤νġʵȻķɱ롰ӦȻֵĹ۵㣬һ翭ɭȷָģһַԵĹ۵㡱[64]ҲΪģʵ֤νߣƶʵ֤ҲͳĴߡҮָǸڷɲΪַ֮ƵĹϴͳ෴ԣй崴ߵĹ۵ȷʵ˷ʵ֤ΪĵĽӻ˹ġκηɶDzġ۵[65]ɭġֻǺϷ߻ʽϷߵһ˵[66]ʵ֤ߵŬȻּڷһֹ۵㣬ǾΪɵһָ[67]Էʵ֤棬༴ŵġ²桱ķ棬Ү˶伸ΪҪҽܹ۵˳׵С
Үָʵ֤ʵ֤׼DzڵģΪֻһԸֻǵΪ־֮ضʵ֤ϵͳһʱġ˹ȷֹ۵㣬༴ΪȨķ⣬ġ͡ġǺģȻƵĹ۵Ҳܹ֮ڵʵ֤ߵɭΪ壿(What is Justice?)ŵĹ۵ԱһһУɭȡһֱ߼ʵ֤ߵƣijҪôڷΪģҪôܹɾõ֤ľ⣬ijԼжܸһⲿ׼±׼ʵ֤ijڱ۵ĺζϵġ۱˵ǹڼֵ֮ͻģڼֵ۵ģκԵ֤ܽͻһֻ룬ҡ֪ĽǶڵֻ˵棬Լɴ˶֮ijͻЩͻԽķʽһһ棬ڱ˴˳ͻ֮һЭˣ˸Ͳ֤κһֽġ[68]ֵעǣʵ֤䷨۵һҪĿ꼴ʵַеȷԽܹһģΪʵ֤ΪӦеȷԶܴЩϱ仯ұضۺζϵĵ±׼лµģֻŵĸʵʵ֤ѧ̽д¡Ȼʵ֤µȷĿһֹ۵Ϊģ˻򷨹Ȩij۵ĵ±׼ijɹΪķɹеظɹôƶȾͻɥʧӦеĿԤԺЩΪƶȲɻȱĻҪء
⣬Ү˼سϣʵ֤ȷʵɹ֤һ⣬ʵ֤Ե׼Dzڵġ[69]Ү˻ָǰ£Խܷʵ֤֤DzҪı׼ܹʹǽȫµΪϵͳֻҪϵذּⲻߵķԱ׼һĹϵͳ(ϵͳеĴ󲿷ֹձܵĹ)еIJֹ򲢶ǽм⣬ôDZԽܷʵ֤йظʵ֤׼Ĺ۵㣻֮˵DZʼմһȫµΪϵͳôɭڷֻһΪ֪ضĿ⽨֮˵ȫпʵġʹ˶ԣҮͬɭһ۵㣬ǾԿ϶ķʽ֤ġ[70]
Ȼʵ֤߳ɹ֤˲ʵ֤׼⣬ǹҮȴ̵ָʵ֤ɴ˵óһĽۣκο͹۵׼ҲDzܴڵġҮΪһ棬ʵ֤߸һĽ۶ƣҪעDzַ(ⲿ)޹أͬʱǻһ˵֮ͨΪɵĶЩάԷڲҲ޹ءùҮ˱˵Ļ˵ʵ֤ߵĿľҪ뷽跨Ϊ֮֯IJиڵ±֮ΪɵĶͬʣҸΪΪɵ֮䲻κιϵ[71]Զ׼ʵ֤Ǿһ֤߼ʵŵıеġӦȻضӡʵȻġзĹ۵㣬϶ԣйⶼֻһ־⡢һһ⡣Ү˼ָģôŵҲ߽ˣΪŵȷĻ֮һǶԿ͹ŷ[72]һ棬ҮΪʵ֤ߵһΪڽΨ֧֮ΪȻ۵ΪƾģֻЩܹʵ֤Ķܱǿ͹۵ʵΪһضӵвΪձŷȴδʵ֤ĶܱΪǿ͹۵ʵҲԳ[73]ǹҮָϵġ͹ۡȴ϶롰͹ۡһеͨ岻ϡЩ͹һ֮Ĺ۵Լɴ˶γɵȡκθ˵ľҲκξ־Ϊܸĵģ˹ҮΪDZһֿ͹۴ڵʵ֮巨ŵЩ¹淶򲢲Ƿۼ۱׼Dzʱն˶ձõĿ͹۱׼ֿ͹۵ı׼Բöijɵƶ񣬶һԾijɵʸԡ[74]Ү˵۵ʵϾҳ֮Ϊ漰Үѧ汾ת۱硱ʵ֤Ķڷʵ֤·ǿ͹۵ģȻδʵ֤Ķδزǿ͹۵Ļʵġ[75]
ǺӵǣҮΪʵ֤йزκο͹׼ĽΪ˴ﵽһҪĿģáʵȻġӦȻġɣʹʵ֤ķת屾һ翭ɭ˵ģ˭ҪǷ֣κʵ֤ģɡԣ˭ҪǶķɲǡġɣ˭ͱó֤֤ʵDzóģΪ͹۵׼ԭDzڵġ[76]һǰʵ֤Ϊڷȫ߿ƵһֲΪߵһзɴӶϽҲġǷʵ֤߲ûоʹֹǾ۱óһΪĹ۵㣬ҲĴߡԴˣҮ֤˵ʵ֤۵ռ֧λôµһΪصĺضݻŷһֶ߲ܹͨν綨壬ֻܷ岢ΪԼߣвķҪµҲֻʵǴ壬Ϊκβķɶ޷ɹȡκΪձܻϵ򣺡ֱ죬ȻͬһlawɻɣͬʱָֹһЩ֧Ȼĺ㶨Ĺ򣬶Щ֧֮ΪĹ򣻵ȻԲżȻġȻĹɻķɣΪijֶ֮־ڵĶȻԭʼ˼ά˻ȡʹʱǰlaw֮ijֳȻȴȻΪֻŬǣܸıǡ[77]ĵķҮ˵óΪʵ֤׼ʵʹʵ֤߰ߺԼ־ΩһΪΪһչⲢһר־⣬һڱҪԵ⣻ߣδķҲ𽥷ֵģרϵķʽԹ涨ġ
⣬Ү˻ָʵ֤߾ɲʵ֤׼۱֤͹׼ҲܴڵȻȫûпǵһֿԣпܴһܹʹǷijЩ淶ķ׼ʷϿǶ׷󣬲ʹһԹϵͳɺݻϵͳֳ淢չԷĻάߡʵϣΪʵһ֮벢ҪЩܹΪ(ٲDz)ľݣҪֻΪṩһܹʹԽķʽһһطȡЩ֤ΪĹķԱ׼ʵϣںΪ⣬ȷʵŲͬĹʵܹųһֿԣԲмķԱ׼п಻ͬģܲȫģΪϵͳܹ֮ϵһֿ͹۵ı׼׷(׷һ)ԤΪ(Ϊ)֪ģֻԤ֪߱Dz()[78]Ү˵۵ζţDzӵĿ϶Ա׼ȴȷʵӵһЩܹ֪ǺDzķԱ׼ʵΪҪΪ֪Ŭ߲ܹǽһȫµķϵͳijֻŬȴܹһΪṩһʵָ༴ΪʹеķϵͳϵطչϵͳĹָǡ
ӹɣҮ˶Էʵ֤У弫ΪشΪвΪṩij·޶Ⱥ֪ʶ׼ҲΪʶķۼ佨ṩijַԵӽǡȻҮ˵лһΪҪ壬Ϊ͹ԳɡԲ֪ۡġδλڡĹ򡱵Ҫ۵㡣ҮҪ۵Ļ֮ϣʾΪġҲΪȫͼġδ֮Ĺϵ[79]Ү˵ζŷʵ֤ڷֻ־ߵĹ۵ʵٵģҸζߺ͹ҵȫȨʵ϶ԴڴǰȻڵıʾĹܣΪһǵõΪձܻѭȴδ֧ܵԮʹDzķϵͳҲܵõȫЧãڶӲķɵԻȡΪδܣϵͳԷչ仯ͲҲ޴ΪʶϣҸΪΩҮһҪĻϣDzпչҮ˵δʵ֤ĵȴǿ͹۵ĺͷԵ׼ Ү˷ιĽ·

һռܹȷ
һڱĿƪH.L.A.Ƕģѧ֪ʶʽȻһӹε¹Ȩԭת̡Уһ㶼ΪԼ޶˹ǿ´ͳеһۼңйģʽ˵޲ءŵʸȨΪۣȨڸбΪļֵ˻Լ֮ĶţһƺܵIJ˵Ķš[80]һΣҪ̽Ү˷۵Ĺж䷨۵Ľ·ۣζDZȶԹҮΪʲôѭձʢеĵ۵Ľ·ֱӲɷεĽ·׷ʡԶ׼׷ʲǶҮ˵Ľ·һĵ۽·֮𣬶Ҳ۹Ү˷֮ǰܹȽ̵Ͱ䷨۵Խݡ
۴ĸǶǣŵ˸Ȩ۵Ľ·żΪҪ[81]Ȼƪ޶˹۵Ľ·ΪķIJռܹ֮ѡһ֤ţҪǿǵԭ򣺵һڵУ޶˹ۿԱ֮ΪҪߴԵۣΪ֪޶˹1971桶ۡʼӢִ۱Ϊоʽ֧䣬BarryָģһֱԼ޶˹ۡⲿϣκιIJҲ޷ȫ浽ⲿ[82]оĽǶŵ˵ҪаҲδ޶˹ⷶΧһڸ̹ʳϵģۡԼյһġ̵ġɵġ㷺ϵͳκ͵ѧѧڱҪô޶˹ۿڹҪôͲɡ[83]оʽĽǶ˵Ӣѧķչ޶˹ۡȷѧһ޶˹ʱ޶˹ΪĵʱһKellyָģԼ޶˹ۡһ1971귢Ժĵ֤Ѹٳѧ֧Էʽ[84]ʽҪǰӢӹ߳ˡԸȨΪ֧Ի֮С
ڶҲǸΪҪģ޶˹Ȼſѧ˼·ع۵ġ֪ڽºѧܾصĸǿ£ΪڿΪܵǿ˶˵Щʶⲻ档޶˹ĸѭµ·ͼһֿеĿʽۡķǰѿµ۴ζϵᄈгڶ֮Ƶ֮С޶˹Ҫһֺľعµֻۣʹ䡰ԭλеĵʶDzܼвƫõijͻѣΪƷĹӦϡȱĶ޵ġ֮⣬޶˹ĸҲۺɣǿ˵޶˹ۣ뿵µһһԵۣһԵۡ[85]ߣ޶˹ۻһɹйѧġ
ͬʱһЩоҮ۵ҲѹҮ˽ͳһߡ˵ױоָҮ˵ȫر֪ʶۡѧѧͷ۷͸һֶصĿʽ·[86]ȷֿʽĽ·ڹҮ˵֪ʶкҪķѧѧҲͬҪĵλΪӿµķɹ۶ԹҮ۵Ӱ죬ʹһЩҮ˵Ľ߰һ˴ͳеȨۼҡʵϣҮ˵ķɹۺȫǿʽģΪͬȻȻ򹹳κιȻȨIJ˵ıҪԵػԿµġձԱ׼Ϊƾġ[87]ڹҮŵĽһԹ֮طԹ۵[88]Brian L. CrowleyѹҮ˽ͳһʽߣΪΪҮ˼ΪDzöǹںı˴˳ͻĹģЩΪЧԱȴκһֹΪǰġ[89]KellyҲָҮѧһԵĿ¹ԵĹΪܹҮ˱ĹûȷʹáԡڹҮ˲ǿʱȴɡ[90]
ȻҿҮ˵۵Ҳij̶ֳϱֳ˿µʶۣڴ״̬УһЩ˶һЩʩԵǿƣбС֮޶ȡڱУǽѴһ״̬֮Ϊɵ״̬[91]ɹľijضϰ--ʵʩǿ--IJڡ[92]µɹDZעҪ⣬۵㣬طɣ༴ָЩƶʱǶضõһҳĹʱDzڷ˵־ɵġ[93]Զ׼ҮͼʾԭʱɹԷıҪ͡ᡱҪԭIJͣһ̶ϽȷʵԿµ۵ΪǰġҮ˵ͣһɪ˹˵뿵ʶе๴ģһǸ˾ʵԵΪԲʹܹж϶һжĶǸ֮ɵģΪԽʾ˾ߣʹ˵԰ʹʶɵĵ·Լʵ[94]
ΪҪǣҮ˵ûֱоµķѧָĹ۵뿵·ѧ֮Ժ̹ʳһ㣺M. J. Gregor׫дġⱾɫ(ףԣ£ءLaws of Freedomףԣ£ڡ)ʹʶҵĽ뿵µķѧǡHTHôHTSSӽdzż⣬ѧʱȴδоµķѧĶGregorС׫дⲿ֮ǰδʶ⣺һڿµķѧУʼǰѾԱ׼ʹõģǿ²ûڵѧͼѾ̣̣ܳ¹ʵݣһǰᡣʹҷdzǿҵ뵽Ҹ֤ⷽݣºܿܲձΪڵ¹淶з˾ԭ򣬶ٰڷɹģ෴ǴӶԷεзĹٽڵ¹淶ġ[95]
ڶԭ༴޶˹Ү˶ij̶ֳϱΪǻΪǿʽߣʹһЩоҮ۵ߴæصóһЩϿƺʵȴʵĽۣܹҮ޶˹ڽ·֮ijЩҪ𣬵ھɵѧĽȥ֤ƶȰŵһϣǶ˼Ĺ۵ȴijֹ֮ͬһBarry˵޶˹ҮƶȵԼԱ׼һʶ·֮ԡ[96]ȴΪֽٺ˹Ү1960꡶ԭһԺԿ·ѧ뿵µѧʶ֮ڵ[97]ΪΪҮͼݵѧ۱ȥԭĹ۵ǺѳġȻKleyΪǴӵ½ĽǶȥʶҮ˵ǺȻĩ༴ѹҮ˵ŬЩݵ֤һӦɵָԭƶΪŬеһֳԶѣ[98]ȷָܹҮѧȷʵ˸ɿĵ¹͵۱磬DZҲܺһʵҮһָ߶ȷǿʽᄈʹЩ۱ġ[99]ʵϣҮ˱ڡɡɡҲرǿָҪָǣȻ¶ԷķչľԼжԷɹ֮ʺͶĿĵǿҿɾ֮һͼѷǸӦйϵͳ׼תһǰᲢֶͨζǰܳ¹ϵͳŬעҪʧܵġ[100]
