ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ӿ£ ô

Gilbert Larochelle
Univeriste du Quebec a Chicoutimi

Ҷ (¹ Wuppertal ѧѧʿ)


ۡ

֮Բҵ (intellectual property) ģʮִ͡ѧ (Kant) ϣ (Fichte) Ȼ (author) (author) (author) (author) ݣƷΪƷҵ磬Ϊ˸֮ԭִԽ (juridical individualism) Ͷ鱾֮߱ʵʽ (consubstantial link)֪ʶϽȨ֮淶ϵͳ (legal and normative system)ȻԲҵ֮ԭѴӸ϶ҡִԱָ֮׼ȻƷһϣṹȳִۡмڴˣijԽ⣺ƷԴ޷ָϣָ桢ӡ (copy) ԭֱܷ棬ܴڷ񣿿·ϣ鱾ԣ (Foucault) ߷λ (authorship)ɴ˶֮Ȩ (authority)ȱȽϿƶּ֮븵֮ѣͼһı֮ʽӽǣƷ֮֮ʵʶ

մϢ¿Ƽ쳣ӣʵбҪȫ̼֪ʶ봫֮ͨйΧƷ֮Լƴ󲿷ݴʮĩʩ֮УŲ֮Ӫ鼮֮ơȻ΢͵Ӹı֪ʶܹ֮Ȼʹ֮Ҫȴγڷǰʮꡣӵҵ (Diderot) ̩ (Voltaire) ӿµϣأɡ֮ɵ춨˹ɢϷ֮ɴ˶һΪ֮סȾӴߣɼһߣд (writer) Ϊ (author) ıΪҵ (literary property) ԼһΪ磬һ󹫹ռνԻȺ (readership) гת鱾Ϊɹ֮ӡ꼰ҵ򣬽Ȩע (registration of copyright) ֮ΪƷ֮עᡣ

֮ɣ˼ױ׼ձ֮硣ܹ֮޽ߡߡ߸֮ӵСݿ£ְ֮ȷij徭Ӫ⡹1˹滮Ҫ֮Ч廯 (entities) ֮ڷȨϳ˵֮λ (person) ǽΪ񣬶ΪȨ (authority status, auctor) ֮塣֧һʷʱʱ塣֮ (The legal protection of ideas) (invaded) гȨ֮߼Ʒƴ֮滯н綨Ʒ棩֮ԭʮĩҶ˼Ч֮ʵ࣬ǿԺԼѧ֮Խ綨Ϸ棨ȨƷ棩ԣ˲ҵ֮Ӷᣩ֮ޡ

ִѧԸɽ⡣˸֮漰·ȴǿ˸֮ (the base of its negativity)ȣԿԼн׻޶Ϸ߽2ڴԿСΣ޷һУᳫֱ£Ա (ownership) 3ԤƷ֮ᡢ֮֮ԤߣһкϷ֮ԴͷƷ֮ʸ (vector)ΪһִԻ֮ڵʻ֮˼ṹƷ֮׷룬˼ʼƷ֮

ִ߸дͣıijԺֱּ֮ӱ־ѧ֮սᡣι涨ԴУȻδδޡ鷴˼֮Ŀָ桢ӡԭӡ봴ֱ߲ܷ棬ܴڷȫִԻνʲô˵⣬˽⸵ηп·ϣ֮˵

һ ϣأȨִ֮

ѧѹ淶ܹ֮跨뾭ã˼ܹԼӦΪμдʵߺԡ빫֮ϵƻǰѧ֮ŲȻ˽ơԣ鼮鼮鼮߸֮ (authority) ϣʹ֮ȨԴ϶ģ̬綨߸ǿ·ǿƷִ˸Ʒ壬 (ownership)ӵ (possession) ֮֡Ϊ鼮ʵڣзλһ棬鼮Ϊ֮塹ΪŪ֮νͬг\ʱ֮Ӫһ棬鼮֮̾࣬ԣ壩֮4ձ壩ܻԼΪҵ߼֮ǿ (imposition)

һ˵ (paralogical) ṹ˿ʽͼʽ (schema) ֮˽ṹ֮չ빦ܶ˽ṹʹ߲ɹ˳鼮֮һз뱾壨˼ (noumenon) 󣨸д (phenomenon)͹ԣƷ֮ʵʽŽߣݷΣ໥ (reciprocity)ʹ߻෴ӳڿ£Ȼ˷ıܲƷ֮ʹ˿⣬ն߶֮ӵ......ݾظԱ֮5ڴӽǣ߽Ʒд˵ȳɷ֮ȨȴϮȡ֮Թ֮ԴΪߣ޴ӳе֮Ҳ˼֮ռԭ÷֮Ун׼б鼮֮λȨ (personal right) ʽԭij徭Ӫ⡹༭ί֮ѷҲָ֮ʶԣԭȷɡ

