ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 



˹ԭ򣺻̶Ԫι۵γɣлȨ



ҪԪιǹŴͻѧĺġҮյ춨˼ɰ˹Ͱ¹˹Ƚ̸ķչ˹ʽγɡ˹һϵͳز˽̻ľȨҵȨ˼롣

ؼʣ˹ Ԫι

ԪιǹŴͻѧĺġһս˵ȨκͼȨδͳһҲܾڽ̴ͳͬһڵʱȫµڽ̹ϵģʽı˰˰ľȨȨ̻ҡϵ۵롰֣֮߸ԵķΧʹ߱ijֽź͸ڵԵƽ⡣Ҫ̻еΣƾȨ׹ҵַȨ壬ͳ߽мලʹ׹˳׵νɫͬʱҲ̻Ὠ˵ɮεһιĻصγɾҪӰ졣

1Үѵ뵽¹˹ġ˫ۡ

Ϊ̵ĻԪι۵˼Үյ춨ġʥҮյһѵ룺ﵱϵ۵ﵱϵۡ1仰ֱӺǹ˰ѵȴʾ˻̶ԴȨ̻Ȩ֮ϵĸ̬ȡҮ״ڡ롰ϵ۵֮˶ԪָȨķΧȷϵ۵ȨΧΪǰ᣻϶ϵ۵ȨΧҲΪȨ˵̡仰ǰ໥޶ģҮղȡǶԪһԪ·ߡ

Үյ仰ɻ̶Ԫι۵ĽеѧָģҮյ仰˻Ҫԭ򡱡2Ȼ Үֻԭˡϵ۵͡ҮյѵҪѧǵIJͺ꣬ܳΪ̹ȨȨϵձԭ

ھʿ̹֮ǰ̻Ҽ䴦ڵж״̬̻ѧһںϷƷΧ嶨ߵȨޡͼڽ̸˼ھԪ˼룬G.˹ԽṹĽͷȷϡۡ(֮֮)԰һΪԴͣ3˵ûеõ˵ͬʵϣֻڡʿ̹֮󣬽ȨȨڵĺϷϵŻճ̡ ڽ̻úϷλԽȨȨյΣգӾʿ̹ʱ¹˹ʱ̻ἰ˼ǹעά̻ĶԼͽľڽܹҿƵɡ

̸γһʶΪȻԭһ֣ͬԭҲһУ̻С̻dzԶڹڲƽеġ̻ԼķɺԭԼȨȫڹҡΪںͶڹҵĽ̻Ȩ̻ҵĹϵֽϵȨĹϵԣܾʿ̹ʹ̹ұ˻̹ң̻һǰԼ־ܾκͳھеȨǵ³Ŭ(Rufinus of Aquileia)ʷб˾ʿ̹϶ǵĽأʿ̹dzȷ˵۹Ȩڽ̻ϵĽޡ̹׵سϣھ϶ûвȨ̶ȫͽȴвȨ4³Ŭ˹μصʷʵ޷ȷϣλǾʿ̹˵ҲӳǸʱ³˹Ľ̻ʿĹ۵㡣

󲻾ãǿܿƶߵĺ۹ԺϵȴԾܾʵκȨԤ̻ʿ̹ҪԤ̻ϵѰýʿƹ̻ܽҪסκη˶DZϵۣΪ԰ѽ̻ĹϽ֮£ͻɴ˵ڵǷdzģҲ־ʱһֶԽ̻ڹҸΪӵ5

˹ԭЩʵĽ̻Ҫչ˶Խ̻ҹϵĽΪĽ綨̹ϵȷ¼ԭ һ̻ڽϾжĹϽȨȨĸԤĿУ̻ijЩȨ˵ϵ۶İţʥĺͲµġҵĹϽȨ䵽ϸ˵ڽ̻ϡ

ڶʶ̻ԼIJȨеĻͽȼλζӡʵΪ̻ĶӣҲӽ̻Ȩͼɡʵڽ̻֮ڣ֮ϡȻʥԣֻͽзӵ񣬵ǣͳطʱʿǴ

ְԱ˾ȨеȨ

Ϊ˹ǽ̻ĵһߣҲʶʵȨеԵĽ̸֮һ6

˵˹ĿȨռƵΪ̻ȡڽϵĶȨĻ¹˹۹ҡҡ׹ľƣʼڼֵλ̧߽̻ᣬ͹ҡһ˵¹˹ûн̻ͬϵ֮ǣ׹ҵ֮ͬǡǵȺ֣ȵĺܳͷģǡĩѧʵ¹˹ֱĿģҪ̵δ۹˷ֿеʱͽϵ֮ǵͬڽ̻ᣬơ̻ھǻĹȣ֮7ȻȨϵϣ¹˹ȻΪ̻ȡλڼֵλ(Ȩϵ)˼ٰŽ̻ڹ֮ϵ

