ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 



¹ܷԺܷȨ֮о


Ҽǰ


ŷ޴½Ų⣬Ͳκλؿ鷨ɵʵʡȻڵһδսʼаµͨԺ֮⣬ԱϷ֮ΪֱĿܷԺVerfassungs-gerichtshotһŶܷ涨ܷԺʹ޵ִܷԼ޵ִɵȨעһ


ս£ϣգAdolf Hitler̤ΣʹùΪʵʩ֮ߡƻʷѵսһľƶ֮ʣ˰¹ܷԺ˾ƶ֮񣬡ϣܷȨԱϵ¹עرܷԺھʮר˾ܷ֮Ȩ


Ȼ¹ܷԺܷȨ֮ڹϽȨ޷Χϣϰ¡й֮ڴһֲƶ֮òչеȨ̬Ȼ֮ܵɴͳֵξӰ졣ҹ֮ϵֱӻϮԵ¹֮£ƶγ֮ɣֻƶд˹涨ؽ˼ѧϰЧһζܣʹֲ׵ƶʽȴҲܲδϰƶ֮ʵÿȣжʩЧ֮ˣ½Ե¹ܷȨɽ֮Ϊ۷ΧĹ۵Ϊִ̽һȨʡ͸ʹ˶ڵ¹ܷԺܷ֮Ȩܹ䱾˽𣬷Чƶ֮ʣδϰƶ֮񣬶ͽƶ֮ʽлɷȮ֮


¹뷨ɴͳ


־ʥ۹һˡʥ۹صԣڵ־ʵϼϣңעЩСϣһֱǾר塣ʹշսĽ³ʿͳһ˵־һһƶܷijƵ־۹das deutsche Reich,1871-1918ȴȻǸרƵĹҡһһŷ޷սʹ¹սһһʮһ¾շĹΪͣעģ¹ƶȷŽȡǹֱһδսĩǰ¹ɫרƵ壨autocracyע壩


һϵ˼


һһ˹Otto Von. Bismarck³ʿ󣬼ѱȽһЩĸ˳ѡءи³ʿᣨPrussian Parliamentڵ¹ͳһ޹ף֧εĸʴʵϣƺΪ˵¹ͳһķչȻˣ¹ҲϰһЩdzעȻʮĩҶǰ֮¹Դķѵĸ״̬Уʱŷѽҡ۵¹⽨ΪС໥ͻᣨעߣɵ¹徫spirit of nationalism֮˥΢ʹõ¹ԼԼĻģ·¼mannerƶȣעˣ֮£һհսдܰµȵ춨˵־ͳһ³ʿ쵼֮λһߡһһշսдܷ³ʿͳһȫ£ңʹģΪ¹ʷԻ͵ʱ


ڽ¹е˶ڵ־ͳһԽһҡˣ˼ϣ¹˳ڰѹ˸񻯣personify the state֮ȸ˻ΪҪעţ磬¹ʢ˼ҺڸGeorg W. HegalΪǸȻл壨natural organismʷ̵һ׶Σa phase of historical "World process"ŹϵԼۣԴΪĸעһOͬʱڸӹʵˣreal person־will֮չ֣manifestation of perfect rationality༴ձģuniversal˵֮ۺ壬ΪǸӵȻȨҷ־general willȨ֮˵ļ塣ңΨΪҵijԱʱи֮ʵ壨individual realityΪڸձ־universal willעһһ


ڸʹµھinwardness of morality뷨ɵʽexternality of lawܹͣʾɣνϵ͸۵Ҫ֮ʵ֣ŴΨƾڹģrighteousnessɡ¹rule of moralityƶƷ֡ڴ˷УṦܵĵߣʾߵĵλעһȨھ߷˵λĹңͳԵλ֮ļ壻ңڸΪҷ˱͸ˡ˼֮Ϊҷ˵ijеߣעһڸʮ͵¹˼뼯ߣһ˼ǿҵҫն帺ʥʹˣȨҪɸռҪλǵȻ˵¹ͳһעһģ


¹ڽŷǴķĻ龳֮£˼ҷΪۣ֮ϣΪ־彨һͳһṩۻϾǵ¹ڴδͳµӦǹʺڸǿֵĹ׼ʵΪ߶ΰߡעһ壩ǣı׼ʱԸ׷ߵĹ׼˳ܣܻ֮㼯֮ᾧʸܳ󣬵ԱȷĹ׼ʷʹΩʼΪ֮ɣʷӹҵΪ£Ϊɣעһ


Ȼһ˼ȱʧǽҵĵλƳ֮֮ΪСǴʾ֮ȨأȨЮ֮רƼȨ֮ʵԣƳҵĽ˵ȨȨ֮ڣڹɵеȨһ淶뿿ҵָ밲šΪΨйҲչ֮ȷĹ׼ǹʵȨΪԿǹлչ֣ܷڹҴڵĵĿġ


¹ڴ˹ϵ˼Ӱ֮£ʵѲ壨liberal democracyӸˣthe emphasis on the individual֮壨individualism˼ȨΪһҪ壨constitutionalism˼ˡԣʹ³ʿҲư˳ܷ³ʿľ壨Prussian absolutism֪Ȩϣfull sovereignty of the kingԭ⣬ʲܷһ֪עһߣͬʱڵ¹ĸᄎĿںţֻǹӦáͰһܷѣעһˣɴˣ¹δǿϼ֮ɵƶȣliberal institutions۲࿴ƶڵ¹δ¸Ļȱݣעһţ