ȷҮ޶˹һЩ۵ijԣDzǺӵǣ֤ķȴŸIJ졣޶˹˵ԭ˵ͨȨΪṩһƫĻЩȨȴǾԭ綨ģΪֻǡṹʩ൱΢Լ[101]ζŷԭԱṹԡ۵㣬޶˹ָDZȷԭȻٸЩԭȥȷԭӦԱЩȨ[102]Զ׼޶˹ѧĽ·һ·ڱһƶṫ¹淶ΪּġԼʽѧ·Ϊͼֲڷɺԭλġ֪֮Ļ޽ļԼݳһԭ򣬷·һĸȫռѧķʽȷƵģ[103]·һ̽ѰȨΪѧʽΪһ·УΪһȫԵĵ¸ġλģǾԵĹһֱ֡ƽġлͬЩԭ
ȻҪָǣ޶˹ŵĵ·ǹҮԵġ޶˹۽еӦҮ˼ָһΪµɵֱӾɷεȷõϵģ༴ϷεķɱķɡҪָǣҮ˵ķԭֻıҪΪѷԭڷֻһƽȵɸе˵׼ܡζɱǹҮ˷ζеĵȻ֮⣬ΪҮ˵ķֻܹʹɣ༴ĸ֪ʶܹõܳʹõĸɣ󻯵ķɹ򣬽ܹʹõȷܱϵȨ[104]ĹؼڣҮȷܹʹͷչķɹķԭͨ鷢ֲԲɵģǸȷġˣڵ½ۣҮڸϷ־ԤΪһȫԴڶһͼ綨Ȩйԭĵۡ
ڶҮ˻ŵν۶޶˹½·ΪƾļСҮȷָκΰѸ㲢ҼٶǾһʽԼķʽԼض־˵־ͳһγѧ˵ŷԷ߼ϽDzܵġ[105]ˣݹҮ۵·ǿ˵޶˹ּĵ۸޷ṩһ۵ķѧѧΪԺ۱粻档ҮΪҪĶڣṩһۣһйظȨŻκһйظΪһļ[106]֮Ү˵ĸݵIJǸԼȷĸȨ֮ţҲκỷĸ˹һּڱΪʲôάҪһܹͻķۺΪķۡˣĽжԹҮ˵۵Ϊ꾡ۡ
Ү˽۵ݣĻ
Ү˵ġĻָۣΪĻʽʹר׫ָжṹݵЩϵͳڹҮ˿ǡ֮ж֮ƵĽȻͬʱǿָЩԲ޵Ϊжṹݹ򣬶Ļ񡣹Ү˵һʽǽʾֲͬġ֡Ḷ̌һֽʽһ涨Ļչģ˵̵ֽĽܵԼϱġΪԷжṹĽʽһʽһȷɱĹ·ģһѭḶ́һǷԵģ涨˺߲ܴڣǺܴڡһֽʽǰһֹ涨ƵĹ涨зģ˵̵ֽĽڲѹ涨ֻǸڸ˻Ⱥġԡԡں̶ܴDzȷġΪԷĵ¡ԼϵͳĽչʽһʽѭκΡ֮򡱡[107]
ǶԷƾ̵ֲͬĽʾʹҮƣжṹϵͳ֮͹Ľ߼ҲһDzͬġΪжṹɸͨѭһĹǾʵĹģ˶Ľݵıǰ˵ĸġԷʽȻڷɡºϵͳĽĽͣҮָ䱾ܸݡѭ򡱵·Խͣͻѭ֤ͨŹϵͳһָԲǻۣҮΪԷʽԽЩϵͳ֮ԷṩĽͲȫģֻеһֽʽ̺ڹϵͳ֮еġۻԵ֪ʶ桱[108]ԷĽͣʱ򣬹Ү˲ܶԴֵĽ͡ڹҮˣܹ͹ϵͳıȷĻۣ༴ҮǿġԷ͹һ[109]еһҪ۵㡣֮Ү˵Ļĺ壺һйصµĽۣйεĽۣҮ˱Ƶģҵҵʼָҵ[]½ۺνۡ[110]
ֵעǣҮȷĵ½ۺνڸŵĽΪ֪ʶۻģҮ˵ĽǽһԤ֮ϵģʵϸ֧ǹжĹͬʱ˲ԼΪʲôҪʹijʽ֮߶ʹʽ֪֮ģҶԼڶ̶ڴһжʽжʽ֪ġ˶Ŭijɹڶ̶ϾѭԼûʶϰߣͨҲ֪ġ[111]ֽγɼ䷢չ̣DzֱҮڡ˼еԻһĺ͡ɡɡһеξ˵⣺ 18ѧȡõһΰɣһеĺͽ۵(a critical and evolutionary rationalism)ȡǰѴڵɵĽΨ(the naive constructivistic rationalism)ǰ̽ЧʶԵ޶ȣеƶȶͳΪʵһԤĿĶƳIJ[112]
ԵѿѧЩ˻˼ά԰Ժ󣬲ɵ¡ϵάʹһµʶӽǡܵӰʾܿӢͨͳݡڶ(Matthew Hale)꾡͵ͨͳȻͳʱʶ˼ʹϵγɵijģʽ֮жʶĿ£͸ʱһ⣻Ľһϵͳ۵IJһ18°Ҷǵ˹ܺǵɭ쵼ոѧھѧŬõ㡣ȻŬӰ죬Ҳΰ֪ɡ˼ΪʵIJͣȻΪźǣȴδܴзһϵͳۡǣһ۵ʶ·ӢԱߵĹʽֵĽŶһܴ۵ʱȴŷ޴½ѧͷѧġʷѧɡ(historical schools)µĻոѧĿԵŬֶ֮ȡ۵ʶ·Ҫͨ롤鱤F. C. 롤άŬڵ¹õϵͳķչԭDzԴһչѧȡõijɾۣһ൱ʱѧ˵dzѧΨһչһϵͳ۵򣻴ҪǿǣʱԽһֱ﷨ѧĹشӰ죬Ӱij̶ȴδܵõӦеĹע⡣ѧѧУǾά׷÷ʿŬֽ۵ʶ·ŵֲӢ˼봫ͳ֮Сߣɰµѧɴʼ˿Ÿ1883ѧĸоΰойƶȵԷ͹Լ͹Ŵѧѧеĺĵλŷ޴½õΪֵꡣƽһ˼봫ͳԣɾΪḻĵĻѧѧеһЩʶ˽۴ͳҪ塣[113]

Զ׼ҮŵĽ뽨ΨȫͬģֲͬΪڻⷽijͻڡҮ۵оһָȣΨ崫ͳ֮һʶĺ͵µıֱܹʹ˸˼͹ơеƶȶǣӦǣ˼֮ƵIJ[114]ȻȷָǾɲԴ۶ѻµĽ˵Ǿܺ͡ˣǵԱΪżȻ֮лµֳɾͣʵ˵жķͼĽһȻʶƵIJ[115]ΣҮΪִͳ֮죬ǶԸִͳõIJͬʶԼǶвʶչijɹļֵIJͬжԶ׼Ψ֤ƶȰŵЧȷһСԷڹͬͬĿĵƶȡӦ[116]ȻָʹǵӦĹϵͳһֽijɾͣ޵Щϵͳij̶ֳϾһԲʡʹ˶ۣеһΪҪһڣ˵ʵͳԶµĴͳɾͣųκθӵеķḻ飬˹ЩϵͳҪ壬ǻ֣ͨǼʹû͸ʶͰЩϵͳ಻ǵĿĵʵ֡[117]
Ҫǿָǣ뽨ΨijͻʵԴǶԡԡĹֵȫͬΪǸ֪ʶԤ裬ҮָģһǰѿʽΨ弰е˼Ϊ֮ԵIJˣҲͨ׷һȷָעĺ⣬ǷΨΪ֮ԵIJߣʵǷ෴Ҳ˵ǷӦ֮һIJ賓ɾ͵Ķɽ𽥷չģȻij̶ֳϽһме⩤˭Ҳһʵ֮ԺϵطŻӰ졣ȻѿʽΨĵ͹۵ȴʼռһֽͣ༴Ϊһдڵ֮Ƴ˸ƶȡ[118]Ψÿ˶ж͸ʶƵļ裬ΪԾϵĵλƾԣ֪ܸԱƫöǵ͹ƶľϸڣ[119]ڹҮ˿ȴһ֡ԸϸԵ޶ȣҷκʽĶԵ[120]ΪֻۻԽĿڣ˵Բܵõչɹطáǿ԰ѹҮ˵ֽΪһţض̡һֲԵٴʾ˽ںˣһ棬һ߼ϵľޣΪԶ޷뿪һ棬ʶ÷Ҳż޶ȣΪһֲΪ򹹳ɵṹ֮еϵͳ޷ɺͷչĴͳһֵλ༴ܹ϶µDz۵ĵλȻDzɴ˵óΪҮŵĽΪԺ[121]
1Ү˵ĵ½
۵壬Үһĵ½ֵۣ½µҪijɾͱйƶȣ¹ϵͳɷչ۩۲ͬɵݣһǵɭǵ˹ܺ˹ͼЩΰոѧҽоĻ[122]ҪָǣҮŵֵ½صȣڸ̲ж÷ʽһ۵㣬ҮΪҲͬΪԼṩκ֤˵ѭijЩ¹ɣˣ¹ǽĶǷֵġζţ¹ǿƵIJǴͳ֮ȻѡIJȻѡҲһԵĹ̡һԵĹ̡[123]⣬ҮָDzΪǡѡǣ˵ЩԼѡǡʹܹ桱[124]ˣǾܼһµĵ¹ϵҲܼʶѭ֪ĵ¹ijһضеĸֺ壬ͼֳʶĻȥѭЩ򡱡[125]
ڵ½۵ص㣬Ϊȷؼ֮ڹҮ˶ԡӵķѧѧۡҮָѧijķΨĵۣanti-rational theory of moralsΪ͵¹IJԣԱǺõġˣµĹ򲢲ǵܵóĽۡӶԴ֤˵ǵĵȲϵȻ֮Ҳ֮ԵһֿⷢһϵġΪƷartifact˵ġΪƷҲ֮ΪġĻһֲ(a product of cultural evolution)ĻĹУЩ֤ЧŬĹЩֻ֤ΪЧŬĹĹȡ˻̭ˡ[126]⣬ҮһλߵĹ۵㣺׼׼򣬱νġΪƷǼȲڵģҲ֮ɷָһ֣ǴܽʾġʵĽʱУΨһĿÿһ¹ǷܹΪรĹáѧУӿԱΪǴĵʵϣһйϰߵ(a doctrine of the survival of the fittest among human conventions)ȻߡﲢָҰǿʳߣָЧߡ[127]
⣬Ү˻һָ˵½֮ΪֵܹרϷʽΪʵݣһǾΪʲôʱ򶼻һֲɵķʽΪܣǶijضǷɣΪձܵĹϵͳмԽģķʽǿΪӦܵĹǷĹݺϣ˵ͬΪֳж򣬶һκһҪͻ[128]
Σ½۵ĵڶصɴ˶µŷĿ͹۵ġ塱ۡҮָĵ۱磬ǿ֤Ψʶ·Ͳܴκ׼£ܹʶɴͲȫ֮ƵIJֻһκ˷ĵȴʼָǵ˼жЩ֮ǰิˣнϺ;ܼģôǾͻһַԵ׼(a negative criterion of justice)ⲻһֿ϶Ե׼(a positive criterion of justice)ַԵ׼ܹʹͨ𽥷ЩϵͳеݺϵĹ򣬶(ȻԶҲȫﵽ)һ־״̬[129]һ۵㣬Ү˽һֿ͹۵ķ۵ĸؼҪ㣺[130]
һҪ壬ôͲָܱƲǿɵĻɵָֻ̬ܱ˵жΪҪڽоߵʱֻҪЩܹԤжĺԷľκƻͼĽ԰гԷض˵нзķʽ֮ΪĻķʽǺġڶΪӱϽнʣ֮(injustice)ҪΪĿҲڷ費ж֮ضжûһּڴﵽľĿģôκضж޷ȫġˣЩԼֶκԼ֪ʶȥʵǸĿĵˣ;Щ֪DZʲôĹԼֻЩ֪DzʲôĹԼ˸Ըе⣬ΪֻֻܹȷжķΧþһijضʱȡضжΪӦֹIJжָκȷܱ༴ӦͨΪȷĸ򣩵κַˣҪЩΪܹȷȷܱ򡣵ģҲҪģЩΪǷԵ(negative)ֻܹ֮ͨһذijͬԵձ֮׼(negative test of universal applicability)һκõչҪָǣּ׼ףЩΪڱʵеĸƵʱĸж֮һ(self-consistency)ı׼˽ijضΪΪϵͳĿм⣬DzܶԸضΪǷжζţùϵͳеĴͱΪĿıDzɵĻ͹۸ģΪֵʼֻܹļֵԼ⡣ؼ⣬Ү˽һ͵һǷı׼ԿһֱΪǷСձԡ(universalizability)ı׼༴һĿԣйعӦͬϵơζţڰijΪκξƵʱ򣬸򲻵κܵĹͻˣֱ׼һijǷϵͳݺϻһµı׼Ȼ׼ָij֮䲻ᷢ߼ϵijͻһζЩж֮䲻ᷢͻ