͹֮ԣڲ˵֮һ棬ʵȨ (real right) ṩӡ˺ϷԡڴʵȨǿɴ鼮ߣ֮ߡɼ֮ƷɷֽΪԼд֮˼롹ǰ߲ܿ廯ɾֶ֧֮Կţ佻ɴ˵Դٽдһ幫ʽӡ֮߾ͬһȨͬһ鼮˵飡岻һǰӸΪд֮Ϊת֮Ĭߡ6Ӵһ۶Ͽȡ۲졣ȣȨơΣoھ£ƷʼʵȨ˼ν޾֤ʾ֮ƷܳڣȨ֮Ӧó鼮ֹͣͨʱ֮ˡ

Ȩ֮涨Եģɡ߼ì֮ռ䣬ٱˣʼΪ˵ۺϡ½巨ںߣƾѧ֮һ棬Ʒּ֮÷֮۲ڲҵʹ֮ġνҲDzܲνӵߡֻ֮ӵ7ͬһػͬһ棬䷨涨Բҵ̣Ʒ֮ƽл䲻ɻԼԿɿ˷ݿ£Ʒмλʱ(Ϊ֮壩ƷΪ֮ʾʱһDZ (potential convergence) ʵ֮ۺϱ (synthetic representation) ΨһһϿ֮ʵ涨\ʽƷΪλ (person as such) ֮ӳ

ϣ֮ȿ±˸ʽ8ԴƷɷԭ֮졣λǵǿѧϡѧǿ鼮֮˵ϣ֮ǿʾ֮ײ༤֮֮֡׷Ϊһ⣬֮һ֤ΪΪ飿ҫ赻ǽֽϣдʱ֪ɴ˶侫ɷݻȨ9ڷϣأ鼮ʼΪп֮񡹡ʵ˾Դͷг乵ͨɲ˼顣֮ͬһԲҵ塣ߣڷϣأȨָ桸֮⾭Ӫ£ָȨ (usufruct) ֮衣˸ּڽȨ鼮֮ϸʹá鼮֮ҵԼνʡ֮ʵȨǵҸڴǰ

ϣ֤֮ڿ°汾֮ӲһֲӶƽ˿°汾Чڱ鼮ǽΪ֮˼룬Ϊſ֮񡣷ϣʼڴǰ⣺˾Ϊ֮󡣡10ԭ֮ʸ (vector) Ȼ˵ʸȴḻ䣬мȳȡ˼룬ֳȡ˼Ҳŵ޴ѧ֮෴ϣǿDz֮ʩΪ֮һݣɴ߽ڰȨ֮Ӧó򡣴֮Ը֧һ֮ԭ򡣷ϣдȻϲܣʾռߣΪ˼֮θΪչ¶֮Ǻ֮11ݴ˹۵㣬Ը˫êԲҵϷԴʽƷ֮ǺűԶͻƷ (signature) ֮Ҫ

ϣǰͺ̣鼮񻯣Դ֮ɾ͡ΪDzԸ֮Ͽɡ֮һ޵ (Rorty) ֮ЧӦּڰʵڵͬڴߡܴ֮Ž (solidarity) ֮ȨԼŽ޷⡣ǽ֮ҵޡ̩֧֮ȨϵͳìܡڴǰͼʽУƷȫϣ京иȡ֮ԣָƽߣȨᡣƷƷ죬Դ޴֤޷֮Ը෴ɰȨΪλ (person) ͸Ʒ֮ȥ衣

ʮĩҶȨ֮ѧṹܹ·ϣʽΪɡDzϳƣʹչ֮ԼЧȴӦָΧ֮弰¿Ƽ֮ͻͽʾȫûһ棬鳡֤ͨģʽԶ죬뷨Լ֮ܶȡһ棬νṹƫιṹٻ뼤򣬽ݻκָ湦ܡȻνƷشߣƷشʵڣı֮ʴ֮ЯֲȨ֮⺭Ϊ޷ָԴ֮ظԤռʱ (a multiple interference space of an inassignable origin) ԲٴڡװԽ֮丵зʾԲƷ֮ (claim to paternity) Ȼȥ