ԣڵ¹δͳǿұеĿģ䲢Ӣ֮һȡȨξ󣬲ŷչԸΪĵ˼롣ڴ˼룬ڹ򱧳ɸĿ֮ƣmechanismġ֮ۡthe instrumental theory of the stateע𣩡ˣʹ¹³ʿʱƶ˳ܷҵһδսƶܷ걸һܷȱ˼ԼʮҶĸ˳Ϯŷ֮ʽ΢Ӱ˵¹ѡأȴȻѭȨʽ·authoritarianעһԵ¹ͳʵ֤巨ѧlegal positivism֮Ӱ죬ʶΪȨ֮ԿĹ߶ѡˣ¹ʽ˼УӦȱ֮νܷʵΪɹĿ֮һʽķɶѣǻԸΪ˼룬ΪƹȨ֮ĿĶƵһγ


ιĻ


¹ŷרƷ⽨Ĺ֮һʥ۹Ȩ˥ݻṩ⽨ŷ޷һԵġͬѧJus Commune֮֮ҽ뼯ȨʽľƶȳΪҪЧҵĶˣʼƶԼҵķɣҳΪΨһĸԴ۶ڶ⣬žȨңƶһҵķɣŷʵ֤ѧΪųһġطԻϰԵķɣ֮ƶȨֻԴ뼯ȨĹһϣע


ʮ֮¹ܵ˼ijʿpopular governmentȡң͸ƶһܷԶԿҶѰϡˣιRechtsstaatΪԿעȻ¹վδܰϵĴͳ˼룬䷨ι֮ֻ˵ǡ÷ͳΡrule by lawѡ


ιһһˣϾʱ׶ΪǵգAdam MullerʹãԺʹøߣָһԣɼΪĹңa state based on reason, in which law and justice were oneעģȻ淶RechtֱԭһЩгIJͬ壬Ȩright壨justiceɣlawȣЩҪڹڲŵֱӵ֡ˣֲ뷨淶ĹңThe state is imbued with Recht.䲢ǽΪһǿĹ߶ڣע壩һιγɣǻʮ͵¹ڹҵһΪұСmoral capacityԵζĹþߡͬʱȨװpanoplyǷι֮ʵ֣һҪĴڣע


ķιڹұĿģɱΪﵽ䱾Ŀ֮ߡרʱڣȨߵŷǹȨֻǾȨۣư䷨ɵȨھһ֮֡ΪȷȨͳελưһͨȫijķ䣬ųһеطԡϰԵķɣʹΨо䲼ġʵɡžЧΪͳεЧʣӷΪͳĹߡŲȡ˷ʵ֤һ͸ķ֮ʽԿƹһжķι


깲ͳƶɵȨȻתᣬڷʵ֤֮£ߵ־ΪɵռԨԴνֻܷΪȰģexhortatoryʾԵģadmonitoryɣȻƶɣdiscretionעߣˣιĽȻҵͳȨһ˻˵УתѡĹᣬܴͳķʵ֤֮Ӱ죬ɵִñϸʵķɹ涨ʵɹ涨ݣ˿֮ء򣬱㽫ʴ˹ҵķȨ֮ڹκжʵܹҵݵ£ɵؾǹߵͳߣܵκεơǣͨķɼΪָһݣνķɣƶijھרʱ⣬ڷɵ֪Ȼ֮ΪƹжķƹȨĹߡ


ǵ¹ͳϡԼۡ˼룬ҷ˵Ϊʮ°ڵʮͳ֮¹ѧϵܿȨȨȨ֮˽Ȩ󻯣ָʾȨ֮߶ԣעˣˣȨӦܵƣֻγɹȨ˼Ļأתѡڴһķιζ͸ķɿƣǹŽãinteractionµĹңעţǹߵͳȨ޷ƺ⣻ʹƶ˳ܷԹ˵ҲֻǸε¶߾ˣιʣfragile qualityΪյı֤ҪͳȨġɡself-restraintעϣ򣬹Ķڷʵ֤֮£ѹҴר֮أԷʵ֤۶ԣȻϹҷ˵Ϸ涨ݼȷʽ壨legal formalism֮ϷĽ⣬ܶԺϷĿֲΣlegalised terror˵ϣղٿ˶֮ѵǶڴԷʵ֤Ϊķι֮һĴ


¹ȷʵǸз壨legalismĹҡݰɣGabriel AlmondͣSidney VerbaڡĻThe Civic Cultureһоָ¹ά֣Ҫһ׹Щ򲢲㷺۵IJרΪоijɹͬʱȻЩΪ˴һӵ֪ʶѵƶģȻӦҪءùҪȥƶḶ́ҪģǸǹʲۣԱ㹫ܹЩ򡹣עһ


ǣұĿ֮ι䷨ɱΪɹĿĵȷָԱȻӦ֮ѡڷɵĹnotionΪԸ߷չľ֣ŷϹĿ֮ɴϿɵۣӷΪ쵼ֱµһ׹򣬶׹ҪһߵԭնҪעְ֮ʣ¹ΪκӦ͸֮ʽ淶ŷɼ壬ƶķݣΪ־ȷʾһ壨collectivismʽ־ʾ;ͳһߵľԡǹʴ־ʾķɣԷ仯ʽȫͳһãұеĿģֻǸߣӶΨзӹҵ־˵巽ڹ֡ǣҵķɱΪȷָҼָǸȷ֮չ֡


