ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 

ܷʮ


֮Ԫ

ܷʮӣͨʷϷ˾صáйغáΡĻ̱ʽİǸݵʮߺоġġŦԼݰ Lochner V. New York, 1905 ꣩ [1] ߽ίԱ᰸ Brown V. Board of Education, 1954 ꣩ [2] ͡Τ° Roe V. Wade, 1973 [3] ȵȡһͷѧңΧƵʮĽ⣬չֹıۡ˵һ漰ش⣺һ룩ݣطĹϵ⣻ڶ˾顱 judicial

review Ƿ롰౳⣬༴˾ר롰Ĺϵ⣻󿴡ġ򡱣 due process 롰ǰġƽȱ equal protection Ĺϵ⡣ȻйĿǰΡøĸ漰ܷ⣬еĹĵĿģܷͨʮ֣̽й constitutional democracy ˼Ϊ۵ķ㣬Ƚʮһԭ£黯ˣΪڹĺǾסݵĹκһݣƶʵʩƺڹȨȨκηɣɳ򣬲ðκ˵ɻƲϽΧڵκˣþܾ跨ɵƽȱ [4]

֮ԣˣֵ̽ʮĹϵ⡣

һԪ塱ӵʮʮ

֪ܣ꣩ʱָ˼֮һѷ James Madison дġļڣƪȷָȨǡٶн綨Ȩǡ޽綨йɺͲƲһ¾ [5] һ˼ڣܷͨʮСȫǣܷδڹҲδֹʹȨʹӦʹ

Ȼܷʮʮ֮ŽŹϵϱս󲻾ͨĵʮʵΪ˷ֹϷݵūƾġֿսǰѡʱ͵˹ԱһֿϷǿϷʵūƵͼūơȫΣաݲԱͼķ˹ Robert Toombs ƱŸݽֹū·ķΥܵġڴǰ߷Ժڡ˹ɽء Scott V. Sandford оУ϶ū񡱣ڶԴūϾСȫ;ԵȨ [6] һоܷʮԼѷڡȨ޽綨۵һµġ

ԵʮΪֱܷʮͨǰνԪơ dual federalism £ھúȫȨϽݼʼ侭ϽʮͨʵˡԪơսĿʼ [7]

Ϊ˳ʮʷ壬бҪԵػعˡԪơķչսˡơ Confederation ܿ췢֡ơ̫ӦڡսڲΣûͳһֽңũ񲻿ùծյ£ġɳ塱 Shay's Rebellion ⲿΣӢԾܲӴ߾Ҫʹˮ·Ȩȵȡˣˡ Federalists ġơΪơ䶯ڽһǿ˼ǣļڣƪаѡơµĵطȨ⽨ơ [8] Ҫɵʷϡڶת䡱 [9] һת䡱ϣǰʱڣ˺һ˾ΪֻСĵڲſʵ֡˸ƶȴµ֤˵Ĺ͹СĹ͹ʵļʮƪȷָѡٹʵ˵С͹ػǴ󹲺͹ãɿɿǺ߽Ϻáȣ͹۶СΪ˷ֹ˽ᵳӪ˽ﵽһĿͬʱ͹۶Ϊ˷ֹĻңҲﵽһĿˣͬ͹ѡﵽһĿˣͬ͹ѡɱС͹ռʹһЩǣ󹲺͹ĺѡıСС͹ôǰ߽нϴѡᣬӶнϴʵѡΣѡÿһĹ󹲺͹ҪС͹࣬Բȡĺѡ˾͸ڳɹزѡгõIJͬʱѡɶȸѡƱҲ͸׼ڵ¸صϡ

ɼ˵۴󹲺͹С͹Ŀԡʷϡڶת䡱ۻǣˡ˵Ĵ󹲺͹ġ˫ЭĽνԪơ⽻ݼʼȫȨ

Ԫơܷ֣ܷʮǰ˵δ裨 delegated Ȩʹ΢֮⡰衱ˡҪڡ衱֮ǰϡʾ expressly һδȷȨʹѷ James Madison ԣ˵ʹʹʾȨDzܵģĬʾȨ power by implication [10] ܷʮIJѷûáʾᷨеԵġĬʾȨ