ִ֮

·ϣ֮ԼʽԤ裺ǩ (signatories) ΪȻռпռ֮ͬһ (their identity as a natural appropriation space) Ӷֱػһ֮ΪʼȻִ֮Ȼ (modern jusnaturalism) ֮ƫΪһȻ֮ת֮ȨƷΪ֮֮ (the expression of a work on self)Ʒλߣһȼ֮θ񡣸³ɴ˵֮ԭͣͼҡԭ״ݻܹ֮ҪһƪһʽѧЭ֮ģɵԻ󣺡ôߣĻһɷԿʽ弰λ֤ܹ֮˭ı˵һ費Ϊ档֮෴дӱܸ֮νȫΪһ˼֮߻ռָ (designator) 12֮дӷdzɻԼǹ龿֮װǻһѧʶ̬Ϊһ鱨档֮ƷԴ֮ȷԡ13

ڳ֮һ14˾ᴮ֮У־ָ̣Ȩɴ˶Բҵ֮СʮĻ\֮ıبԲҵݸ£Ȩ (signature privilege) Ծȷһϰ (attribution exercise) ָӦȨһ֤֮Ҫ (a priori) Ķѡ񡢹̶ޡųԼԡҪ֮ʷ

֮⣬Թ鹹ӡͨһıԼһռ£ߡܾǰ¼ȵȡģʽ˳˼裬뾭о߸ָϳ֮ƷΪֹ֮Ը󣬹ɯʿΪ֮ʵߣһ籾ijһ˴Ĺ֮壬˹עڴΣһ׼滯֮ȫƿʼ\ԴģӺΪɯʿΪز֪ߣ޶һڹ (another coherence) ֮̽жı֮һĶΪ˭͸ж߶赥һڹᣬͬԵλϡþ򣺡ıϸ֮ʥ֤ıִֵ֮ʹü֮ͼʽƷСѰҡߡ15

һ󴦾ʲôضƷ䴴֮кν棿ڸʽչʾνۣı岢Ҫ֮ݻıDZֵ֮ԣڴ˼ֵԣֹΪ¼˹?ά (Lawrence Olivier) иʶ֮ëΪơΪϡ֮һʽ16۲첡нṹҩƷ֮ҩı֮֮·Լ֮Ϊ17ǿţʶĶεģܻ֮ʶƷ˹ģ֪ΣָܷԴΪ֪񣬸ΪܴӴһ֪ʶκβءԶ׼һѧãԴ֮˻һѧƣѧ˰ܻ֮ɣ塢׵ԡ䲻һԴ͹۵㡣

ʵȨ (author\'s authority) ߷˵֮ʧΪ֮Ч֮⹹18ɽ?˹ (Alexander Nehamas) һνд (writer) 봴 (author) Ȼ롣ǰսжı֮ڹͽ̻壬ڹͽ̻ı֮෴߿дΪʹ֮ƷΪԼ˵Ը֮ʼ19ݸ£ڣΪʽԭȻΪռˣ߲޶¡ı߽ģ߽Բܽװ²ԷԶڶԵԡд߶Ⱥ֮룬涨ܾΪ֮Ӷ֮ϵȻˣںִﲻٴԲҵǴ֮ߣҲΪ䴴ߡ˹̷ԸҲ

ԭΪϷ룬ϸ顣ԭſ߼ᣬܻ֮ԼΪ֮ɴӡ֤֮ơȻڱ缰ʷʫддʵҳ\ȴκ20ʮ֮ߣʹΪһλ񡹣ԡ֮ѵƷһȱ֮ӡѵܷǽΪٴ֮Ȩ (authority)ڹ֤ӡ (certified copy) в֮ (configuration)תƴ֮壿ִߡȴţ粻ͬͬıġӡƩʵӽǣʴˣ粻ϸı䣬ٲƷǹ֤ӡԵo˼֮͡

ִȻʽ21ȻԹдڲֹ֮\岻ֹܸͣ಻ܸڶޱκظͬʱΪ֮ٸ裬ִ֮ս˹۵ѧɣϻװΪд֮ظ˼ (repetition thought) 22֤Ӵ߼֮ڶԣԾ࣬һܱϻܹ֮ͨƷԴԽһǺ磬ﲻΪʵ֮塣23

Բҵ֮ʹҼ֪֮ʶҪ֮У?ŷ (Jean-Francois Lyotard) Ϊ˼Ȩ̶ֳȻֲҵʵǴ⡹24ΪʱϵСӦüֵ֮25ϵػƷߡܾϿΪд֮رա26ڹͬӵ (common possession) ߡˣ֮ʵʵڴӸԴ㳣ɢ֮ռ\֮СǶ (Vandendorpe) ?Ÿѷ (Roman Jacobson) ֮ἰ壺Գﲻ˽вҵһнữ27ִ˼Ҳִ֧򣬶ҸԽ֮Ϊд֮oڽıԣԭ֮䣬ȷ֮Ʒ֮䣬֮ƽŲУƷ߽һ֡Ի塹 (Ϳ˶(Bakhtine) ) Է¡֮չʾoð֮ͼʽͣ޿ɹԴ֮֮ (a mixture of contributions having no attributable origin)ɴԭֹ֮