ιĺӢνķιңstate based on the rule of lawʵΪֲͬ֮ӢͳΪԴڡԼӹҽΪṩ»׷Ŀ֮ߣңˡҹۡ϶˸ʹǣreasonֶ֮ΪȨղԡͬʱڹҳǿ֮ߣthe means of physical coercion첻ܵΪƣתΪԣעˣΪߵ˼룬ȻӸ˵ĸ˼ᡣǹʣһ߼Ⱥģ˵ļֵҪڹңҷϹ־ָˣҪ͸Ȩʹǰ·شڡˣӢνķΣΪԷƹȨ֮ʹԴӢķ֮ʱηʶ״ԳܷƹȨ֮˼롣ԣʹǹƶӦܷܵľ


ңӢͳѧŷǡԾ塹rational empiricismΪһʶԾ飨experienceνġtruthԵģtentative䶯ģҾ֤֮еģעģְ֮ʣԾ岻¹ɴͳ˼룬ΪҵķɼΪʵֹµռ׼۳ǴﵽĿ֮ռȷʾǹʻԾ壬ӢͳڷɵƶǿΪֻӦúַʽȥƶɡʶԶԪԣ䷨ϵ뾺ۣbargainЭ֮޷ڵ¹Ԥȹ涨ȷĹ淶ɹڷķɹע壩ҲΪˣӢӵdz򷨣ǿȷij򷽷ҵ¹ǿʵ巨ΪɵʵݣΪԤ֮ľչ֡


ΡܷȨ֮ۻ


ɴ¹ʱڵIJʹѵιϵȱⳡƽб¶šǹʣս¹ؽιҪӦɴ¹ʱڵı׺˼ĸȻӦ


һִιӢΡ֮


һ֮󣬿˵֤˵¹ιŦ飨emancipationʱڣעڷιĻǿҵҪԣԼɹᡢͳڸȨڷʵ֤֮£͸ʵķһе񡣻ڴһķιϣȫϷij򣬰ѹҴһȨֲ硣¹ʹ˼ʹΪιҪؽؽι֮滮ƣ㲻ܹԵĻ


ΪɷιġšƱ뽫ɵĵλ֮forcesijһ໥עߣɴʱڣΪϣո˶õ֣ҡصΣͬʱҲ˶ڷʵ֤֮ɣעˣ¹ǿʼΪƶķɣһܹ֮ҪȻѧɷѧ֮ԭԻ˱㷢ãʹ֮˽⵽˶ķɣman-made lawΪܹʵϵľжҪһЩĵ±׼immutable standards of moralityעţǷιڹΪĹҡjust stateǦ跨ɵĹҦ飨legal stateעģϣ


׼ˣĹνŹƶķ֮ϣһ׼ҪڹᷨɣȻѧǿȻȨnatural rightԼȷƶȵĹȨcivic rightȣˡȨʹǴ¹ȨĹᣬ಻ᡣһľƶʱ˻֮涨ϻ֮Чڹƶķɣǵ¹׶Ƚ˳ܷԾĹעһˣܷΪʵϵϣߵλķ淶һؼΪʼܷĹ涨ԼǷܷĹ涨ʱӦ϶רҵĻжϡעĶܷȨĹɽ


ؽ֮ķιĸĸ֮ڳܷЧҪڹƶ༴Ȩ֮ʹܷ֮ܵơˣڲгܷĵ¹ԣͱҪһܷ͵ȨԾȨ֮ʹǷܷĹ涨Ȼˡ˶ķɡ֮ϣиߵķ淶Ծһ£ȨӦְƴ߷淶ĽͣԼúֳ򷽿֪̽ȷ⣬Ǵѧ֮λ淶ִλ淶ӦЧ⡣Ǵʱ漰ȨãԼ͸ֳõܷ֮ΪܶԵ⡣ЩĽعѧۼ˼Ŀ򣬾ܹʵʩרƣɾһܷȨԹ֮᳹ͳһãұܷ߷淶λڷϲΥ֮


ǰɴĽѵʹõ¹ԵĻʶ㽫ؽ֮ιıϣ˾ϡִι֮˷ɹ淶˾Ŷ֮µĹԼͬҪĽһȷƶ֮ơԹۣؽ֮ķιȫȻǸ˾Ϊķιעڴһµ͹ǿԣattributeΪιΪͣrepublicanƵģparliamentaryʣעģմһιĻ


ܷ߷淶λҲгܷ֮Ȼᵼܷ֮ȨضĻʹһȨȻ¹Ƚְܷ֮и˾ţԽһܷԺר˾һ񣬶е˾ؾдܷ֮Ȩأڴһƶ͵IJ񣬱Ϊ¹֮ԲС͡centralized typeɡǼ͡decentralized type˾ƶȣע壩Ӧδͳ뷨ѧ֮УѰĽ͡


¹νִιϵȷܷ֮ЧֹΥΪ֮ڣܷ֮ףСܷ֮άߡܷԺΪעδͳϣնǿҵҪԣҳΪָһ֮ȨԴȨڱߵ֮ͬϣڹұĿģҴĿҪڸ˴֮ĿġˣҵȨӦܵơͬʱҵȨͳһԣǹȨԭҮˣGeorg JellinekĹҷ˵£֮ΪͳȨһܣʹȨ֮صȨ޷䣬Ȩָ֮עߣ