ĬʾȨ൱Ļء磬ܷûԹ涨неȨһϯ󷨹Ъ John Marshall ڣꡰݰ McCulloch V. Maryland жнеġĬʾȨˣԪơǸȨ˺ܴƣҪǡȨ the Bill of Rights ֻ֮ۡɵȻȨ뱣ȴˡֵİţֻкūϵܵõ⡣ʵϣڸ׼ܷĻϣ ratifying convention ѷڱ֤ܷӰݲūƵɡ [11]

꣨ϱսܷͨʮԶʷ壬־ҲءȨĿʼ༴ԪơսĿʼšȨ𲽡롱 incorporated ʮ̼֡ԪơķٲòҪܷĵһڰ˿νóǿ֮䡱 interstate еġ֮䡱֣Դ˷ԹƶĽֹʹͯȷǻǿݼʼóסеġóס֣ˡҵڹϽ֮ڣκͶͼ̸Υܵġֱ˹굱ѡͳˣ Hugo Black ȽʿΪ߷Ժ٣ų׽ˡԪơ־ǣ߷ԺжȫͶϵ National Labor Relations Act ܷΪڡIJͶϵӰ조ݼʡóס [12]

Ԫơսᣬζŵʮܷȡ˶ԵʮȵλطڡȨϡ跽棬һѧ˹ Harold Laski ָСλֿλľʱ塱 small unit of government is impotent against the big unit of giant capitalism [13] ˹ļ⣬ǰͨȫͶϵҲ˽йķִ״꣱£գйͶʼʽʩСٵطΪˡʡϧͶߵĺϷȨ棬ʹͶòִֹ᳹С

Ҫָǣë󶫣귢ʮϵйһֱӷӵطĻԣĸšʱڸˡⲻ˵йӦصѱġԪơȥ [14] ܷʮȨľĹؼ֮Ȩָڵط뱣ϹȨǰùġļйڡ󹲺͹۵㣬Ӧ˼йƸĸ

˾ר

ܷʮ־šԪơսĿˣͻˡ˾顱Ƿ롰౳⡣

ν˾顱 judicial review ָ߷ԺнܷȨƷ invalidate ΪΥܵķɡڣΪʲôŸδѡְķ٣Ȩѡͨķأ

ܷѧҡѧѧԺȴ Laurence Tribe ָ˾ֱӵĺ˫صĿԡЩ淨ɺΪΥܵķ٣ͨѡٶõǵְλģһ׼ǵľѡٶְԱļලںбϵн»˶ԡҲǣ˾鱾ΪǷģ antidemocratic ΪĽǷΪЩΪ۶ôӣѡͬΪġ [15] ܷвûȷ涨߷ԺС˾顱Ȩ˾鱾ĺϷܷѧ⡱ [16]

ȴһָ˾ĺϷԵĸ۵ǡԪܷģ metaconstitutional Щ۵㷺εġѧĺʷġ [17] ƪԸ۵ϸۡΣ˾顱ڣ꣬ѷ Marburg V. Madison ֮ [18] ѳΪܷʵԸıʵʮͨǿˡ˾顱ܷλġ򡱣 due process ͡ƽб equal protection ԼȨġ롱 incorporation ʹΪ˾顱ݡף E. Warren ϯ󷨹˵ʮܷࡱ [19]

ɴ˿ɼλѡְ߷ԺٶžصáǷΪdzΪ˾ܶ塱 judicial

activism ɴ౻Ϊ˾ר judicial tyranny [20] ˼ǣʷ˾רײΰ룺λ󷨹еĶֽ۵ʱܴٽĽԵ֤׷Ժ Warren Court, 1953-1969 ʱڣȨ˶ civil rights movement õ߷Ժ֧֣Ȼλ󷨹еĶֱ۵ʱܴͬ谭Ḷ́Ե֤ǣνʱڡ The Lochner Era