2Ү˵ν
ݽ壬Ү˲һֵ½ۣһŷһνۡһĽǶȽҮ˵νҪԵйʷ۽ͣʷ۵ķʷĽͣǸԼ͹ĹеõΪֵı[131]ݴǿ˵ҮνԵҲ޶˹ΪƾԼۡ޶˹ѭԼ۴ͳչҮ˵ķ·̵IJʼڵһۼΪģһֹԴڣνĸͨνԼ͹ɵģˣԼΪǵԴǴһ鹹ġԡͼĽͣ˼ϵĸֹΩЩɡԼġˡԸܵԭһµʱܱġDzݺӵǣԼΪƾۼȻΪڵʣˣԼ۲δܶҲ֧ܶụľüεʷ̸ҳֵĽ֮͡⣬չҮ˵Ĺ۵ֹ۵㻹һûΪ۱κοռ䣬Ϊ۵ⶼǴһʵвģǸԲȡжһ򩤩δͼĺδԤģȴ֤ʵΪ֮ŬĸĿɻȱġ[132]
ӹɣ޶˹ΪָȻһֿԱҮˡα塱֮еĹ۵㡣[133]α෴ԣҮ˵νۻɽȴֲŵĸ۩༴Ү˵ġ塱֮еġӹҮ˵پһҪһּЩ[134]֮Ү˵ĸһͼѸΪһڵۣҲϣҮһԹ֮ǿΪڵʽв͵ıҪԡһǶҮΪֻܹЩֻ˽Ĺĸ֮УˡԼۡΪƾɹĸۼҲDzܳģһҮԣߵ۱ΪƾĻǣһκ˶֪˭֪ڶܹԷһΨһ;һ̣Уÿ˶ɵȥԺͷԼܹ顱[135]
ڶҮ˵ţ˲ܶڣҵ¹淶ϵͳҲܶڣһָģݴǿ˵һֱ۵Ǹԡ(moral relativity)⣬Ȼһʵйأеĵ¹(Լɹ)һκθ˶ӸϼԸıִʵ(factual order)ΪһijҪıôͱıԱѭЩ򣨵Ȼij̶ֳһʶ»Ǵϰ߶ѭЩģ봴һͬ͵Ľᣬôκ˶ƵԭеĹˣκһֵ¹淶ϵͳܶһشڡ[136]ˣҮȷָ塰һ״׼ֻһʵӦԲһΪ޴ˣ༴ΪһԹĻĸ˵ĴΪԤģһΪģ۵㡱[137]ĹؼڣҪעIJǸߵһ𹹳Ტ񣬶һ⣬Ҫõά͸˵İȫҪõϣôDZȷʲôԭ򣬽׷ʻϷֲγɱϸɵΪˣһǰҮΪҪĶڣȷIJȶĸȨ֮ţҲκ֮һּڱΪʲôάҪһͻķķۡ
йʶҮγ˶ȨĿȣڹҮɲһԵĻȻȨӳΪȨչභʷΪȨ༴ȨֻеõչõġȷڹҮ˿ЩȨijҪǰǵԭԳǹҮȴɶԼĻ·ǿԾȨȻȨΪ۱Ľ·Үȷָģɵ÷ҲͬȻֻһֻ֡еȱʧʱȨ(liberties)Ż͹ԣΪȨָijЩȺ弰˻ȺٲɵʱԿɻµľȨ⡣ʷϿͨضȨʵֶ֮·ġǣһӦڵõԺض״̬ɣԱΪһȨa libertyнߣ˵벻ض״ݣһĴȻɣǾ;ɿԡ[138]ˣڹҮ롰ȨĹؼڣǰָһ״̬״̬УȷϵݻΧź̶ܴȵĿɱԣҳֹ֮⣬һӦΪɵĺģָһ״ɹɵ⣬һӦֹ[139]Զ׼Ү˵ĶҪЩӡȨΪȨȻȨ߸ΪǿԷչͱ仯ģΪҮΪһ֮ԵĹ޶Ȳʹ˽һȷһݵġȨӦݻĸַƣڶȻȨȨΪ۱Ľ·ڲ֪бתһֿ϶ԵɹۣΪ֪һЩΪʹǶԸɵβƶ趨һϵȨ۵ȴڣ⵽߷趨ضȨϵʱú塣[140]
ΣҮ˾оһָκɷɹ涨ȨҲǾȨΪֻǶһԵԭöѡҮָһֹ۵ţӦرijЩȨ˵ȨƲȨȫȨ͵ѹȵȨȣΪ˵˼ɡɡɺͳɵȨȻҮȴΪֹ۵ֻǰһԵԭЩڵʱΪرҪȨѣ⣬ֹ۵ЩоٵȨûгһԵԭõķΧֵעǣҮ֮ΪֻǶһԭľãʵΪʵ£һЩȨܱȻһ־ԵȨһԵķԭΪޣ[141]ڶճо⣺ЩȨӦ֮ΪȨȨ֮СЩȨӦȷϵ֮СҪָǣĽԣֻоܹΪ˵İšȨκض˵ʲôȻĻ츳ġƷ񡱣[142]ԾȨΪ۱·һʵϣܹܶеЩ֮пΪãʵΪЩ˱ܹڴЩĹԼӵеѵ֪ʶȷһЩǿʵʩȨҪõijЩ棬DzܴЩġϣÿ˶øԣôǾĿķʽͲǾɷɵĹ涨ȥӦʵĿ꣬ÿһȨȥҪΪӦеĶеṩԴʹǾܵȥ˵顣[143]ݴˣҮ˵óΪӵеһΪձԭţȡǿжֻʵʩһԹˣɱȨ׻򷨰רоٵĻȨԼûбЩ׻򷨰Ȩʵ϶ͨһΪձԭõϡ[144]
Ү˵Ļ䷨ԭĹϵ
ͨĵۣǿԷ֣Ү˾ɵ½ۺν۵IJͶȷ޶˹ŵԡα塱Ϊĵ½·ͬʱҮһڵ½۵άϲ巨ɹصۣ[145]һν۵άϲ䷨ν·Ϊĸۣ˵Ү˾һŬں̶ܴΪֲȷһЩʹݻķԭ򿪷ųijʵĿԡ
ӾĽǶǿԷ֣Ү˾Ļ۵۶ֲȷڳڵĻԷγɵڲ༴Щ涨Ŀ͹δƽе˵ձΪ򣬶۸һضѭһᵼµĺЩʹÿ˻֯Ⱥܹ֪׷ĿʱԶʲôֶνֹܹͬ˵жͻֳ˸ȷϵĸЩһ㱻ΪǡġͶڸĿĵĹǵһͬĺĿĶԷڲ򡱡[146]ڲĻIJDZضһЩʹⲿĶصڵ֮ԻĹγɵķԡĿĶԺͳ[147]
һҮΪԷѭڲԱΪһָȷκ˵ġһݡǶʱµضij󣬲ҽָЩܷκεطκʱ[148]ڲеһҳԵľںҪ漰棺ڱϣdzԵĴʩָָδ֪ζκضˡصپǵЧԣDZǰԵģݼġҸ˵⣬ڲеһҳΪҪҽص壺һʾڲ򲢲ԤһԷߵĴڣҲָһضĻжùҮ˱˵Ļ˵һԷҪڣָһضжĿ֪ʶȨգɸжʵʩߺȨ߹ͬա[149]ڲ򲢲ԤһߵĴڶҲָһضĻжԱԷϵڲָıضһֳ򣬶ֳеضĻҲDzΪκ֪Ԥ֪ġߣڲָԽӣ˷жķΧ󣬽ӦЭ͵һҳĹǾ[150]ˣϽһҳڲ򲻽ܹʹЩΪʹõ֪ʶϵ󻯣Ҳʹ׷Ŀϵ󻯡[151]
ڶҮ˾ɶڲеһҳʵIJΪһԵʹԷѭڲĵڶԣĿĶ(end-independent)Ŀ(end-dependent)֡ĿĶڲҲԱΪʵ֡һĿĵĹߡġΪ򡱣[152]ҮָģѡˡΪһָЩԷ֮͹ġĿĶġ򣬲ԴЩĿġ֯աǰڲ򣬶ڲ򲻽ǡ˽ᡯĻҲʹγɵĻ[153]ڲ֮ԾֲضĿĵԣҪԭЩǴĿĹȺͬĿIJڵĸչʵֵģһҮȷָģֵעǣֻ֮ĿĶģʽģͨһ(ʽı׼)ʵΪһʷʵ£ЩĿصСȺ(֯)зչĹ𽥱չԽԽȺֱձһгԱ֮Ĺϵ֪ЩijԱӵйͬľĿIJֻͬij򣩣ЩΪһϵչоͲòжضĿĵָ桱[154]Զ׼Է͹֮ڲеһĿĶԣؼҪڶʵĹѭּʵijضĿģֻڻھܴķΧ׷ԲͬĿġ[155]
ҮڲڲԺָǡ֮ԱΪԵĹʵ򲻶չ÷ΧܹܹʶͬĿĵͬɵһȻһֻʹΪDzȡijЩп˵жĽҲѷ֣Ҫֹ˵жΩƾЩκ˶øĸ򣨻֯Ⱥ綨Ĺʵ֡[156]Ƿ˹Үͨ۶Ϊ䷨춨Ϊڵĸ裬һرֵע⣬ΪڹҮ˵ķУԷڲ̶ͨģ༴ڲϵؽ֮ĸַɾ׵ĹвģעľͲǸͥ˽Χʲôʲôɣһָ֡˼Ĺϵ[157]ж;[158]Ȼڲͨ֡жȷϵ[159]ķʽ±ϸĿĵġߣĻ۵ķԵۣǻԷ֣Ү˵ڲijԺĿĶԡʵЩҵͨһ㻯̵ĹеijЩصģЩһЩֹҪȡijЩضжϽǼȫǷԵĹ򣻶ЩֹҪȡijЩضжĿڶԿȷϵṩЩУÿ˶ɵذԼѡ£ijضĹǷܹһ㻯ձ黯ı׼м֪ǽŬЩԷ֮ΪеʵϣΪǷԵģȻͨκθʩӿ϶ԵԵģǸԼже񡱡[160]ڸζţڲķԾԸȷϵȷĿ϶Թ涨ֻЩ֧µĸжи˵ĻĬᡱⲿȥԼȷı߽硣
Զ׼Ү͵ڲеԣһ淴ӳĻΪķν·һҲ͹Գֲȷķλԭ򩤩༴˵ĹҮˡͨιĻԭΪҮ˵ķԭǼֵ֪⣬ǷɴͳԷĽԴˣǿĸһ棬Ϊ˷԰ѷ߻Ȩ߿ⴴ֮ķʵ֤壬ҮʼǿеĿ͹Լ׼Ŀ͹ԣΪɺܲռһǰڵĿ͹λãһȫΪ˵־Ӱ졣Ȼһ棬Ү˵ĻִʹΪں̶ܴǿԷչͱ仯ģһǰжȷܱϵҲź̶ܴȵĿɱԣΪκ˸ȷκξԵȨ϶Ӧ仯ơ˵ij¼ķ˲ƲȨ¾׵ʱ׵IJöһǶҪչ͵ķɴͳijɾͣһǶҪһԷԭΪ֧ŵֹ̡֪

ġֵע

ΪĵĽһҮ˷۽صһǿһǹҮ˵ķԭ䷨۽ṹеĵλ⣻Ǿ͹Ү˷۵ĽҿΪҪ⣬ʹ֮Ϊ˺һ˼оĻֵעǣһǰҮ䷨вһԭķʽԿϵͳԺʹõķʽ޶˹ķʽȫͬ޶˹ĵѧֻҪ˶䵱µ洦ԭλ֪֮Ļ£ôһԻձԵķͿԱ˵Եĸ˰Լʽֵܺԭ⣬ɴ˻ȷһּԵĵ¹ۡǣҮõȴһ֡ϵһԭ򣬶ζӦ䷨ŵ֡ԡС[161]ķһɹǷм⣻֮ʵһּһɹǷеɹϵͳһµı׼һǰһȻһ߼⣬ΪһζЩͬһ򲢷ֹж֮䷢ͻ[162]
ֵעǣ޶˹ȷʵȷָͬ£һַƵʵŷε׼ôͱΪ塣ΪṩһϿɿĻΪ֯ĺϵṩһЧֶΡЩ׼֤ԹĹʵʩܹݣҲ벻ݡǶṹʩ൱΢Լ[163]ݴǿ˵J. LazΪ޶˹ʹõķһ֡ϵķεĹ۵൱ȷģΪ޶˹ۼܹʵϴλЩԴڡԭλԭ򡣵ΪźǣLazȴɴ˶ΪҮҲ޶˹֡ʹ÷һģ˵ڡֻǷӦӵе(virtues)֮һǿΪֻбһʼտͻֵƽ⡱[164]