ڴһδͳӰ֮£˳Ʋ¹֮ʣڹڷѧǾ˸֮ȨͳȨ壬˼ȨȨΨһɷ֣עİˣˣ͸ѡĹƶķɣ˼ȨıʾʷȻΪͳϹȨĹߣȨֻڹ֮ᷨµĻֹܷˡǹʣἴʹѡɣȨ˼Ϊɾרʱڵһ˾תиԱѡȻȨȻӦܵƣĹ߼ȨԴĻΪ˱ϹȨԼͳһԣ񼰹ҵһжӦԤɷ淶ʵ֤巨ѧ۵㣬ȻұĿģԼΪĿ֮˼ʾᡣˣܹ壬ֲΥұĿĶڸ˵δͳƶϵĴͳιǵڴˡ


ȻִιĻṹϲ̫ĸı䣬ֻͬڷιġڹƶֶ֮˸ܷ༴Գܷȡƶ߹Ȩ˼ʾ֮λѡΩܷʵɣʹϳȻѧɵȻȨѧ˵˾ͽִιͬӢķιңעľţǻΪ¹ͳ֮Ҳδ¹֮ʽformṹԤ˾趨ˣdefineҵĿָ꣬ҵĿ꣬ͬʱҪЧijЩضļֵעϣˣܷʵֹĿĶԤƵͼӢȻȨΪڹҶڣ޴ɣܷ涨󷽵ԱϵȻди֮졣ǹʣӢνķΣȨΪ㣬ܽʹȨţ͸Ȩ֮ƺԭԼڲ򣬶ԳܷķʽڵȨȨȨ֮ƺڲƶȣһԱȨкܵȨһڶԪԻһʱĶܲĶˣӢķǿƶȳϵ壬¹ִι֮עʵ巨Ϊʵ涨ΪıػµĹңִķιҡ


ȻȻȨΪѧϵһ裨assumptionʵʵеʵΪΣиĺ׼ٹʥ˶ı׼ǹʼʹϸĻȨ಻νǻȨܷ涨ϡҪܷȨ󣬻Ȩſܻñϣ۴˻Ȩǹ룬ڷʵ֤塣ӢķιǿȨڹȨֺֻ֮ӷΪﵽһĿĵķһȨñϲſɳ֮ɵᣬȨݲǾԵģǹֻʵ巨ɣܽȨݾϤǣɵõһȷĹ涨˹£Magna Carta״Habeas CorpusԼУjury trialӢϵᵽһЩ֮roots of libertyԭͶdzԵһЩңɵʷеΪһʷhistory of procedureͬʱrepresentative assembliesҲһijɹlegislative productĹɴӷ̵ֳIJֿͬģעһְ֮ʣӢķζڻȨ֮ϣǿ͸򷨵ƣڳ򷨵Ĺ涨֮£ۡסЭι̣յʵˣιиֻĻ֮ЭĽעָ񼰹δȷԤ⡣ʻȨ֮ǷܹñϣܷԴȨݹ涨ȷ񣬶ܷڻȨ֮ijǷϹƽı׼ͬʱڹδӢǿνһijʹľܷ˵ԸֲһʱĶ˵ĻȨ


ԣӢķξӳ򡢷ϵĹƽ壬͸ķΪȨָܷɼij򣬶Ȩƣ͸ܷ涨γ£ȨΪ໥ƽȣco-equalIJʹٽȨͳڴݼȫȨϡˣڹȨ˼ռ֣Ȼܷʾ֮»ȷʵȴ˾ż䣬ܷ涨ij򣬱˴˻ЭõܷʵݡǹʣӢķβһҪгܷӢʹƶ˳ܷ֮ǿʵ巨ɵƣһγøֻڴ˹໥ƺ⡢ЭȨƣpolitical restraints¹֮ιиհԶ֮Ϊҵȷ򼰴Ա׼ܹԤܷ֮С


ܷȨ֮


ڵ¹ִιӵǷɵʵ涨ܷΪͬһˣִιǿԷɵʽǻѺԣconstitutionalityʵʵԣsubstantive democratic legitimacyΪͬһ롸񡹵⣬ڵ¹˵˼вIJΪΪΪȻǷһЩѱܵĹ򼰱׼עˣܷΪ߷淶λִιڷѧȻʵ֤ġܷʵݵȷԣȷΨ͸֮ʽԿȨʹҲƫܷȷָķ


Σ¹δͳϲƹȨ֮飬˼ӹұΪеĿ֮л壬ʶڹȨ֪֮Ϊϵ衣ͬʱڶԵ֮λڹ֮Ѽڵ¹˼֮СǹʹȨ߼ͳһԣĸ˳֮£Żᷢչڹ֮ǰµȨ̬


ߣͳιԹƶΪȨԼͳһԵˣľΪȨ˼ʾִιܷΪȨ˼ʾݡȻͳιɹƷ֮ͨȫʹܹȷͳһãԷϹȨͳڹķιܷΪ߷֮ӦǸܷȷͳһأڹȨӦͳһ֮ɣ¹ܽȨ֮޹ƶstatutory law뷨Ժ(case law)ŵadministrative law֮ЧΪߵ⡣ΪҵȨӦͳһԣɵһIJȨ˼ʾ֮ڴһӰ֮£ܷȻΪȨ˼֮ȷʾһΨһȨأԿܷȷͳһãΪ¹ͳ˼µһȻۡΨ¹ѲԵĻֲܷܽȷõȨϤ˾أȨͳһ֮ƻǹʲ˾Ļܹ֮£һ˾֮⣬رһר˾ְܷܷԺ