2˹ԭ

¹˹˫۾ԶǶԽȨȨϵľĽ綨5ĩĽ̻ʸ˹(Gelasius)ŵɡڸ˹Ӱ޴󣬲ںֱ춼޾ݵ飬Ҫεժ¼

494дʵ۵һУ˹д

ʵ۱£ȨͳţʦʥȨͻʵ۵ȨʦθЩΪĩʱҪ͹ϵ֪ʴȵĶӣϸ߾ȫ֮ϣڸʥЩǰϵص¸߹ͷѰþ֮ףڽƶȣʥĽܺȷϣӦ÷ӶͳΡЩϣǵж϶ʹ־ΪеĻȨΪڣзķɣôʣӦȳϷЩйʥ֮?

д496һλд

ڻ֮ǰЩȻȴϷͬʱͼ˾ǣλʦݰٺ󣬹ʦͷΣʦҲȨõȨҫΪ˽Ե㣬Ϊ䳼棬Ծ׵İ嶨ߵĹϵʵΪͲͬ٣Ȩλֿʹij򽡿ǫõȣΪĽٴʧ̻ʵΪ˵õҪʿʦʵĹְţΪԶ볾ֺϵ۵սʿҲ񣬶ЩҲƹʥ򶼱ǫǶͨʹһԼõÿһرʺԼְ𡣡8

3Ը˹ԭڹ

˹Ļ͵֮εر֤֧ҲԽ̻ʵȨȨԣҲȷϽ̻ʵԽλS.M.˵˹ĴӰ¹˹ġ̻ᡪ۹ۿͬĽͣ6ﱻ̻ʺͻʵʹá9

ıʵ壬ѧۡ˹λζʲô?еѧΪ˹ǽһ֡ƽĶԪ塱ԭ򣬵Ҳ˽ΪȷȨֹͬʱȨڻȨ֮ϡ

Ϊ5͵۷չһ׶ΣԪγɡ10˵˹ȨϵζţڻᣬȨίֲͬÿһȨϵۣÿһԼڶߵģÿһԼڶһ˹ҲʶȨڸԵߵģǻܻϵÿһԼߵģڣǴġھϷ̣Ϸӹ˹Ȩֲdz׵ģDzòϵʵڣijֹϵУÿһиһȨһ˵˹ܸоһߵⲻȫرܡȷֻ֤ʿְЩԣ˹ԭڶԪԭ򣬡ȷȨԪû˱ȸ˹ۡ11B.ضţ˹ĻȿɱΪ֧ƽĶԪ壬ҲɱΪֽ֧̻λ(superiority)12D.˽˹۹ΪƽĶԪ塱13

ѧΪ˹ʵϽȨȨ֮ϡW.ڶָӻʵ۵˹˼뼴ʹܽΪ̻塱Ҳ˶ƽĶԪ塪ƽȨ֧֣ɶԸ˹˵ʵȨԴϵ۵ڣʵ󹫽̻֮ڣζŻʵ̻ƽɫ̻ὩӲĽ̽ڣֻнʿʸʥĺڽ̵Ͻн̵ͷָʾֻн̻ϡ14ﲢûκʽľĶԪ塱ֻǡͶֹԭ򡱡15S.ҲΪڸ˹̻ȨȻʵ۵ĸҪǷƽĶԪ塣ʵ۷Ȩ̻ʹȻʵ۸ҪȨ16

Щѧע⵽˹ȨȨʱʹ˲ͬʦǡȨ(auctoritas)ڻʵ۵ǡȨ(potestas)E.˹˵Ȩζʵֵ֧ȨȨǵӰһЩѧڹ͡W.ڶָݸ˹ϤԣȨָڵͳȨȨִĴԵȨֽͣλǽ̻ȨıѧΪͬʹõģ˹ʹòͬdz޴ǿǣظûж塣17