ʷѧһ˹أ R. Hofstadter оġ塱ʮĩӰ˼ [21] ٷҲӥڡ塱ΪͶ涨ʱ䣩Ƕԡͬɡ freedom of

contract ˽˲ƲȨַ꣬߷ԺԡŦԼݡһоˡ塱ڡ˾ܶ塱е֡ŦԼһŦԼݸնµġÿʱ䲻óСʱķַġͬɡ˽˲ƲȨ߷ԺپжʤߣŦԼݵͶʱ䷨ɾ˾顱Ϊϸ񡱡һоʱ⵽߷Ժ֮һķ˹ Oliver Holmes ķԡġ dissenting opinion Уķ˹˵ܷӦѭߣ˹ᾲѧ [22] ɰоֱűתڴڼ䣬͹˶ķչܵ谭Ϊʹ͹˶˵صԱͨͶ˾顱һȥĹؿ˵˾ר͹˶Ҫƶԭ֮һ [23]

˹ٶȵѡͳ߷Ժ齫߷Ժӣӵˣ֧֡ĽʿѹεĶص߷Ժ١Ȼ˹Ľδܣӣ굽꣬߸߷ԺȫŤת߷ԺĹɺ˼˹λٵ˹ William O. Douglas Ͳˣ Hugo Black ڣ굽׷Ժʱڣ Earl Warren ϯ󷨹׷Ժ˹ؼáͬǡ˾顱Ϊ׷Ժٵ˼롰ʱڡȻͬǰ壬DZ壩һ׷ԺĵһҪоǣġߵطίԱᡱ Brown V. Board of Education оܷʮѧУʵĵطɣΪԡ²㡱ĺ˹Ȩ˶õϲ㡱ֵ֧

׷ԺһҪоǣꣶ£жġ˹ߺڹ Jencks V. U. S. ͡Ҷ֥ߺڹ Yates V. U. S. 챻dzΪɫһΪоǶ壨 McCarthyism ƻȨ˹ᣨ UAW 쵼ˣ֣ FBI ϶ǹԱݡأ Taft-Hartley 쵼˲ǹԱ˹Ҫ FBI ֤롰˼桱߷ԺġɫһоҪ˾뽫֤ݽ˹Ŀͬʱ߷ԺоҶ֥һ漰ʮĸԱΪ뵳ɡñƷжԲʷ˹ Smith Act

˼ǣ漰ԱȨоУɿ˸أ F. Frankfurter 󷨹ٽ飬ֱӴܷһʼ֤˵᲻ƶɵķɡһ͵ֱӺ͹ġίԱᡱ un-American Activities Committee ͻӵʮġ֣Ե˵ίԱᡱϡγ򡱣ǿ֤˺ͱش޹ȵȡ [24]

߷ԺɭͳһЩԱǷŭ֮˵߷ԺйӰ졣 [25] ˴󷨹Ե˵ʷ˹ṩУ political trials Ļ [26]

֮׷Ժ󷨹ٵĽ˼á˾顱һϵӺƹȨķɣʹȡʱڡࡣɼ̱ʱ˾רײΰ룬ЧʲôУλ󷨹ж˼򣩡 [27]

󿴡ġ롰ǰġƽȱ

ܷʮ漰һش⡰ơ The rule of law ơһ򵥵ĸĹؼڷIJһĿȻ˶ͬһġ磬ʮеġ򡱺͡ƽȱָʲôԴ˺һһݵĻش

һֹ۵㣬Ϊƶ˵ġԭʼ original

intention ǣһ۵޷⡣һ˵ġԭʼڱ˿رǺ˿ǼʼǵIJͳһڶҲǸҪģݷɺƶɵˣһ֡һ㻯ԣԸ跨ɿԺԡԵǵʮǰ̸ūҪƶв֡ūơǸ޷صġ򡱺͡ƽб [28]

Ҳ൱Ҫģڰ޲ԶӳĶ־ԣ֮㵥ߣԱȷġԭʼڶԭѭԣ majority cycle [29] γɵķܷӳĶ־ӳͶƱ磬ڣꡰȨ Civil Rights Act ʱַ [30]