Զ׼LazûжҮ˵ķڵġԪԭ򡱵ĵλΪڹҮԶֹ޶˹֡ƫءʵʩɹ[165]ʵϣҮڡε롷һбȷָΣΪȨһƣȻҲһֹ򣬵һȴһֳɵĹ(extra-legal rule)һɹ򣬶ֻΪһ֧Թ(༴ƷӦӵЩԵĹ)ڡ[166]Ժ󣬹ҮָDZǿָǣڷνʵʩ֪ĹⲻöԸʵʩǿƣ˶һȨƣ⵱ȻҲȨơһԭעӦʲô༴ע巨Ӧӵеһԡ֮ΪһԭdzҪΪڽ죬ʱһжֻʽϷԵҪΪΡȻҲȫʽϷΪǰᣬ˲ܺεȫ壺һɸ԰־µȨôϽжʽϾͶǺϷģһǷԭµĺϷˣεĺҲֹΪҪеķɷһԭ򡣴ӷǶһʵ߼Ƿαһ־ͬƶ֮ϵķɣܷԹ涨(constitutional provisions)ʹַαøѣҲֹͨԷεķǹַǣ(the ultimate legislator)÷ԼȨΪʱԷϳԼƶķɡ˲һֹעʲôĹ(a rule of the law)һֹעӦʲôĹ༴һ֡Ԫԭ(a meta-legal doctrineתΪԭ)һ롣[167]
һʶ˹Ү˵ķռݵġԪԭ򡱵λôǾͿ˵ڹҮ˵ռݵλ롰ԭλ޶˹ռݵĵλͬģΪͬһ֤ˣ޶˹Ү˵Ľ·ȫͬ޶˹Ү˵ķȴǹڷӦʲôۣҶҲΪֻΪձܵķɲķɡ޶˹ɷϻȷĵȷԭôЩɾģڹҮɷϻȷ͵ķԭôЩɱģˣһԱ֮Ү˹ڷһ֡Ԫԭ򡱵Ĺ۵ζŷβǷƶڵһ֣༴βԼһɹ򣩣һ벢Ӧijɹ֮ƶȵ׼[168]
ˣǻбҪǿָҮѭǿ·еһԭǿµеһԭΪҮ˵ġԪԭ򡱲һֵֻһҪָģȻֻʵһҪľأһֵľأ[169]ȻҮۿ·ѧʱȷָһ㣬ӦָǣһַԱ׼ϣ༴ƽһҵȷķϵͳĹӦõ׼Ŧ²ķѧʹ˾ԭ(the principle of the categorical imperative)һ֮ԳԣΪڿµĵУƺǰԭһֵǰʹõģڴһǰ֮ϣDZ﷽Ƶ¹ϵȻͿµķѧԣ˵ȫʶľԭṩֻһҪһ˵ṩֻһνķԱ׼ַԱ׼ܹʹԽķʽһһߣˣַԱ׼ҲձԱ׼[170]
Σһ֪ģҮ˵ķۼΪ漰Ҳ൱ˣѾijŬ޷һƪжǸ꾡IJ͡ҶԹҮ˷۵оٻҪ⣺1֪Ү䷨еġһԭΪķֻҪѭεһԭܹϸɵĹ۵㣬ΪСǿ԰йҮ˷һ۵۱µĸڹҮķһԭһʽԭ޷ԻѹԵΪڹҮ˵ķڻϲжԸȨĵԹҮ˵ķֻڰתɸ߶ȵµȨʱſܱϸɡԶ׼й۵ҪڹҮһԭDzʵģΪԻѹԵͨ׼ļ⣻˵Ҫеĸ˶ijڽ̵ķ˵пܷϹҮ˷ι趨һԭ򣬵ȴпַɣһHamowy۵ģɲָκֹܷض˻Ⱥܵǵķɵַ򱻸ܾ˵ȨԷȡʽ涨ĽʵǶԷƽһֻʵıϣΪ跨һϵֻij˻ȺָضƵǿܵġ[171]ʵϣҮ˱ҲϣϣһԵġƽ˵ĹҲܻɹϿơ[172]ˣǿ׷ʣҮ˷еġһԭ򡱾ǡʽġֻǡʵʵġԭ򣿻ߣҮ˷еġһԭǷпܻȷʹɹԽʹɵõϣ[173]
2̹ʵؽۼĹҮˡͨιԭ򲢲һʼȷģ漰Ү˴ڵŷ޴½ιڵͨιת̡ұָҮ˵ķιϵһתȴΪһЩӣΪҮڵķ˼֮䲢ҪIJ죬ʹijֲ죬ҲҮ˵ķǷֽ׶ηչģ༴Үڵķι۵ֻڷ˼һ߼ֻǶڷ˼һָΪ꾡IJͶѡ˵ŴȾһּӵķʽָڹҮ˵һʱõͲں̶ܴϵõʵֵ롣ڡͨū֮·һУΪһƷѾõȷ֡1955꣬ڰгݽԡε롷ΪҮΪ˸꾡һݽеĹ۵ˡԭⲿУȷɵرѷ֮Ϊһ롣Ҳᴩڡɡɡһ֮УҲΧʵַ񶨷չġ[174]OgusȷָҮ˰ͨԷȶ֮Ĺ۵οڡͨū֮·͡ԭз֣УҮ˰ѡġ֮ΪһǴضʱյĸгġˣǷǼƻһ֡ڡɡɡеõ˸Ϊ꾡IJͣҸһĴ󲿷ֶ⡣[175]ֵעǣҮ˱ֵҲijӰ죺ӦһѶߣ[ɡɡ]ͼڶһɵ˵άΪԭȫIJͻʾǰһԺֱһֲ䣻ҵǰһǡԭⲿУͼһʺڵ˼ķʽȥΪµĶŵĴͳۡʹ˶ԣǰһȽϣΪרţҲΪѶȻҸȴϣԭԡǣȴ϶Ƕǰһֻһֲ䡣[176]ˣΪҮڷιʵתʵѧΪ͹Ե¼֮һΪ¼׷浽ʶҮ˷۵⣬һһ浽ǶԹҮתתĻݵʶǹ浽ǶԹҮΪʲôδѭ䡰Ļۡϵġͨι̽
3һǰҮѧ1973꡶ɡɡһָ¡ڽ̡ɡԡдҡгԼ򣬶Է[177]Ү˰ЩԷ򶼹ͬһԤ裬ȻݻĹ̼ƣ༴Ƕ֮ж֮ƵĽȻԷУȻ־Բܻͣһڽеʺѭ֮γɵĻ򣨻ΪжṹΪһҵȷĹ淶ϵͳΪжṹɺͽݹչģ¡ԼϵͳĻȴѭκΡ֮򡱡[178]Զ׼Ү˵Щ۵͹Գһش⣬Է֮ҪĹϵͳȻĽأһµĽأǺߣôЩγɵأһǶϽЩ⹹ǶԹҮԻ֪۵Ļ͹ɵġڲ֮ж֮ƵĽԼĻ۳ȷġ໥Ȼѡһ׷ʵһ㣻һǶϽ༴ӹҮ˷۵ĽǶҲбҪԹҮ˽䷨۵·һ̽༴ԹҮȷķԭǷڷ½·ʱŵĵ½ۺνϻһµ׷ʡԶ׼Ϊ˲⣬ǻҪԹҮЩϵľ۵㼰תΪ꾡̽֡ עͣ
[1]μ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000棻ʽڱѧⷨѧ20001ڡ
[2]μ׾ģڹҮעҮļ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬1-79ҳڸĵ4ҳָDZȡʱԵķΪ˼۵Сʱ̡£۳ʲôԭ֡ʱ̡򲻼ϸ޶ʹо޷Чضоڡʱ̡֮ת۹۵֮Ĺ̡
[3]μע[1]
[4]ҮˣࡱعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬216ҳҮֵļΪҪֵ215-217ҳһǰЭЩԤȡijж˵DzɻȱģȻҪָǣо͸DzɻȱˣЭڶ಻ͬĸЩֻDzΪÿ֪ҲֻڷʱΪ֪ľȡжⲻʹҴԼѧչн˼ij㣬ҲΪʲôҩһֻһΪ淶Χխľѧۼҩרžѧоת˶ЩΪѧ̽ԭ򡣻عЩ仯ƺʼҽ30ǰƪΪѧ֪ʶġƪУҿҿǴ⾭ѧ漰һЩ⡣ƪеóһҪĽۣѧ۵ڽһԵľûʵֵģУ˲Ǽκһ֮жֻΪͬĸ˵ķ֪ʶڵĴ֪ʶҪָǣһʶǡĶкԶ·ҪߣǸжѭijΪӦԾضƣ༴Щʩ޶ľضӦԣĽγɵֳ֮һֹϵʱͨԡµɡ(freedom under the law)ϸ༴ͳĻԼЩѧ̽ҲžԷʻһΪȽͼ֪徭ѧҳһֱ⡣
[5]μ׾ġҮ۵оԭ򡱶ۣ׾ѡʦѧ2000棬191-203ҳ
[6]ҪǿǣΪҮһԹ֮ŷΣⲢΪҮ˵ķεûб仯ʵǡǡ෴ΪҾоΪҮ˵ķξ˴ڵġŷ޴½ιͨιת̣⣬һЩҪۣ߿Բμ׾ģڹҮעҮļ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬49-55ҳҲμҽѧСѧ̸ڹҮ˼ۡءۡһ1ڣ࣬йѧ2001棬281-335ҳ
[7]Үˣͨū֮·룬йѧ1997棬82ҳ
[8]μHayek, The Political Ideal of the Rule of Law, Cairo, 1955, p.2
[9]Үˣԭ룬1997棬313ҳͬʱҲμ9-16¡
[10]μҮˣɡɡһ򡷺͵ڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000档
[11]Arthur Shenfield, ƣ ȣ룺Σ У򡱣 Fritz ͣ, ed., ţ H, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977, p. 176ֵעǣҲԲμArthur Shenfield1961귢ġLawйعҮ˷ҪأһһҳĹ֮𣬲ΪǾһԺͳԣһ֣ҲǸΪҪIJ֣ΪЧĿķڶپǿԶԣһķɱ뷨ϡһһԵĹ򣬵ȴΪɶ屾һֵһԹʵϲһɣһֹڷӦΪεĹ򣬻߸Ϊ׼ȷ˵һֹڷӦʲôԵĹ򡣵Үѭѩ˼ΪβųһֿԣƶһΪĹؼķӦһġԤĺ͹ƫĹʵʩģεʷλҪԡ壬η˸ָ֮Ϊüƻ򡰸ԤĹжLaw, in Agenda For a Free Society: Essays on Hayeks The Constitution of Liberty, Arthur Seldon, ed., Hutchinson of London, 1961, pp.52-55
[12]H. L. A. Hart, "Between Utility and Rights", in The Idea of Freedom, Alan Ryan, ed., Oxford University Press,1979, p.77.