Ͽܹ϶ǣ˹ȷ̷ֹԭ򣬼(ʦ)Ȩ͹(ʵ)Ȩֿԭ֪۹ĴͳȨϲ˹˼ǶԽ᳤̻ڶҪһĸֻлʸͬʱͼ˾Ȩ뽫߷ֿõġȨ͡ȨʵΣȷطʵۡʦݣԭһȨλ룬һ̡Ϊ˴˶򣬽˴˶ȨϵÿһԼڶߵģÿһһжҪһȨ

ȨֵĻϣ˹̸ߵȨ?һ׻ش⡣ݻȨڼֵϵɱȨǴҶܽܵġ˹ڴ˻ǰһҪԻʵ۵þȶϵ۸𡣵˹ŵĽ̻ȨϸڽûĽ̻ΪȨԴڽȨȨ֮ϣֻڹþȵϣʵ۸ҪʦûͼֶȨ׵̣ΪǰϣʦҪӻʵۡW.ڶһѧʧֵĿ֤У˴˼ʷչij̺͵ʱĴ󱳾жй˼Ŀ졣18Ϊ̻ʣ˹ǿ̻ȨʵʱȨԸڽȨֻȨܴȨĶԪֻƽ⡣ʱ̻ҪֻھϵĶȻƽȨҪָȨȨ֮ϡԣܺǿԴӸ˹ĻۣͬĻǶԪġʵϣʹŽȨĶԪ壬ڵʱҲֻһֹߵҪʵ۹ߺͷƶȸûнܶԪ̻Ķ޵ģʵۺϷʹŶԽ̻߼໤Ȩ˹ֻز̶Ԫ˼룬ʵֻҪȴʱա עͣ

1ʥ̫22£21ڣɸ12£17ڡ

2 Alexander Passerin D'entreves, The Medieval Contribution to Political Thought,Oxford University,Press,1939,p.11.

3 Lester L.Field,JR., Liberty, Dominion, Two Swords: On the Origins of Western Political Theology(180-398),University of Notredme Press,1998,.

4 R.W.Carlyle, A.J.Carlyle, A History of Medieval Political Theory , Barnes & Noble,Inc.,1909-1936, Vol.., p.177.

5 R.W.Carlyle,A.J.Carlyle,A History of Medieval Political Theory Vol.., p.177.

6R.W.Carlyle,A.J.Carlyle,A History of Medieval Political Theory Vol..,p.193.

7Augustine, City of God, The Leob Classical Library,.9.

8Brian Tierney, The Crisis of Church & State,1050-1300, with selected documents,Prentice-hall,Inc.,1964,pp.13-15.IJ˿Ӣĺ͡˼ʷģμR.W.Carlyle, A.J.Carlyle, A History of Medieval Political Theory ,Vol.., p.190.; J.H.Burns, The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought,350-1450,Cambridge,1988,pp.288-289.

9Stephen M.Feldman, Please Don't Wish Me A Merry Christmas, A Critical History of the Separation of Church and State, New York University Press,1997,p.28.

10R.W.Carlyle, A.J.Carlyle, A History of Medieval Political TheoryVol.., p.185.

11R.W.Carlyle, A.J.Carlyle,A History of Medieval Political Theory ,Vol.., p.192.

12Brian Tierney, The Crisis of Church & State,1050-1300,with selected documents,p.10.

13See Stephen M.Feldman, Please Don't Wish Me A Merry Christmas, A Critical History of the Separation of Church and State,p.300.

14W.Ullmann, The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages,Methuen,1970,pp.19,20-23.

15Walter Ullmann, Medieval Political Thought, Penguin Books Ltd.,1979,pp.42-43.

16Stephen M.Feldman, Please Don't Wish Me A Merry Christmas, A Critical History of the Separation of Church and State,p.29.

17See Brian Tierney, The Crisis of Church & State,1050-1300,with selected documents,pp.10-11.

18ʹϿ죬ڶĹ۵Ҳʧ֮Ƭ档Ϊ˹ĵطȨʹˡȨ(potestas)(Joseph Canning, A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300-1450.Routledge,1996, p.15.)


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