Ӹŷӵ (Derrida) Ƕ (Baudrillard)ݷдθ˲Ӧһ׽⹹ָ (autoreference) (þԼΪԼƷ֮) ֮滮ݷγһΣγһ졣ִаһ֮адʵаƷڷ˵壬һִɢ֮ӿ֡£֤ҵ׹Ҫ⣬֮Ӳ屳¡ŷıִа֮鼮28̹ϴԸɡȻ¶ģһ֮Ĵһ (mysticism) ɹ涨֪ߡ˲ɱԻߣ㳣ڵ֮ڴ˷棬һ鼮֮ȷʵ¶ҪSauf le nom ֣29ڿΪ£ߣɴӱԻӱܼų⡣ָ (heteroreference) ԶԵ˿ʽ鼮֮ƷܹҾԶΪߡ֮ߡ30ȹλı֮

߸дλһӰ죻ͱİԣӺִ֮֮һӰ졣ʽλ֮޷˷֮ìܣ֮ȡʸ಻̶áz֮{սͼڴ˵ìܱԵָϵ·Ѱŵz֮{֤Ƹһ߼һƷ֮۵㡣оٺִԿ֮ش֮Ҫ̣Ȼṩһ֮ܶΪۡ

(һ) 뷨֮롡ǻΪִʹ߻Զ롣Ԥ¸ּװӺ֤ߣŷڶԽ֪֮ʶ¼Ȩ£ʼڴԸ֮Ȩ֪ʶ跨 (Ʒ֮ͳһִý֮ȥƷԴ֮ѧ֪ʲôΣʲô֮塣

() ʷı֮롡Ʒֻṩָֻ֤ʷԭΪƷ֮ԭ򣬵ƷΪʷճ֡ƷչȰƷʷУʷз˹ڸģʽʷΪȪԴzһۣ{ʷƷִ֮߳ԽƷʷΪʷṩ˶ʵ塣La grammatologie ﰴıʱ߼Ϊ塣

() ֮ζ֮ӡ޺Ϸԣ˸ģ̬֮롣֮ʵǿij֮Σһָ֮ʾ壺respondereνܶ𡣶Ժִ˼Ҷԣ֮Ϊܣȷ֮λзӳƷ֮Ϊܣԭ֮ʧ֮νijΪı֮Ϸ֮𺦣˶ԭةzƷ{֮ʹκʽ֮ϿΪáֹȨֹz{֮롣Ƕ죬ڴԾУ֮͸˷ʽΪձ淶31²ȥij֮Ȩҵ

ںִôЩǰ۲ˡȻֹۣҲ֤Խʽ֮Բ֡ȣڴ뷨֮棬¡ŷ޷Ͽд߶Ǵߣǰ˹֣֮֮ʽߣӺִѧ֮ԭ޷ܾ\

Σʷı֮⡣ʷ (intrinsic) 壬ıΪߣΪ֮ʵʷܻ֮ǰ涨κ£ΪƷ֮֮ݡһ֪?ϣ (Adolf Hitler) ǵɯŮ (Mother Teresa) дMein Kampf [֮ܶ]ݲ½ϸzƷ{д֮ʷʵ֮ҲıƷ֮Ķ˸֮塣˷ν\ע֮߶DZΪֱӻתѶϢ֪֮ʵ֤ģʽܿһУִ塣Ϊ֮壬ıⲻɻȱ (Gracia) £ıʵҪʷߣı߼ıʷıʷı壬༴ıҲ32ıʷ廥ΪθҪȷ߷ɳ֮ߡ֮ΨһԴһ·֮һֺ弰壬Ȼȴӹ֮˵֮ո¶֮Ըд

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2001/06/02


ӿ£ô- Gilbert Larochelle Ҷ

ע

1 Emmanuel Kant Qu\'est-ce qu\'un livre?, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, Coll. \"Quardrige\", 1992, 120 ҳ

2 Neil Maccormick \"The Ethics of Legalism\" in Ratio Juris, Vol. 2, July 1989, 184193ҳ

3 ڵºϷԲҵ֮μ Paul Steidlmeier \"The Moral Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Claims: Americans Business and Development Perspectives\" in Journal Business Ethics, Vol. 12, 1993, 157174ҳ