[13]Roland Kley, Hayeks Social and Political Thought, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, p.12.
[14]μChandran Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989, p.126
[15]⣬μĵֿƪۡ
[16]йعҮ˵ķûиȨ֧ŵ޷ɵףμJ. W. N. Watkins, Philosophy, in Agenda For a Free Society: Essays on Hayeks The Constitution of Liberty, Arthur Seldon, ed., Hutchinson of London, 1961, pp.31-50; Lord Robbins, Hayek on Liberty(1961), in Peter J. Boettke, ed., The Lagacy of Friedrich von Hayek(I: Politics), Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1999, pp.290-305; Ronald Hamowy, Freedom and the Rule of Law in F. A. Hayek(1971), in The Lagacy of Friedrich von Hayek(Vol. I: Politics), Peter J. Boettke, ed., Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1999, pp.269-289; N. Barry, An Introduction to Modern Political Theory, London: MacMillan, 1981; Joseph Raz, The Rule of Law and Its Virtue, in Robert L. Cunningham, ed., Liberty and the Rule of Law, Texas A & M University Press 1979⣬߻Բμѧ룬1992棬144-146ҳ
[17]μGottfried Dietze, Hayek on the Rule of Law, Fritz ͣ, ed., ţ H, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977, pp.107-146
[18]Jeremy ShearmurHayek and AfterһжԹҮˡڹ۵㡱롰ڹ۵㡱תֻۣ浽Bruno Leoni뷨ɡFreedom and the Law, Princeton, 1961һеĹ۵ԹҮ˼ġⲿӰ죬ȴδܶԹҮϵ֮ġڡҪ꾡ۣһ㣬μJ. Shearmur, Hayek and After: Hayekian Liberalism as a research programme, London and New York: Routledge, 1996Ҹ˵оLieonԹҮ˹۵жڹҮ˹۵ת˵ȷҪһڡڹҮעҮļ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棩һϵģ53ҳһضԹҮ˸ıķι۲˼ΪҪӰ족Leoniġ뷨ɡһǼΪ54ҳԶ׼ҮмLeoniӰ£ͬʱҲ֪ʶתһΪҪĻϣ涴ͨΪɱߵҪԲ𽥽ڹͨԷеλõĽ֮ζţҮ֪ͨʶ۵תʵ۵IJսġ򡱷ʽʹֹ۵о󣬶һʹһʼŵĽ䷨оʵԹʵĿԣΪġĻ۵춨һּʵĻںߣμ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оҮ֪ʶ۵ת롮ʽȷϺ2000棬21-26ҳȻǵȽϷҴ׫дһƪרžչۡ
[19]μע[17][18]ǹ⣬һرǿָһ㣺ЩĹҲһ̶ᵽ˹Ү˵ĸۼΪƾĽ۵㣬̹ʵ˵ǶЩ۵ۼ·Ԥһ߼չǾµ֤Ҫ¡
[20]Үˣɡɡȫġ룬йٿȫ2000棬499-500ҳҪǿǣDZѹҮ˵ġĻۡʹ˶ԣμҮˣķʡ193-195ҳ͡Ϊϵͳ֮ע336-361ҳعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棻ҮɡɡȫģֵԨԴ룬йٿȫ2000棬497-531ҳ
[21]μ׾ģڹҮעҮļ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬10-11ҳҲμҮˣķʡعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬193-195ҳ⣬ҸΪҮ5060ľи֪ʶ۵תֵעľӡ򡰹һתΪ͸תʾʵ۵Ľ·ı仯ŵļΪҪġоʽ춨ҪЩԭΪж֪Ϊȴת˶Щж߶ǵıʶ֪ڵĹ򡣴һоϵĸڣԭܽоΪҲ͵ȻسоΪҪɲ֡Զ׼ҮлõΪҪijɾͣ༴ҸΪʶͽġоʽ·ΪķۿųΪҪ;֮һ
[22]John Gray, Hayek on Liberty, Basil Blackwell, 1984, p.69.ָҮ˺Ĺ۵㩤༴ڡɡɡһĹ۵㩤Ϊɹһͨιʽҵ˽⣬Ү˱˲ʹùͨι˵ȴܺõذס˹Ү˵ĵ¹۵㣩
[23]ڡ۷ɡ۵⣬μҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬91ҳҲμѧ룬1992棬118-120ҳ
[24]μҮˣԭ룬1997棬295-297ҳָԷεĸֽ۹۵õǿƵλõЩ19ͳҶȴڵʱӰ¡ĸ۹۵ļ֧֣Щ۹۵෽涼żķ磬ȴһͬķ棬Ƕ޳÷ɹȥȨ֯(organized forces)ԸȨijȥ͹ϵʹ˶ԣ ǿ˵Ĵ֪ʶ˶һֱƽᳯչҪԵ˳Ƿʵ֤(legal positivism)ʷ(historicism)ɷѧ(free law school)͡淨ѧ(the school of jurisprudence of interest)ߣҮ˻ġָڴ֮֡塯19͵ΪҪıʽǹ(utilitarianism)һϽֹǴʶ۵ʵ֤Դй淶ģϽǴӷʵ֤Դй淶ġҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬240-241ҳ
[25]ҪָǣBarryΪȷָеʵ֤۶ԨԴڻ˹ԼߺͰ˹͡ķۣ˵H.L.A.ؽھѧɵҪĴ֮һǹȻΪбҪѷϸĽ֡ʹ˶ԣBarryڵĹ۵Ȼȷģɴ˶һжȴʧʣΪָʹҮ˷۵IJͱ൱첻һΣڰеʵ֤۶۵IJͬN. Barry,Hayeks Social and Political Philosophy, London: Macmillan,1979, p.78ʵϣܹҮ˳Ϲصķ۴зʵ֤ijЩԣȴûаѹصķеķʵ֤Ϊһۣǰʵ֤ԵһҮָģһ֪ͷµĹϵչ꾡ۡDz漰ַһһۣбҪеļҪ̽һҪ뷨ʵ֤ĹϵҿH. L. A. ؽڵо෽˵ǶԷʵ֤ΪЧһУĴһŬʵ֤һνڵ³ָơһּ۵㣬κϽɶδĻijЩҪ󡯣ȻؽڱҲΪһʵ֤ߡȫܳǰһ۵ķʵ֤Щ۵㣬ҸΪϸûĹؽǾ仰еÿһִʣôʵûʲôȥ۵㡣Ȼе¹ûйϵģߣʹһЩ빫ϵĵ¹ͻӹɣȴЧķɹ򡣹صûųһֿԣijЩУҲпܲòȥ鿼еĵ¹ֺΪ--Щΰһǹϵķɹȷ确šĵ¹ΣǹϵķɹĬʾķʽԤǻijЩǿʵʩΪ--ΪҵѲĹҪΪ֮ôЩΪͱõձءȷйҵķɶ᲻ϵձʢеĵҿ˵DZȱȽǣǷȴֻиЩ֪ʶܸԾݡҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬85-86ҳҮʱ˹ؽڵĹ۵ΪݣµĹͬҪں̶ܴϽӦṩĿ϶Է񹹳ɵģͻƹɵĩЩͻַͨͨʽġҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬101ҳ
[26]޷۹ҮйĹ۵㣬һҪۼ⣺һһЩ߰ѹҮ˱ҲǼӵĹߣԣҮһǵĵ۶һָĹеǼӵĹ塱J. N. Gray, Hayek on Liberty, Oxford,1984, pp.59ȻҮ˱ҲϣΪĽڹͣǹΪ֪֡塯(utilitarianism)ȻڸΪϽ塯һﻹָκζĹƶṹеĹԼӡʹһԣһ˲еļֵDzɵĶʱ׼ΪʲôӦŷ׷ʣôͿԱһߡݴˣʿ¡˹ǺʹӣԱΪǹߣΪĹҲȫԱ֮ΪһֹĹ۵㡱ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬24ҳֵעǣ׵ȴȷָҮȷĹ׼ĿķڼӵĹʽнϺͱʣΪҮ롰ͳġ߲ͬԡijֳڵ޷桱ɵļֵĹļֵģڹҮˣκιϵͳı׼Ƿ˲ȷκθ˵֪ʶʵδ֪ĿĵĻ᣻ΪԷĹϵͳ֮ʵĹΪ˶ǵѭһձĺ͵Ͽĺ༴һжṹ򡣵ڶǿǵIJ죬׫ָҪԴصֹ壺һǡΪ塱ǡ塱ǰŵΪֻһԭ򣬼ԭΪȫǷܹŸٵķ򷴶ǰߣΪÿ˰˵Ĺȥȡжᵼ¸ķԭ򣨼ԭĵΪ֮仹ҪԼĵºĹ򣨹⣬μΰѫѧойѧؽ⡱ءѧ̡1989棬203-238ȻǸӦעҮ˱˵ĿЩע¹۵УΪ۾ǹ塣ʽΪ˵ڼֵ۹кʹԵ֮޶ȵļΪġۡΨ֮IJṩõ֤ѿͳеЩߣ˵ά(Helvetius)ͱ(Beccaria)Ӣ׷(Bentham)˹͡(Austin)Ī(G. E. Moore)ȴһ۵Ĺ(this generic utilitarianism)תһض۵Ĺ(a particularist utilitarianism)һǰһ۵Ĺ塯̽Щǰݻɵij֮еĹЧӡض۵Ĺ塯սһҪ󣬼ÿһжӦڳʶепԤĽ¼жϡɴ˿ɼŵһ۵ĹԳ֮޶ΪϸѭлԵijЧãŵض۵ĹһΪģֱܹӲٿһϸڡҮˣࡱعҮˣҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬209-211ҳ⣬Ү˻ڡɡɡڶָй˵ֿԾɶԿʹļõȷĹ۵һԤΪǰģκһжеضҾЧܹΪж֪߱ġ߼ۣߵĹ۵ͻһض۵ĹΪ壬ֹ᳹׷򣬲ÿһже֪ЧġжϸжһֹĽǡһۡĹ壬༴ڵ֮Ϊ֡򡱹壨μҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬26-33ҳ
[27]ֵעǣʵ֤ڷȻͳĹγɲչģ֮۳ͻҲִѧĻܡǻһ㣬һЩߺΪҮȷԷʵ֤óһǴ˼ˡĽۣҮ˵ķִѧӦȻһ֧ΪֽȴǴģΪûпҮ˶ȻִȻֵIJͬȷҮһ̶ͬȻĹ۵㣬֮ȴܾʹáȻָ֮Լķۣһȷ˵ģǧʷУȻͳΪ۱漰ЩṩһҪĿܣȻȴδȻͳۡȻܽڵԵΪҪ⡣Ȼǰ˸½۱ʱȴûʹ⵱ȻǵĽԭȻΪŶչѧɣŵʵڲ̫󡭡Үˣԭ룬1997棬298ҳҽзԷʵ֤۶ͬس֮ΪΪһ̸ΪȻһ󵼵֮£ʵʹѧػԨԴ֮һΪһЩȻۺ֮ԣֻڷԷʵ֤巽йͬ㡣1960Ժ󣬹Ү˾ɶоһȷϣȼ̳ͨҲڵģǰΨģȻۡҮˣԭ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬130ҳһ棬Ү17Ժռ֧λġΨȻ۴ͳСһҮָȻһһ硰ʵڷһҲԨԴΪǧУϣġȻġ롰ġֹۼδɵһֱ֧ǵ˼άʽһֲʹõķ֮У´ŷеġȻ͡ʵڷﶼԨԴΪڹԪͣһλ﷨ѧAulus Gelliusnaturalispositivusϣphyseithesis˺ŷԶԴַɣȻnatural law͡ʵڷ(positive law)μҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬19-20ҳڶҮ˸߶ָȻȷΨȷ֧ġִͼʽʵֵġΪʮ͵߸ݽ۵ΨȻ½֮ǰȻġһֱֲ֮־IJԻ򳣹ԡԺһΪϵȻͳȴ򽨹۵Ψϣһ֮ͬȻŤڱΣ߾ȻѡȻġΪơԵIJȻ۴ͳһתµĽڹҮǡԡ͡Ȼȫıǵĺ壬Ϊԭ(ǷҵȷĹDzҵȷĹ)ġԡȴʼָɴȷǰƶ϶Щһҿƺһ壺岻ϸԵеЩ޶ȣʵҲʹ֮ԱһֽΪЧĹߣ⵱ȻԭܾеЧȽ϶ԵģһֱȽ½󣬾ĸԴ׷ϣѧȻֵעǣִӰֻʼ1617ͣ뷨ѧҵѿҪԭIJͽϵһġں̶ܴϽǾɵѿԡŸıĺ塣͵˼˵ں̶ܴζǵʱʶһȷǰ⣬ǻȷʶƶȲԵķֱdz֮ΪȻġз֮ﹹĶգ༴Է֮Ϊ˷ȷƶȲ˿ƵIJĴͳȻۣ˹رǵѿƵõƶȶǶҲӦʶԿⴴIJڵѿԾǼѧ(ϸȷľesprit geometrique)༴һԼӹɵǰҮˣࡱعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬203-204ҳȻĹҲ˱Ψϵġ֮ĹȻķ档