⣬ݿϣMauro Cappelletti֮Ϊŷ½ϵҲЦ輯ͦ˾֮ɣΪԭɣעģ


һȨ֮


ŷ½ϵң۵˹姬¬η崫ͳ˽ҷ˾֮Ӱ죬Ȩ֮Ϊ͹ϵϸ֣ŷƶϣsupremacy of statutory law֮ˣ˾ŵ˾ͣʹʧЧȨԵΪpolitical actַƶ֮רȨexclusive powerĿǰȻ˶֮ij̬֮ΪǡģΪһܱԵġǹʣŷ½ϵҾܾ˾ȨͨԺҪرһµȨʹȨ


ȱ֮ͳthe absence of stare decisions


ŷ½ϵңڲͨcommon law֮ǹʸַԺ٣綼鷨ɺ֮Ȩ㽫ڷǷܵоɲһµĽ׼ˣΪ˱ԺڷɼijͻԼⷨɵIJŷ½ϵұҪһ˾أʹ֮ڴ֮Եİʱܹоһ֮


ͨԺ֮


ŷ½ϵ֮ԺڴͳϱȱЧܷٲãconstitutional adjudicationҪ֮ԺṹϳʶmentalityڼȴͨԺ֮⣬رһܷԺбͨԺ֮ϳԼͨԺѡ֮򣬶һר˾˾֮ء


¹ķԺ㲻ϵͳϵͳ֮Ժָ䲻ͬķֹʹְ֮Ȩˣ༰ϽȨ޲ͬ£Էչǰһ˼ǵܷѧΪͨԺӦʹ˾Ȩ֮ɡ


Σϳԣ¹ͨԺϵ׶ΣԺԾܾϽȨ֮ƶȣcertiorari˾ȨཻͨԺʹͨԺ֮Ժʤɣʹܷ޷õҪʱ˼ǣΪԺ൱޼ֵIJݣa fairly insignificant portion


ŷ½ϵ֮٣ʹ˾Ȩʱ漰ֵ֮жvalue-oriented׼ԡquasi-political֮ΪЩְķٺʱѽ˾ţΪǨְҵѵɾרŵķ֮ϣskillƶ֮жϣin making policy judgmentȻ˾Ȩ֮ʹ൱ͬһ÷ɵ˾ܣǹŷ½ϵ֮٣˾Ȩע壩


ۺ¹ܷȨ֮Ȼȡ˳ܷĽΨƶϲС͡ġ˾һΪڹȨ֮ͳһԵĴͳ˼룬һ棬ܵƶ̬Ӱ죬ڲΥȨ֮ͳһԵǰ£Žܷ֮ȨɾС˾òܷԺͳһְơ


ܷȨķΧ


ݿĬ˹Donald P. Kommers֮оָڵ¹ܷԺܷȨΧۣ֮ȱ뽫ν˾飨judicial review롸ܷ项constitutional reviewΪԵ¹˶ԣ˾飨richterliche prufungsrechtǷԺһϹУԾ֮(constitutionality of laws)һ򣬶ƶҪڶʮʱڵ¹չܷ(staatsgerichtsbarkeit)˾ڣٿ׷ʮ͸ܷܷ项Ϊ֮λunits㼶levels䣬йܷ֮¸ԵȨΣduties֮飬һjudicial procedureѡ١񸴾ĵ֮ԣԼܷ֮ЧԵϣdisputesܷ顣¹ܷ飬ͬ˾飬ԲԺԻܷɣΪlegislative actsЧְ֮ȨauthorityܷԺĿǰеܷȨ˾ܷĿǰһ֪̬ܷȨconstitutional jurisdiction, Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeitע


ڽ¹ܷԺжܷ֮Ȩˣ˴ܷȨ֮ݼֱ˵֤Ȩ֮ʣϾкֹܡ


һܷԺĹϽȨ


ܷԺĹϽȨ൱㷺Ȩİʮ֮ࡣһʮգ޸ĻھʮһӵĿᣩĿ()󣬽ԭΪܷԺܷԸconstitutional complaint, Verfassungsbeschwerdeֱ˻ܷԺĹϽΪ涨עߣ


ݻھʮһ֮涨ܷԺĹϽȨעˣ


һܷԸconstitutional complaintھʮһĿᣩھʮڶ涨κȨܹȨact of public authorityֺ֮þеķɾȼ÷ܷԸעţ


ż֮(Organstreitigkeiten)ݻھʮһһ֮涨ؼ飬ͳԺԺԺ֮ţparty groupsԺԱȣ漰˻֮ʱύܷԺٲáΨ˰֮֮Ȩֺʱ


ķƶ(abstract norm-control procedure, abstrakes Normkontrolleverfahren)ע𣩣ھʮһڶ涨֮ڸԺ֮һԱ֮飬ΪƶгͻʱܷԺ顣һƶ֮ԳΪķ飬ΪԷ֮ЧϵԡhypotheticalĻɣ޴ʵϷ𣬻ʵϼΪһ׮ϲŵΪ顣