ֹּ˾ҵġ϶ж affirmative action Ըġ϶жҲڽֹ֮У

еġ϶жȷ涨ǷȨҪá϶ж

Ըġ϶жȷ涨ȨҪá϶ж

Ȩ꣩ӳĵڣַͶߵ־Dzģ־ĵһѡǵڣַǷӳͶƱ̿ƣ Agenda control ѡƱ logrolling ˣѰҷƶߵġԭʼڡơԣ߼ҲСԡѡ

ȻˣܽϺõ⡰ơһأʮǶ̬⡰ơ

øġƽȱ˵ڡƽȱ equal protection of law һҹ˵ġǰƽȡⲻ޵һ⣬ҪɶԲͬṩƽȵıһ⣬ѷɱеĶּڷ񶨲ϡƽȱķɣǰһ֡ǰƽȡ⣬ָзִӦһͬʡзɱʡ

׷ͥʱڵġƽȱҪǶзɱƽȱġ˾顱磬ִзɶԣѧУȹ뷨ԲΥáǰƽȡȴΥӦԲͬṩƽȱҪ

ȻɳԲͬࡣ磬񷨡жԡ񡱺͡ǹ񡱵ķࡣڡġࡣʮ֡ġġһ˵ڡƽȱġ˾顱á㷽 two-tiered approach [31] һǿ÷áࡱǷ񡰺ǷĿģڶϸΪһǿ÷áࡱǷǡɵķࡱ suspect class ӵķ࣬һǿ÷ǷƻȨʵ֡

磬ڡ߿ Baker V. Carr, 1962 ꣩У׷Ժж˿ڱ䶯Ļѡķ׼Υ˵ʮġƽȱ [32] 磬ڡ߸ѡίԱᡱ Harper. V. Virginia State Board of Election, 1966 ꣩У׷ԺжԲƸ׼ѡࣨͷ˰Ϊѡʸ׼Υƽȱġ֮зɵĺΪҪĿġƽȱһ󡰸ı״ġǰķɡ [33]

ѧѧԺڰԡǰġƽȱ˽һķӡǰἰϿʮģΪΥܵģⱻܷ̿ΪΪ state action requirement ˵ʮֻΥƽȱķΪ˽Ϊǣָ׷ԺоʵѾˡΪΪƽȱ˽˷Ϊָáƽȱ˽Ȩṹ漰оʵԶġı״Ȩ destabilization right ѿνı״ȨȨֶͨβϾ˽ȨɵľáIJƽȡȶȨĿģɾ̬ġƽ塱ᣬһֶ̬ʹȨ˽ȨĹȻ۵Է򣬾̵ܵУ [34]

ѡƽȱչΪȶȨǰġзѧѧɡ critical legal studies ķԭ򣭣չԭ expanded doctrine Ӧ֮һνչǴзеѿʮеġƽȱγɹµƶȹ루硰ı״ȨƽȱչΪı״Ȩ˾û㹻֤ʵˣԵһµţı״ destabilization branch ɶѡٲɴеġ͡˾ƾٲĿǼǿĶ̬ԣֹԷֵ˽˵ľáȨۻá [35]

ȻġȶԡDZҪģǵʮġ򡱵á֥ӸѧѧԺɣ˼ Cass Sunstein ָ롰ǰġƽȱָͬά״ġ󿴡ķɡ߶Ҫɣ˼˵ڣһЩзɲΥ򡱣ȴϡƽȱĶ̬⡣ [36] 磬򡱶ڱۡҪҲɱάϵвƸȨķṹڵġı״ȨǼˡ󿴡ġ򡱺͡ǰġƽȱĴ˼·

֮ӡƽȱȶȨʮǶԡʲôǷơ˶̬⡣˵ףǡĶ̬ƶȻ

Ĵӡ룭طϵ˾ר֮ס͡ǰƽȱ棬ܷ̽ʮ漰⡣ҹƶȴµսϣ𵽡ɽ֮ʯԹ񡱵һáǰĹѧԺȴ Laurence Tribe ʵΪʲôѧ˸¶ Godel ȫԺ󣨼ҷյġԲ˵ѧϵͳЩѧΪϵͳǷյģ [37] 𰸿ڣֹ۵ȱƶȴµ

ע

[1] ˰صġʵ׾ʱڵı־ʱ˹Ÿ

[2] ˰־ŷӿĺȨ˶õ߷Ժֵ֧Ŀˡ

[3] ˰־Ŷ̥Ϸ˶Ŀˡ

[4]The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Section

1.