ɴ˿ɼһ棬Ү˶Էʵ֤ҪؼڸŵķȨ߻־֮Ĺ۵㣬ΪڹҮ(opinion)־˷ɵЧԡһ棬һԭڹҮ˵ķʮֹؼãȴڳչĹϵͳеԭˣҮ˶ȻƳԭǷЧԵľصĹ۵ڵΨҲУΪΨȻ߸ЩԷɵһԭҮ˱ȷָģֽ۵ķɹۣΨȻ뷨ʵ֤޹ϵˣֵֽʶ·԰ѷɽͳһֳȻĹ֮Ҳ԰ѷɽͳκ֮ǵĿ⽨֮ںϽʶ·ڷʵ֤Ȼ֮䣬һάеκһ𩤩ȻάҲͬʵ֤ȻǸάȲͬҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬91ҳ
ִȻŵȻ⣬μͲǺĬĹ۵㡣ִȻѧҴķзʷġ򻯺ص㣻磬Ǻ޸ݵΪƳձЧķϵȫϸڣĻ˵ŵȻҪѧķʮͿ˵ǿѧķԱóһΪΰźͳķĻ⡣Ӹ˵ԵģԵĺ֮ȷǹŴȻѧ˵󼰵ġ򣺡ѧ˵ʷӡݰ1987棬482ҳǺĬ۹ŵȻ;ԺȻ۵ʱҲȷָ ڷѧУһµȻѧڽǰռ֧λȻdz֮ΪŵȻܹŵȻѧĴԹŵȻֵĹ۵㲻ͬŵȻijЩԵʹ֮ͺ;ԺȻ;ԺѧǿڰȻķΧһЩҪԭͻҪ֮ڣŵȻѧھƾϸĹϵЩΪǿֱӴ˵Ƶġһķ˼ΪԵձκˡκιҡκʱڶԷĻܹһƵġõķϵȻѧһʵʽǣǿ˶ȻijΪԵܹһķϵ˺ȻǶͼϵͳع滮ָȻĹԭ򣬲ȫһ֮Сˣ18Ҷ㿪ʼһ˶һɹǡ³ʿҴ۷䡷(Allgemeines Landrecht,1794Ҵ۵ļ̳ͳʱڰ䲼)÷а˻ͽֶ(Wolff)ʴȵġҳʽķѧҪԭ˶ijɾ֮һ1804ġط䡷ڷȻЧµ1811䲼˷䡣ͨ򷨵仯ĵ·ϣ̱1896ġ¹񷨵䡷1907ġʿ񷨵䡷¼ӡǺĬѧѧ뷨ɷ룬йѧ1999棬66ҳ
[28]Үˣ󡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬245ҳʵ֤֮һĿɭǹҮ˲ʿĵĵڶָʦһҮ˱ϵģάҲɴѧһλʦ˹ɭHans Kelsen
[29]μ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000档
[30]ҮָĸΪȨضĽʵϾΪձΪġڲΪ֯ġⲿĽ֣ȻҲӦ֪˽(̷)빫(ܷ)֮֡ڹҮ޶ضϣ˽ҪָЩ֧Ÿжͽ׵Ĺ򣬶ҪָЩ´ڸԱִмƻĿĵ֯۹ĹУҮо͵Ĺָ˽һ˸ԵıȽϣμҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬210-217ҳһܷȻǷΪ͵ĸ󷨣ȴǹ˽Ϊ˽ּڹ淶֮ΪּܷڲȨȨڶDzҲ˽ȫͬΪ˽κضĽ༴ܹOͻѵĻĹ涨ּʵضĿꣻȻжֺ壬ΪͨȴָùԴһЩҲ˽Ү˻ΪһԷִУбҪ֯һܹʹΪԷ򷢻Ӹļܹǹȴ˶͸˽Զ׼ǹҮִһԪۡеһ⣬Ҳ彨䷨֮ĵġԪۡ߼չμ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000棩
[31]Үˣԭ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬130-131ҳ
[32]ͬϣ134ҳ
[33]Үˣԭ룬1997棬263ҳ
[34]Үˣ˼еԻعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬18-19ҳ
[35]μ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000棬52-53ҳҮΪ֮ԱΪ˽Ҫ֪ġ˽롰ѧеԽأΪ롼HTH˽桼HT(private welfare)͡HTH桼HT(public welfare)ԣʹǴΪ˽ֻض˵棬Ψйŷڹ档ȻҮȴΪνֻйּڷڡ桱Ĺ۵㣬ֻڡһضϱΪЩ֯ص趨ضĿضΪһ㸣(general welfare)ͬʵʱܳΪֻйŷڡһ㸣˽ֻ˽ҴλںԨԴڹĹ۵㣬ʵǶȫߵΪˣҮȷָΪֻЩԿķʽʵֹͬĿĵжڹĹ۵㣬ʵһִĹ۵㡣ʵǣÿ˵ӶҲǶձ˵ԷΪṩĶҪܹ֯ṩĴضΪҪΪ˽ƶȲֻΪʵָ˵棬ཫɱϸ档
[36]ڷʵ֤һ֡ʶ̬⣬Ү1976רſһԡʵ֤ʶ̬Ϊ˱Ƚ꾡ۣμҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬67-71ҳ
[37]Үˣԭ룬1997棬301ҳ
[38]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬71ҳ
[39]Үˣԭ룬1997棬299ҳֵעǣʵ֤֡ʽϷԡ⣬ڹҮҪ漰صʽһԴķɾǡʵʡϷķɵʽκжֻҪ涨ǡʵʡϷжʽڡʽɡ롰ʵʷɡۣμҮˣԭ룬1997棬370ҳע[8]
[40]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬76ҳ
[41]ͬϣ84-85ҳ
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[43]μ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000棬39-44ҳҲֱӲμҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬19-20ҳԼڶĻ롷69ҳ
[44]μҮˣԭ룬1997棬299ҳ
[45]Jeremy Bentham, Constitutional Code(1827)תԹҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬106ҳע[35]
[46]H.L.A. Hart, ed., Of Laws in General, The Press of University of London, 1970, p.1.
[47]μMary Warnock, ed., Utilitarianism, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, Fontana Press, 1962, pp.322-342תԹҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬106ҳע[36]
[48]Hans KelsenWhat is Justice? University of California Press1957p.20.
[49]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬72-73ҳ
[50]μͬϣ73ҳ
[51]ȨĽ͸ͬǶȨߵĽ͸ͬƪIJۣμҮ˶ԡȨľҮɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬140-142ҳԼڶĻ󡷣92-93ҳҲμҮˣ塱عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬80-81ҳ
[52]¼ӡǺĬѧѧ뷨ɷ룬йѧ1999棬110ҳ⣬ҲμҮ˵һ֣ʵ֤ǴӹϽǴʷǴģΪʵ֤Ϊһÿһɹ򶼱ضǴijһʶΪݳģڶеضIJҮˣɡɡȫģֵԨԴ룬йٿȫ2000棬527ҳ
[53]ڷʵ֤֡۱塱μҮ˵й۵㣺ɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬111ҳע[55]
[54]Үˣ󡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬241-242ҳ
[55]μҮɡɡһ4¡仯еķɸ룬йٿȫ2000棬113-151ҳ
[56]Hans KelsenThe Pure Theory of Law, ףԣ£ءHarvard Law Review,ףԣ£ڡ, 1935, p. 517.
[57]Hans Kelsenףԣ£ءGeneral Theory of Law and State,ףԣ£ڡ (Harvard, 1945), p. 113
[58]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬74-75ҳ
[59]μͬϣ70-71ҳҲμҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬130ҳ͵368-369ҳ
[60]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬69-71ҳ
[61]ҮˣɹҵĹ⡱عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬151ҳ
[62]⣬ҮȨ۵ʱҲԼӵķʽָ⣺ȨĶȨƣζŷκȨ(unlimited power)ĹȨȨ(sovereign power)Ĺٻζŷκӵ֯ȨΪΪĹйؾܾȨȨĹ۵㣬˵п˵͹ţһõ˴˺۵IJǿߣһҲЩڵռ֧λķʵ֤(legal positivism)ͻҪ֮һҮˣ塱عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬80-81ҳμҮ˹ڡ־ۣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬17-18ҳ
[63]μҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬139-142ҳμҮˣ˼еԻعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬22-30ҳ
[64]Hans Kelsen What is Justice? University of California Press1957pp.21-22
[65]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬72ҳ
[66]ͬϡ
[67]ͬϡ
[68]Hans Kelsen What is Justice? University of California Press1957pp.21-22Ȼɭ1945ġWTBXGeneral Theory of Law and StateWTHarvard, 1945һУҲ˼ȫͬĹ۵㡣ҪָǣҮΪӷɵиţȻǿɭķʵ֤еһֹ۵㣬֮¹ķۼеһֹ۵㡱Үˣ󡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬256ҳע[23]йЩۼҵĹ۵㣬μAlfredvon MartinWTBXMensch und Gesellschaft HeuteWT[Frankfurt a. M., 1965, p. 265]һ飩
[69]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬67ҳ
[70]μͬϣ68ҳ
[71]ͬϣ71ҳ
[72]μҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬67ҳҲμҮˣԭ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬130ҳʹ˶ԣҪǿָҪ㣺һһĹֻڹϣִӢĹвΪЩУ塯justiceΪijдٻѧȥֵĶijκȨר־ĶڶĹһֱһЩΪЩУҪΪǿ(deliberate legislation)IJڷʵ֤(legal positivism)۵ۺӰ£ʽ΢ԭǷʵ֤廹۶ߵ־Ωһ׼
[73]μ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000棬82-83ҳҲμҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬90ҳ
[74]μͬϣ65-68ҳ
[75]μ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000棬88-89ҳ
[76]Hans KelsenWhat is Justice? University of California Press1957p.29.