4 Emmanuel Kant ǰ134135ҳ

5 ͬϣ119ҳ

6 ͬϣ131ҳ

7 Bernard Edelman La proprite littraire et artistique, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, Coll. \"Que sais-je?\", 1989, 35ҳ

8 Jocelyn Benoist \"En guise d\'introduction au texte de Fichte\" in Qu\'est-ce qu\'un livre, 99ҳ

9 J. G. Fichte \"Preuve de l\'illgitimt de la reproduction des livres, un raisonnement et une parabole\"ؿEmmanuel Kant Qu\'est-ce qu\'un livre?, 142ҳμFichte: John Lachs \"Fichte\'s Idealism\" in American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 9, no. 4, October 1972, 311318ҳּͬһ߹ڷϣ \"Is there an Absolute Self?\" in The Philosophical Forum, Vol. XIX, Nos. 2-3, Winter-Spring 1987-1988, 169181ҳ

10 J. G. Fichte, \"Preuve de l\'illgitimt de la reproduction des livres...\", 142ҳ

11 ͬϣ145ҳ

12 Michel Foucault \"Qu\'est-ce qu\'un auteur?\" in Bulletin de la Socit francaise de philosophie, Vol. 63, No. 3, 1969, 7374ҳԴıۣ֮Alexander Nehamas \"What an Author Is?\" in The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. LXXXIII, No. 11, November 1986, 685691ҳ

13 ȡƹ۵㣬μRoland Barthes S/Z, Paris, Seuil, 1970, 140ҳڸ¼ԸԴ֮Archlogie du savoir, Paris, Gallimard, 1969, 65ҳLarry Shiner \"Foucault, Phenomenology and the Question of Origins\" in Philosophy Today, Vol. 26, Winter 1982, 312321ҳJohn Stopford \"The Death of Author (as Producer)\" in Philosophy and Rhetoric, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1990, 184191ҳHugh J. Silverman \"Authors of Works/ Readings of Texts\" in The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. LXXXIII, No. 11, November 1986, 691692ҳ󣬹ڸԴһۣ֮Collin McGinn \"On the Necessity of Origin\" in The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. LXXIII, No. 5, March 11, 1976, 127135ҳ

14 Michel Foucaultǰ75ҳ

15 Michel Foucaultǰ86ҳ

16 Lawrence Olivier Michel Foucault. Penser au temps du nihilisme, Montral, Liber, 1995, 56ҳ

17 ͬҳ

18 Michel Foucault L\'ordre du discours, Paris, Gallimard, 1991, 28ҳ

19 Alexander Nehamasǰ685686ҳ

20 Christian Vanderdorpe \"Le plagiat entre l\'esthtique et le droit\" in Le plagiat (sous la direction de Christian Vanderdorpe), Ottawa, Les Presses de l\'Universit d\'Ottawa, 1992, 7ҳ

21 οJacques Derrida \"Cogito det Historie de la folie\" (ؿ L\'criture et la diffrance, Paris, Seuil, 1967, 5196ҳ) Michel Foucault \"Mon corps, ce papier, ce feu\" (ؿHistorie de la folie l\'age classique, Paris, Gallimard, 1972, 583603ҳ) ֮ۡ

22 Daniel Giovannangeli criture et r䨦ptition, Paris, Union Gnrale d\'ditions, 1979, 15ҳ

23 Jacques Derrida La voix et le phnomne, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1967.

24 Jean-Francois Lyotard Drive partir de Marx et de Freud, Paris, Calile, 1994, 12ҳ

25 ͬҳ

26 ͬҳ

27 Roman Jacobson Essais de linguistique gnrale, Paris, dition de Minuit, Coll, \"Points\", 1973, 33ҳ

28 Jean-Francois Lyotard Drive partir de Marx et de Freud, 13ҳ

29 Jacques Derrida, Sauf le nom, Paris, Galile, 1993.

30 Jacques Derrida, Force de loi, Paris, Galile, 1994132ҳǾ죬ڴ (essai) սᴦΪҷõ (l\'autre)Զ (l\'autre) (signe)˴ (essai) 軮 (signe) ߡ (signature) ֮ (essai)Ϊȡȥ (s\'emporte)༴Զ (l\'autre) (signe)ȫ (autre)(\"Toujours l\'autre signe, voil ce que signe cet essai. Essai de signature qui s\'emporte dans sa vrit, savoir que toujours l\'autre signe, le tout autre\") (134ҳ)

31 Jean Baudrillard La transparence du Mal. Essai sur les phnomne extrme, Paris, Galile, 1990, 128129ҳ

32 J. E. Gracia \"Can There Be Text Without Historical Authors?\" in American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3, July 1994, 252ҳ



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