ģķ(concrete norm-control procedure, konkretes Normkontrolleverfahren)һһ涨κηԺܷΪԲ֮Ҫ̽Ƿϻ֮涨ʱԽ˰ܷԺܷԺԴ˷ǷЧijо


壩֮飺ھʮһĿ涨֮໥䣬йڻ֮¸ԵȨʱύܷԺİ


party bansڶʮһڶ涨-ԺԺȷijһǷܷ(anti-constitutionalɽύܷԺԾõǷӦƶɢһһľִйΣһһɢɴ۹SRPһһ꣬ɢ˵¹KPD


϶ڵ¹ܷԺϽȨ֮࣬ϵΪ漰˻֮İܷԺеȨޣݶȨѡٵ顢ͳԼһ㷨޵ִϼ淶ȰڲֱӶԻ÷飬첻ڱ۵ܷȨ֮Χڡ


ȻܷԺеȫȨ˷֮Ȩ⣬Ȩ֮ã¹ͳܷ֮Ȩ൱ǵ¹ܷ֮𣬿νʼʥ۹ʱڣǻڵ۹Ա֮ͳһ壨princesƽ֮Ҫһ۹·ԺCourt of the Imperial Chamber, Reichskammer- gerichtݸ֮ЭԼԽ˴˼ξסʮʱ۹·ԺһЩطԺ𽥸ЩЭԼ֮Ȩ񣬾ԶԿҹ塣ˣȻЩЭԼ涨ǸȨ༴ǽ׼estatesЭ飬ڿԿҹ壬˾оִи׼Ӧ֮Ȩʿɳ֮Ϊ˾ۻΣעһ


ִܷ֮ʽ˲ʮΪά־ˣConfederation of German states֮һŬܷ֮ڹһ飨Reich Assembly˹һڽijϣѲ˾ijйܷȨ֮һһĵ۹ܷImperial Constitution֮Ժһıܷ⣬һķ˸ܷǽ߷Ժһһܷ߹ҷԺHigh State Court, staat-sgerichtshofְƣע


ȻĸܷͶ֮Ҫأ˵Ȩ֮򣺵һܷΪһԵfundamental lawϣڶܷ漰official agencies of governmentȷ˵Ǹγɹ־political will of the stateְܷ֮Ҫһأstate organܷڹϽȨdz󰸼ҾԼ򵥵Ըʽܵͨϰ֮Լģܷͨ˾֮⣬ⴴһͥע


Ҫ֮У֤¹ͳܷȨ֮ãһĽңΪγɹ־֮һأǵ¹δͳһǰ֮䣬йĽȨռ֮أΪԺ֮ƣΪְơΨΣһرȨ֮һΨиûطдһȨˣ¹ͳܷݵġܷʵϾǸ˴˼ҹ䣬ȨЭ顣ʹʮ͵¹ͳһ֮ƶܷι̹֮ͳһΪҪĿġˣǿһͳ֮ҪƶܷԭԹҸȨ֮ȨΪҪݡңڹһͳ֮ɣܷ鰸֮ԵɵһĻƴܷ֮Ȩչ־һͳԵáˣţ¹ʽ汾ּԳܷάϵ֮ͳһӢԶԿȨΪһҪӦǵ¹ƶܷĿ֮ͬ


нߣս¹˾ʽڻ˷ƶȡһƶܷIJ𣬱ڽɷƶ֮ԷЧȻ¹֮Բеķ򣬲δȫȻϮҪԭ봫ͳϲܷƶȵͬǻάȨһͳ֮Ҫʶȡδ֮ҽйһȨġķ项ƶȡߣʹǡķ项ƶȣȨߣȻֻǴȨ֮һһ㷨Ժ٣˲Ȩظ淨Υ֮徫⣬ӦֻΪǵ¹ͳܷƶȵһֱ͡


οھķУܷԺڷЧ⣬ϵ˵Ȩˣƶ֮Ŀģ˵ΪȨֺ֮ΪȷҷɵͳһҪøΪȷǼʹƶʹĽȷʵҲﵽ˷ֺȨ֮ãֻνһ㷨ԺܷԺķ٣˱Ȩε¡ԼȴȨԷ֮ϣشҹȨأһ㷨Ժ֮Ͽɣɹһ˼ġͳһ͡һȫ


̬˾ƶȣǿԷĺܷһз涼ܷĿΪĿģ༴һеĹȨΪ͸ʵ֤Ϊ߶ƣΪΨڷ֮Ȩ񣬲ǹҸĺϷȨܷǿγȨɾܷظ֮Ϊ˾ƶȣŶڹһڡĿϡ伫˵Ŀ¹ӹҪڸˣұĿĵӹΪĹߣȨҪܵƵĸ塢˼룬Ӧԯ໥


ܷȨ֮


ͳϣԺĽɫ㱻λݷɶУʾijԣԺֻǸ÷ɵĻأҲӦξ֮Ȩֹŷʵ֤֮¹ΪϾΪһ׼


Ȼ¹ͳԷ֮ͥʹܷȨȻֻǸݡܷٲã޴µĻȴķݡԴӵ¹ܷ߷淶λڻƶȣʹܷԺΪܷ֮ߺ󣬽ɷƶܷ֮ԺԳʵϣҲ߷Ժ⣨political questionsܾijЩעģˣܷԺ˾Ȩ޲ԺܷȨķΧ߷Ժɱ⡣