[77]Үˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬115ҳ
[78]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬82ҳ
[79]μҮˣ˼еԻعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬20-22ҳҲμ׾ĶԪۣҮ˷۵оϺ2000棬71-83ҳһڵ89ҳָҮ˵һ۱缫ΪҪΪΪڱϷ֮ʵΪݵʵ֪ʶĬᡯ֪ʶݻ͹еشṩ֪ʶϵݣͬʱҲΪǽһ׷ʻ̽ƶȰŵĽξȥЩֵʽԱﵫʵ֧жüĹϵҪṩһҪʶ·򡣡
[80]J. N. Gray, Hayek on Liberty, Oxford,1984, p.7.
[81]μҶŵ޶˹ۼĹϵۣҮ۵оԭ򡱣׾ѡʦѧ2000棬203-215ҳ֪޶˹ΪȨȵĺͻģǶᱣȴǾΨһģ֮Ҫ֤ÿ˵Ȩ𣬾ͱ뽨һƽȵӦĹƽҸΪҪǣ뽨һֹƽƶԹ˵Ȩ棬Ϊ˵쾳ȫͬǣŵȴΪ¹淶ĸȨΪһ֮޶ȵĽǶȳ޶˹幫ƽ˼СŵΪ޶˹̫Ϊƽ򣬶ҹǿƶȺṹĹƽͲֵIJˣһжƱػ˵ȨǴһԵгŵ˻ţҾ޶˹ڴֹϸ򻯺͹淶ĹңֻɻԤٵĹҡˣΪҵڶԸȨıκƽΪԤȨҲضǶԹΪݵԵΥŵ˳м17˵ȹŵѧҵġȨϡԼ̺йظ˺͸Ȩ֮ȶĵ¼裬һԣӵȨЩȨǿ͹㷺˹ҼԱЩʲô⡱ŵ˽һۼĻȷ˹ҵԭ򣬼ĹٸԤܱϸȨ֮ʵֵĹңҲŵġСҡ޶ȹҡ(the minimal state)ԭ˴߼Ͻڡ޶ȹҡԭ֮£ΪӦΨһܹѭĵ׼ҲֻڡȨϡһԭġȨԭȨԭҪһǡõԭ򡱣κ˶ͨͶȥòƲǡתƵԭ򡱣κβƲת䶼ڸ˵Ըκηʽ˵Ȩǡԭ򡱣ķʽзһȨΪͺԶ׼ŵ˵۲Ϊһֱӷɣ༴κν׶ζԵȻΪһ¸ĸ˵Ȩַķɣ񣬶һȨ۽֮ĵҪԵĻϣˣĵȷ˵ķ
ֵעǣŵ˾޶˹ŵ޶˹֮ȴȻǷӦһļֵǶһֵľͺʵһֵľ巽ʽֵIJͬʶ·ȷе˵ַֻΪ޶˹ġԭŵˡʸۡ(the theory of entitlement)֮ΪʶĵڲijͻΪҪǣŵ˹ʻԶĸȨʺӰĽͣʹܽ綨ΪڵʵĸˣڶԸ˵Ľͷ޶˹ΪƵġ
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[83]ŵˣаλ룬йѧ1991棬187ҳ
[84]R. Kley, Hayeks Social and Political Thought, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, p.11.
[85]μԼ޶˹ۡλ룬йѧ1988棻μChandran Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989, p.126
[86]J. N. Gray, Hayek on Liberty, Oxford,1984, p.4.
[87]μJ. N. Gray, Liberalism, Milton Keynes, 1986, pp.7-8
[88]μע[]
[89]Brian L. Crowley, The Self, the Individual, and the Community: Liberalism in the Political Thought of F. A. Hayek and Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Oxford, 1987, pp.16-19.
[90]R. Kley, Hayeks Social and Political Thought, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, p.10.
[91]Үˣԭ룬1997棬3ҳ
[92]ͬϣ14ҳ
[93]ͬϣ190-191ҳ
[94]μChandran Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989, p.15
[95]ΪM. J. Gregorڣףԣ£ءLaws of Freedom ףԣ£ڡ(London, 1964, p.81)һͿµĹ۵㣺˾ֻ֮ǽֹDzijЩʵĿĵֶΣЩĿΪΡμ42ҳѿ¼巨ɵķԱ׼ɡֻͨ巨ijһһʽʩӵơҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬104-105ע[24]ҲμS. Kresge and L. Wenar, ed.Hayek on Hayek: An Autobiographical DialogueLondon and New York: Routledge, 1994, pp. 139-140
[96]N. Barry, Hayeks Social and Political Philosophy, London: Macmillan,1979, p.126.
[97]֮ǿҮ1960꡶ԭһԺı۵ģʵΪоҮ˵Ĺע⵽1960꡶ԭ1973꡶ɡɡһжԡɡĽ綨֮ڵһ֪Ү1960ָǶһ˵״̬̽ڴ״̬УһЩ˶һЩʩԵǿƣбС֮޶ȡڱУǽһ״̬֮Ϊɵ״̬ǹҮ1973ȴһʽɵ״̬£ÿ˶ܹԼ֪ʶȥʵԼĿġμΪҮˡɡɡһİ87ҳ
ϵǣұоҮ۵ʱ˵ѾӹҮ˲õע⵽˿·ѧ뿵µѧڹҮ𣬵һ̶ϻdzаߵȶ֮Ŀ˵ڡҮ۵оԭһоָҮͼʾԭʱڡר־ɹijضϰ--ʵʩǿ--IJڡɹҮˣԭ룬1997棬14ҳԷıҪ͡ᡯҪԭIJͣԶ׼ֲһʽȫͬʶۣǹҮ˵ĿʽѧԤ衣Ү˵ڶѧԤǿǼ֤ҪԣΪ˵һѧԤ뿵ʶе๴һǸ˾ʵԵΪԲʹܹж϶һжĶǸ֮ɵģΪԽʾ˾ߣʹ˵԰ʹʶɵĵ·Լʵ򣨲μChandran Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989, p.15ͨĵļҪǷǹҮ˶뿵ֱ˴˽ҳͻѧĵϴڻ˹ҮѧķΨ֮ĽŻͻȻǰѹҮ˵һѧڹҮ۵ʱ򣬱һDZֱƵ⣺һҮ˹ԺʵۡʹһֲķΨ壬һͼһ׹淶ԭȥһţһŬʹͬʱһֽΪĽ·ȥй۵֤⡣ǽҮѧеһתһʽôԱΪC.Kukathas⣺Үѭ·϶ֻ޵ãôҮ˵пΪṩϵͳͬʱΪеΨƷμChandran Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989, pp.vii-viii.֮ԳĿҪԭ򣺵һҵʱԹҮ۵ʶȻҲܵ˹ҮӰ죬ҪܵȴǵʱжĹҮˡԭһӰ죬ⲿĵһ֡ɵļֵУҮ˱˵ȷһ̶ϱֳͼڶĶоҮ۵Уɪ˹ԹҮ֮淶ԲľҽܳķҵʶǶҲ˺ܴӰ죻ҲΪҪģǾǹҮ˱ڡҮ۹Үˡһһθ֣֪John GrayдһйҵHayek on Liberty,1984Ȼҽͳһʽߡһʼڶ˵һӰ졣Ҵδϸж¡ǣʵȴǣҼؼ䣬2021꣬ұһAlois RiehlλߵסˣͿµ׫дһȽ׶Ľ鼮ҶԿѧ˽⣬ں̶ܴλʽߡˣһʼGray˵ûܿµӰ죬ΪҶԿµһȷʵ֪֮٣Ӷ޷֤˵ȷģȻȴòϣͨӵķʽܵ˿µĺܶӰ족μS. Kresge & L. Wenar, Hayek on Hayek, London: Routledge, 1994, pp. 139-140Ү˵ֶҵʱʶѧԹҮ˼DZӰȷʵΪҪáڣҾ꾡жͷҮ197319761979ɡɡԼҮ1960Ժ󷢱ġҮļʶҮ˶Կ·ѧ뿵µѧһԽԽԵ̬ȣͬʱҮ˹ڿ·ѧӷѧ۵żΪҪ塣
[98]Ϊ޶˹оʽ֧λĽμR. Kley, Hayeks Social and Political Thought, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, p.11
[99]ͬϣp.9
[100] ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬105ҳע[24]
[101]μԼ޶˹ۡλ룬йѧ1988棬226ҳ
[102]ͬϣ226ҳ
[103]ۣμN. Barry, Hayeks Social and Political Philosophy, London: Macmillan,1979, p.147⣬Theodore A. BurczakҲָαͼݹĸˣܹͨöƳƶȵĸˣȥ󡣹Ү˰Լߡüƻߺͷʵ֤˼Ҷαͳ֮СThe Postmodern Moments of F.A. Hayeks Economics, in P.J. Boettke ed., The Legacy of F. von Hayek[II: Philosophy], Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1999, p.87
[104]μJ. N. Gray, Hayek on Liberty, Oxford,1984, p.68
[105]Үˣ壺αعҮ뾭򡷣룬꼴9ҳ
[106]ͬϣ6ҳ
[107]μ׾ġҮ۵оԭ򡱣׾ѡʦѧ2000棬197-198ҳμV. Vanberg, "Spontaneous Market Order and Social Rules: A Critical Examination of F. A. Hayek's Theory of Culture Evolution," in J. C. Wood and R. N. Woods, ed., F.A. Hayek: Critical Assessments(III), London and New York: Routledge, 1991, pp.177-201
[108]μҮˣԭ룬1997棬25-26ҳ
[109]Үˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬23ҳҪָǣҮ˰ѵ¡ԼϵͳΪԷжṹֳȻָƵIJּ˵жṹ֮ij־ϵĹ༴ԷĹϵͳһĻĹзչġ⣬Ӧرעǹϵͳġơ롰ɡ֮ڹҮеĺãΪһԹ֮еľǡΪеƶȶǶӦǿƵIJĹμҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬8ҳ
[110]Үˣɡɡ򡷡ԡ262ҳ
[111]Үˣԭ룬1997棬26ҳ꾡ۣμ׾ġҮ۵оԭ򡱣׾ѡʦѧ2000棬196-203ҳ
[112]Үˣ˼еԻعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬5-6ҳ
[113]Үˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬21-22ҳ
[114]μҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬8ҳ
[115]μҮˣԷ룺֮ж֮ʱĽعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬362-380ҳǵ˹ܼͬʱ˼ҵֱӴָģһͳһ⣬ΪõʵƶȣijЩԶ׼ԭԷҲɿܵķչγɵĽ--ұʹЩΪӡϿƳΪƵ߹滮༸Ϊƻǻ۵ĽҮˣԭ룬1997棬65ҳ
[116]μҮˣ󡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬239-240ҳʵϣҮָΨ·һϼɵжسɹ෴ԣиԼֵĹ۵ƶ౳롱Үˣԭ룬1997棬70ҳ
[117]ȻЩ֮ijͻҮҲã..almonҪ۶϶Դһܽ᣺һΪԷǿƵIJɵıʣһΪֻ׷ͻһԵļĿĵĹзʵ֡һɡлġĺͲȫʶķչһŽʽȫ滮ǰԴ򣬺һֻоǿƷЧģʽJ. L. Talmon, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, London, 1952, p.2, 71;תԹҮˣԭ룬1997棬64ҳ
[118]ҮˣࡱعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬206-207ҳ
[119]μҮˣԸԭ롶ҵĹꪷ룬1991棬71ҳ
[120]ֵעǣ ڡԡreasonҮõJohn LockeWTBXEssays on the Law of NatureWTed. W. von Leyden, Oxford, 1954, p.IIIһеֺ壺νԣҲΪڴ˴ĺָֹ˼֮Լ֤ݵָһЩȷжԭЩԭĻϣеĵԼȷһжԶ׼йԵֶ壬Ψ߹ԵĶȫͬġ
[121]ҪǿǣҮ˲ΪԺãΪһбҪ֮;Ѱȷ޶ȣôЩ޶ȱһΪҪҼΪֵԵĹҮ̹ʵָӹɣӵеΪıǵ۱ֻּڱԲܣΪܹΪײܿķչȴпܴݻԡҮˣԭ룬1997棬80ҳڶ˵۵IJصʼԵ޶ȷ棬ô˼һ˵ԸκҪĽʹҮָһ֡ߡһ֡˼ڸ˵ķʽһĸӻнжʹܹѸһϵпɰյһԹ򣬽ľߣμҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬37-39ҳڴˣҮȷԵŬΪ֮ǶԵĺԷԱЩ֪ԵЧҵԳչáҪǵԣΪһ㣬DZάǸܿƵġԲһɻȱΪ򣬲ԾԷչ;ЧõΨһҮˣԭ룬1997棬80-81ҳ
[122]μҮˣӵķѧѧعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬490-491ҳ
[123]μҮˣɡɡ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬515-517ҳ
[124]ҮˣԸԭ롶ҵĹꪷ룬1991棬12-13ҳ
[125]Үˣԭ룬1997棬74ҳ
[126]ҮˣӵķѧѧعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬491ҳ
[127]ͬϡ
[128]μҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬33-34ҳ
[129]ҮˣԷ룺֮ж֮ʱĽعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬371-372ҳ