[5]The Federalist Papers, No. 45. A Mentor Book edition, p. 292. Ҫָѷ˴Ȩٶн綨˵˺СĬʾȨ˵ͻΪļּ˵ˡѷǿȨٶн綨ġ

[6] Paul Finkelman, An Imperfect Union, p. 325, University of Carolina Press, 1981.

[7] ԪơijսҪȣܷ

[8] ֳʱڵķӢͨ common law Ӱ졣ͨڱΪԶ׷ԴġŴܷӢʷѧ÷ F. W. Maitland ˡͨʵ⽨Էɡ J. A. Pocock ľ The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law, Cambridge University Press, 1957.

[9] һǴ Robert Dahl ģ Democracy and Its Critics,

Chapter 15, Yale University Press, 1989.

[10] A. T. Mason, et al, American Constitutional Law, p. 140, 7th edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1983.

[11]M. K. Curtis, No State Shall A bridge: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights, p. 19, Duke University Press, 1986.

[12]Louis Fisher, American Constitutional Law, 382, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990.

[13]Harold Laski, "The Obsolescence of Federalism", The New Republic, May 3, 1939.

[14] ȥԪơġ塱ʵϵڡ塱ʵΪߡ Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism, pp. 427-428, Harrard University Press, 1992.

[15]Laurence Tribe, American Constitutional Law, second Edition, p. 62, 1988. The Foundation Press.

[16] ͬϣ p.61

[17] ͬϣ p.61

[18] ˰Ϊǡ˾顱Ŀˡ

[19] V. Earle, ed. Federalism, p. 10, Peacock Publishers, 1968.

[20]Mark Tushnet, Red, White, and Blue, p. 73, Harvard University Press, 1988.

[21]Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought. 1860-1915, 1945.

[22] ķ˹ܷʷϵĴϱսˣѧղķ˹ William James оС飬Ϊ˶ progressive movement ʱڵľ֮һҲǽաзѧ˶Ҫ˼Դ֮һ

[23] һ۵꾡֤ V. Hattam, Labor Visions and State Power, Princeton University Press, 1993

[24]B. Schwartz, Inside the Warren Court, p. 119. Doubleday & Company,

Inc. 1983.

[25] ͬϣ p. 120. Ժͨ飬Ҫϯ󷨹סɭ˵ɫһһһ족

[26] ͬϣ p. 117. ʷ˹ǣͨģֹĶñƷҪּΪᡰίԱᡱķɻ

[27] Adolf Berle ׷ԺʱڳΪʱڣȴǡίԱᡱ The Three Faces of Power, Harcourt, 1967 ǡִ˾˽вƲһĺߣȨͿȨķ롱Ϊҹѧ֪

[28]John Ely ֤ˡ򡱺͡ƽȱDZ˹áһ㻯дɵģ Democracy and Distrust һ飨 p. 30, Harvard University Press, 1980

[29] ޲Զ Arrow's Impossibility Theorem ֤ˡԭ򡱵ѭǺձģԭ A>B B>C C ִڣƫڣ A ѭ֡

[30] William Eskridge Dynamic Statutory Interpretation Harvard

University Press, 1994, p. 35 һϸ͡

[31]C. Wolfe, The Rise of Modern Judicial Review, p. 287, Littlefield Adams Quality Paperbacks, 1994.

[32] ϯ󷨹˵ػѡһоо

[33]Cass Sunstein, "Sexual Orientation and the Constitution: A Note on

the Relationship between Due Process and Equal Protection", The University of Chicago Law Review, 1988. Vol. 55, p. 1161.

[34] СȶȨǡ¢Ϸ¢ϡԷγɵģ롰

[35] Roberto Unger, The Critical Legal Studies Movement, Harvard University Press, 1986.

[36] ͬϣע p. 1171.

[37] ͬϣע p. 61.