Դ˾ȨȷڸȨıʣһֱܵԡusurpationȨ֮ע壩˾ȨΪԺܾƶ֮ãַȨ֮Υζͳ֮ԭͬأڵ¹šأKarl SchmittΪΨнرǿȨһϸ߲㼶λhigher echelon political institutionûӦȨΪܷĻߡ˾ţȫڵδ˻ߣǾҪԼ˾Ըjudicial characterһԺȨغܷ֮ǾDz˾֮ܣۣԺʺϱ˵˾ʽ֮£̵ĻԺ飨examineԵķ棨legislative enactmentsָܷ֮ʱʵϼִзƶ֮ܣݷжߣlaw determiners֮ᵼλ˾壨politicizing justice뽨һΪεgovernment of judgesʹһеƣδ˥ܵĺעؿܷȨ⣬ǽεΪִзɵ˾ΪȻΪǰᣬΪܷȨΪǹʲŷ˾дһȨ


Hans Kelsenس෴ΪȻеж˾judicial aspectsؽ뷨ɵ֣ǴģܷȨɡͿԣ˾صĹܣڡϣin a quantitative senseִָܣͬ⣬ޱϵIJʵͬ˾ԵܷȨa political constitutional judicature֮ƶȡңƺΪܷͥconstitutional tribunalsǷִС˾塹genuine justice֮䲢ɡ˾ءڸ߼䣬˴˵ĽȻ֣ΪǵĹлؽ֯һorganically intertwinedǹʣܷͬԺΪܷάߵƣص˵עߣ


뿭һ֮һѧ˵˼·һйܷȨ֮õۡ磬ţErich KaufmannΪڴķɰʹܷϣӦڷԺڷǴġܷݡconstitutional subject mattersǣ浽εĶ˾飬һ㹫ϵı׼normless˶߿ɲԡڴְΪĽɢһӣܷԺȨоΥ֮ɢΪ˵Ǹ⣬ǷݿԾܷԺ˾ȨΪ޶漰еֺİΧڣעˣ


ѧɣUlrich Scheuner˹ɣHans Spannerͬļ⣬Ϊ޷֡ɸһ֤Ϊʹ飬ɾʵس󣬶пٲԡԣЩѧߵǰᣬȷ뷨ɿԽȻ֣ܷԺȻԲеܷעţ


ѧ֮ޣ۵ΪߡԺߴԵѧߣΪȣprofessor LeibholzڡΪܷԺǸ֮ʵ֡ĻأܷԺ޶ԼΪеԱ֮ɫԷּܷ̽ƶ֮ͼִд˾оݴһǰᣬֻܷԺоǷڷɵı׼legal standardsξΪܷԺٵܷ֮УΪܷƶ©һЩرָʾԭ׼ȿܵ©gapsܷƶߵͼǿܷԺ飨examinedԷɵķ̽󵽵ġˣȷʵŴķ飬ܷԺоϷɵı׼ˣעߣ


ѧۣܷ֮Ȩ֮Ϊ㣬֤ǷڽȨءЩУ漰˷Ƿ֣ԽȻ֣ܷ鲻ɱ漰Σ֮ӦԵξ뷨ɱ޷֣صķԺ޲ܷȨ֮


ȵΪ⣬֤ʽѾԤ˶ǰᡣȣܷƶߵͼǿ͹۵شڣΣܷе©ܷܹѰѿ͹۴ڵܷݼ֮ͼԤǰ֮£ܷϵȻֻǴķϣӦܷԺܷоԣܷԺʹʵ֮֡


Ȼȵ֤ʽԣܷԺܷȨ֮Ԥ輸뾭֤ġ塹ˡ塹۳ԤĽܷۡ涨֮ݣ֮ͼ©֮ȣΪѿ͹۵ش֮ǰᣬ֤Ϊ۵ġ塹֤ʽݣ֮ѧ߶֤ܷȨϾӦ鷨ԺУעһ



Ķ֮ͼ̽ãΪо֮ݵ۲ͬǽܷ飬Ƿ֮ͼΪΨһݣⱾǸֵ۵⡣οʹ֮ͼȷʵɵö֪Ϊֻзٲãͷһܹ̽ôһͼأˣܷȨ֮ãɲſۣӷΪߣע߶ңƶɵĻߣܷԺȨɵߡȨŵ֮£ѡɣȨܷ֮ԺܷԺҪط֮䷨ɹѡɼһţע


ң͵¹ܷȨöۣȻһе˹ҷ֮ͳһõĹܣһ־֮ȨʡˣΣȨȻӦ˾Ȩܡǹʣо¹ܷȨߣƱӵ¹˼˽𣬷ÿһƶȵʵò

ע


עһ䣬ѧ̨֣ʮ£棩ҳ412-414


ע˾ƶֲ֮Υ̨ۣѧѧ۴ԣ40̨԰棬ʮ£ٰ棩ҳ248


ע䡢ţ̨ܷӡʮʮ£޶棩ҳ319


עģͬǰעҳ322


ע壺Alex N. Dragnich and Jorgen S. Rasmussen, Major European Governments,7 thed.,(Chicago: The Dorsey Press,1986),p.343.


עIbid.