[130]μҮˣԭ򡱣عҮˣҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬131-134ҳμҮ1976꡶ɡɡڶ8¡̽󡱵ע[9]о˼ԨԴ꾡о٣99-102ҳ˵˹ܣףԣ£ءTheory of Moral Sentiments ףԣ£ڡ(1759), part , sect. , chapter , vol. , p. 165 of ed. of 1801壬ھϣһַԵĵ(a negative virtue)ֹȥ˺ǵˡȥֺ˵Ʋˣ϶ûжٿ϶ԵƷСμAdam Fergusonףԣ£ءInstitutes of Moral Philosophyףԣ£ڡEdinburgh, 1785, p. 189ĵɣ˵жʱǽԵģֹ顱F. C. von Savignyףԣ£ءSystem des Heutigen Rmischen Rechtsףԣ£ڡIBerlin, 1840, p. 332һ˵˴෴Ĺ۵༴ӲϷĽǶȳ̽ѰϷĸϷָһ˵˵ɶ⵽˸棬ֲϷ谭෢չģһֻ19ͣȷ۵ѧ屾(Arthur Schopenhauer);ѧҰ˼٣Frdric Bastiat˼ٺܼܿӵܵ屾Ӱ졣μ屾ףԣ£ءParerga und Paralipomenaףԣ£ڡ, , 9,Zur Rechtslchre und Politik, ڡףԣ£ءSamtliche Werkeףԣ£ڡ, ed. A. Hbscher (Leipzig, 1939), vol. , p. 257:ɵĸɵĸһһַϵĸȫһַ񶨡F. Bastiatָףԣ£ءLa Loiףԣ£ڡ1850, ءףԣ£ءOeuvres Compltesףԣ£ڡParis, 1854, vol, , p. 35:һǧȷģҵһλָƷɵĿȷ֧λ˵ϸ˵ȷСӦ壺ɵĿֹռ֧λȷʽIJ壬Dz塣䣬ֻڲʧ²ŲġμJ. S. Mill, ףԣ£ءUtilitarianismףԣ£ڡ (1861, ed. J. Plamenatz, Oxford, 1949), p. 206:壬ĵһĶ綨ѧҵУ˹(Max Scheler)ҲǿͬĹ۵㡣μġףԣ£ءDer Formalismus in der Ethik und die materielle Wertethik ףԣ£ڡ(3rd ed., 1927), p. 212Ͳ涨(ȫԭ˼)Ӧ(ʲôǺϷ)෴ǹ涨Ӧ(ʲôDzϷ)K. E. Bouldingָףԣ£ءThe Organisational Revolutionףԣ£ڡNew York, 1953, p. 83:ƺڡ塯һԸ˵嵼жDzжMcGeorge BundyΪA Lay View of Due Process,A. E. Sutherland ed., ףԣ£ءGovernment under Law ףԣ£ڡHarvard, 1956, p. 365:Ȼ룬Ҫõⷨɳ򣬾Ͳܰһִҿ϶ԨԴ෴ӦɶعһֲƵľȼáߣҲǿΪɲһֱƵĶһֹߣֹߵļֵ˵Դ϶涨Ķ˵ԴֹĶҪԺģʵʩ壬ṩijֱֹشIJ塣H. L. A. Hartָףԣ£ءThe Concept of Lawףԣ£ڡOxford, 1961, p. 190µĹͬҪں̶ܴϽӦṩĿ϶Է񹹳ɵģͻƹɵ--ЩͻַͨͨʽġLon L. FullerҲָףԣ£ءThe Morality of the Lawףԣ£ڡYale, 1964, p. 42ЩԱΪ֮µĶУһֻͨҪͻƣ߾˵ǷԵġJ. R. LucasҲĹ۵㣨ףԣ£ءThe Principles of Politicsףԣ£ڡOxford, 1966, p. 130˵IJԣһ̶ǴӳĽǶͷεģЩĿIJΪȷԵõʵ֣Ϊ˷ֹIJ塣ѧУ¡Dz壬ΪΪ᷸ˣ˵ʲôоʼģߣ˽˵УҲʼһر֤彫õʵ֣ݴˣȷǶǣDzȡһַԵʶ·ȷһЩԱijЩܲIJ󣬶ȥ׷ʽ塱
ǸҵоΪں̶ܴʹҮʶǸѧİ¿ϽڣҮ1962귢ġѧѧѧһ֮ιʱָģǶκضߴʩҲȡõضΪƾΪھУζ޷֪ȫģԸߴʩϵͳһΪƾ(Ϊǰ¿ɡϵͳ塯[systemgerecht]ı׼)⻹ζежļȥ£ЩʵֻڴжеΪġҮˣѧѧѧعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬431-432ҳ
[131]ҮˣࡱعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬206-207ҳ
[132]ҮˣࡱعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬206-207ҳ
[133]Ү1945ꡰ壺αݽα塱ģҲǴƪĿʼҮ˶۴ͳۼչһԹ֮УμҮˣ壺αء뾭򡷣룬꼴ȻֵעǣҮ˺ķʽ֮ȱΪαУΪҮΪȫΥĸͼѾ˸۵Ļġͬϣ10ҳα塰Ҳᵼʵϵļ塱μͬϣ1-2ҳߣҮ˵ġα塱ʵҲDz˹̩νġԭ۵ġ壬ֵעǣеԼ۶ǡα塱ԭ۵ĸ壬˵˹˵ȥһԭ۸ߣȴǣΪԼΪйԵ˵һȷIJЩΩᱳзܴеļ(passions)֧ᴴ˶˵ҲˣΪԼĵ޽ᣬԭȹĸ֮ɵģЩѾữ˵֮ɵģ⣬μC. Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989, pp.125-126
[134]μͬϣ6ҳһۣ༴һּ־ŬΣһ״׼򡣡
[135]ͬϣ14ҳ
[136]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬37ҳ
[137]Үˣ壺αء뾭򡷣룬꼴6ҳ
[138]μҮˣԭ룬1997棬14-15ҳ
[139]μͬϣ15ҳ
[140]Үˣɡɡڶ9¡Ȩ룬йٿȫ2000棬180-187ҳ
[141]μҮˣ塱عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬79-80ҳ
[142]Үˣԭ룬1997棬197ҳ
[143]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬ھ²ţ186-187ҳ⣬Ү˻һ۵㲢ҼָԶ׼Ȩԡȫ͹Գ֡ձȨ(universal right)ijͷβĻԡ¾һ㳣ʶ׵ƶǾӦã䲼ЩձȨ»κοԤĽǸʵֵģҰΪȨׯϵ£ʵҲһֲεķʽŪȨְϷֻܴݻǶȨءͬϣ185ҳ
[144]Үˣ塱عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬79-80ҳ
[145]ҮָҪڹ㷺е𣺵һƾһпֶܷضڵĿ͹۵Ϊ򣻵ڶֻע֮Ϊ֮ΪĹ⣬עΪԲͬ˻ͬȺĵλɵضӰ⡱Үˣ塱عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬81ҳ
[146]Үˣ˼еԻعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬14-15ҳ
[147]μҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬55-57ҳ
[148]Үˣԭ룬1997棬185ҳ
[149]ͬϣ186ҳһӽҮַָԵڲڽָȷϵʱȡķʽǴӿ϶ĽǶȳֱӾʲôǸ˱ӦģֻǴӷԵĽǶȳʲôǸ˾ģ༴ֻǶκ˶ַȷԭй涨һҮȷָģЩڲȫһضжֻܽ綨ɵijЩж͵ķΧǷȡijضжж߱˸ԼĿļԾμҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬57ҳ ȻڲĹھijЩȷԵԨԴڷͻڸ˶ܹԼļƻ;£ijϽҲȫȷԡڴˣҮ˷ǿڲֻܴij̶ֳȵȷԣͨԸеȷϵ˽бʹ˵ĸ棬ӶʹܹȷϵΪԼƣμҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬58-59ҳ
[150]μҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬176-177ҳ
[151]μҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬5-6ҳ
[152]μͬϣ28-30ҳ
[153]ͬϣ49ҳ
[154]Үˣԭ򡱣عҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬133-134ҳ
[155]μҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬211-212ҳ
[156]ͬϣ57ҳ
[157]Үˣԭ룬1997棬5ҳ
[158]Үˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬161-163ҳ
[159]ͬϣ162ҳ
[160]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬55-56ҳ
[161]μͬϣ33ҳ36ҳ
[162]μҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬ڶº͵£ҲμڶĻ󡷣38-40ҳ
[163]Լ޶˹ۡλ룬йѧ1988棬226ҳ
[164]Joseph Raz, The Rule of Law and Its Virtue, in Robert L. Cunningham, ed., Liberty and the Rule of Law, Texas A & M University Press 1979.
[165]⣬оҮ۵ѧChandran Kukathasȷָȵֽ˵DzܳģμC. Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989;ߣŴҲȷָҮ˵ķһԪԭ򡱣Ϊźǣȴδܽһ׷һ֮ڹҮ۵壨Gottfried Dietze, Hayek on the Rule of Law, Fritz ͣ, ed., ţ H, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977, pp.112-113
[166]Hayek, The Political Ideal of the Rule of Law, Cairo, 1955, pp.25-26.
[167]Үˣԭ룬1997棬260-261ҳҮ˻ָӦѳΪһԭ򣬶һΪձܵԭ򣬾ԷʽֳģЩԪɹķʹάЧͱԪɹ򡱣ͬ飬264ҳ
[168]μC. Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism, Oxford, 1989, pp.154-155
[169]ҮˣɡɡڶĻ󡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬82ҳ
[170]ͬϣ65-66ҳ
[171]Ronald Hamowy, Law and the Liberal Society: F. A. Hayek's Constitution of Liberty, Journal of Libertarian Studies, 2, No. 4(1978), pp.291-292Ҳμѧ룬1992棬144-146ҳ
[172]Үˣԭ룬1997棬192ҳ
[173]˹з򡤲վָݡߡĹ۵㣬εʽ׼޷ɱܹҸԤĹܡ£ǵóۣһֻɹڸȨʵеΪ֮Լ˾Ŀ˶ԷɵεĹŵɺͲƲǡߡĹͬƸĹ۵㣬һǷʽȡǷַһ˵ĸȨһ߾ͰѹڸɺʲƲķɾԻˡֻзɲΪɺʲƲṩһ޶ıȨĻ桢Ȩ˼롢ΪȨɱ-㡯ǵһλģӦ˶𺦸ȨˣĪסN.˹͵(Murry N.Rothbard)ܳ˵Ĵ֮һһ׹ڸȨ˵ۣȡҮ˵ķѧ˵˹͵£For a New Liberty The Libertarian ManifestoŦԼ1985˹͵µִ츳ȨԡƲȨΪġڡߡҮ˽ͨжɵʽϵıDzġ෴ΪͨɽеĸԤֻڸȨ۵Ļϲܵõȷۡ˾Ҫ޺ʵȷҸԤĽޡղķ˹M.(James M.Buchanan)ԼнһͬΪʽ(Թҡ)ܺԼУԹҡһֵһżĹ򣨼˹͵£For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, ŦԼ1985磬׶١ΪʵƹңҪܷй涨һض˰ʣ25%Լ涨һƽĹԤ㣨(Friedman, Milton):Kapitalismus und FreiheitάҲ1984˹(Friedman, Roes):Die Tyrannei des Status Quo,Ľ1985˹з򡤲գɺͷιҡտࣺ֪ʶ򡷣ƱԴ룬йѧ2001棬154-156ҳ
[174]Gottfried Dietze, Hayek on the Rule of Law, Fritz ͣ, ed., ţ H, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977, p.120
[175]A. I. Ogus, Law and Spontaneous Order: Hayeks Contribution to Legal Theory, in P.J. Boettke ed., The Legacy of F. von Hayek(I: Politics), Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1999, p.419.
[176]Үˣɡɡ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬264ҳ
[177]μҮˣɡɡһ򡷣룬йٿȫ2000棬5ҳ
[178]μҮˣۡعҮҮļѡ/룬׶óѧ2001棬308-311ҳ