עߣĺ˼ʷ壨̨ĺѧᣬʮһ£棩ҳ403


עˣLawrence C. Wanlass, Gettells History of political Thought,2nded.,(N.Y.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.,1953), p.231.


עţAlex N. Draginch and Jorgen S. Rasmussen, op.cit.,p.345.


עһLawrence C. Wanlass, op.cit.,p.360.


עһһIbid.


עһIbid.


עһIbid.


עһģIbid., p.362.


עһ壺ĺѧ̨֣ʮ£һ棩ҳ27


עһͬǰע


עһߣKarl R. Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies, vol.2(N.Y.: Princeton University Press,1950),p.43.


עһˣIbid.


עһţAlex N. Dragnich and Jorgen S. Rasmussen, op.cit.,p.345.


עWilliam Ebenstein, Todays Isms,8th ed.(Englewood Cliffs,N.J.:Prentice-Hall,Inc.,1980),p.174.


עһͬעһţp.343.


עТ룬½ϵ֮ͳ̨Ļҵʮʮ£ٰ棩ҳ24-25


עWilliam E. Paterson and David Southern, Governing Germany (Cambridge: Basil Blackwell Inc.,1991),p.54.


עģIbid.


ע壺Gordon Smith, Democracy in Western Germany,3rd ed.(N.Y.: Holmes & Meier,1986),p.202.


עIbid.


עߣKenneth M. Holland, "The Courts in the Federal Republic of Germany", in The Political Role of Law Courts in Modern Democracies, ed. by Jerold L. Waltman and Kenneth M. Holland,(London: The Macmillan Press LTD,1988),p.86.


עˣ־ۣȨ֮ʵ̨ӡʮ꣬£ҳ61


עţWilliam E. Parterson and David Southern,op.cit.,p.334.


עGordon Smith, op.cit. ,p.55.


עһAlex N. Dragnic and Jorgen S. Rasmussen,op.cit.,p.334.


עï룬֮̨ʮ£ҳ192


עWilliam Ebenstein,op.cit.,p.174.


עģIbid.,p.170.


ע壺Kenneth M.Holland,op.cit.,p.85.


עGordon Smith,op.cit.,p.202.


עߣIbid.,p.203.


עˣMauro Cappelletti, Judicial Review in the Contemporary World(Indianpolis:Bobbs-Merrill,1971),p..


עţKenneth M. Holland,op.cit.,p.86.


עģIbid.


עһ:սڹҷ֮ʵʱԻΪʱ֮߷ͳһƶȫµܷȻԻԣνΪܷ֮


עĶʩܷԺ̨ۣ԰棬ʮʮ£ҳ1-2


עGordon Smith, op.cit., p.203.


עģIbid.


ע壺Ǽ͡˾ָκηԺ˾Ȩƶȡָֻ͡ضijز˾ȨµµƶȵǡһMauro Cappelletti,op.cit.,pp.46-47.


עܷ֮άߡ¼ִιң̨ѧ飨̨԰棬ʮ£˰棩ҳ1ҳ475


עߣ־ۣǰ飬ҳ59-61


עİˣͬע


עľţѧ߳񽫵¹ġιRechtsstaatӢġΡrule of lawΪ൱ѧ̨ۣ԰棬ʮ£޶棩ҳ14


ע声William E. Paterson and David Sourthern, op.cit.,p.53.


עһWilliam Ebenstein,op.cit., p.177.


עμƽȨֵɵλѧѧѧʮһڣ̨Уʮһ꣬£ҳ1


עWilliam E. Paterson and David Southern, op.cit.,p.75.


עģMauro Cappelletti, The Judicial Process in Comparative Perspective(N.Y.: Clarendon Press,1989),pp.137-146.


ע壺ŷ½ϵҲɼ˾֮ɣϿɲǣ˾ܹ֮Ľ-νȫΥƶȡڸĸ̨ģʮʮ£ҳ249-250ͬע飬ҳ286-299


עDonald P. Kommers, Judicial Politics in West Germany: A Study of the Federal Constitutional Court(Beverly Hills.C.A.:SAGE,1976),pp.27-9.


עߣʩǰ飬ҳ37


עˣWilliam E.Paterson and David Southern, op.cit.,pp.68-9.


עţܷԸ֮ӢԭΪconstitutional reviewһӢΪconstitutional complaintͬΩ֮constitution reviewָԭ֮÷Ϊ


עķ项ӢΪabstract judicial review֮ķ项Ϊconcrete judicial review.


עһDonald P. Kommers,op.cit.,p.30.


עIbid,pp.30-1.


עIbid,p31.


עģGordon Smith,op.cit.,pp.205-6.


ע壺Raoul Berger, Congress V. The Supreme CourtHarvard University Press,1969,pp.4-6.


עFritz Nova,"Political Innovation of the West German Federal Constitution Court: The State of Discussion on Judicial Review", American Political Science Review, Vol.70,1976,p.114.


עߣIbid,p.115.


עˣIbid.


עţIbid,pp.115-6.


עߣIbid,p.116.


עһï٣ѧִ񷨣̨ѧѧ飨32̨԰棬ʮ£ҳ386-391


ע߶Hans Kelsenţ룬ңɽѧĻ루̨ʮ£̨棩ҳ182-192


עͬǰעҳ330-331


ԭڡԺԺ¿ڶʮھڣ199491գҳ21-39


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