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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 



人ѧѧڡ



õ񣬴ٽչ--Բ˼ά

Ϣҡ

--˹ܸѷ

йǰȽӡܡ̫ӡ񡱡ӡչĽչΪĺĿִ꣬ϢͨѶƽҵ˼֮ԲսԣսָµĵĿꡣΪ˺Ϸԡԡԡ͸ԡӦԡ׼ԡԺ԰˴Ŀ꣬ڵǰ׶ΣйѡԵطչ˴󡱡ӻ㡱͡ӲΡĿ

һص

ҪԴٽΪĿ꣬ôٽʲôأԹ˸ʵ飬˸ۡеϵģеڵϵġܴٽ޷ʵֵаֻܴٽԲˣԵDzһֲ¶壬ǿѭĸʽʲôˡԡʲôʽԡʲô¡ӡʲôӰ족

һ ֱ

νֱһͬУȫϸһ壬һͶƱʽն򣬶ԹߵƶӾԵӰ졣

һ׷ݵϣŵ䣬ʷϵһʵֱĹҡʵֱʽǹᣬ200ꡣʢʱڣԼÿڻ60008000μӼᣬشߡ

ܵʱдū͸Ůųھ֮⣬˻ǽŵΪֱһ䷶ΪյľǸμӵĹɵĹʶġ

ȱ㣺һ޴⣬ƽ񼯻ᣬһ޷ҪߵгֵġԵۣͨҥԹƻܼݣľߣոоˣǹģ⣬ŵһǼǧ˼ᣬѾڹͨ⣻ǼˣأǿͶƱǼʮˣԼͶƱˣֻһ𻶺һ£ˡǧˣֹûˡ

ôִģУֱ޷ˡǣֱijʽڣǾżʹһµĹͶƱͶƱǽijЩش⽻ֱӾ˵ʽһǹȷϣǽƶķɽijֶƱͨǽߣҪijֱߡ

Źҹģֱ޷Ϊγ̬ûҵµʽǾڵ۹רͳһǧֱ꣬ҵ

νȫ幫ѡĴɾ壬һҲͶƱʽԹľʵʩӰ졣ڶѧ߷Ϊִ䣬ܵܶսռλá

ԼɪܱضΪѡپУھӢӢھȡеѡƱԻȡߵȨĶУǿԵóļҪأ

1 Ԫ ˾ְλ

2 ѡٲĴԱ湫йߣ

3 ѡٲ ɡͶڵѡ٣ѡԱ

4 ҪۡͽɣȷЧľͲ롣

IJԽǿҪһԵѡٴˣؾᣬʡʱʡԼ֧ھѡлʤһȽȶͲϷԳ㡣ѡ֮ճͽ˴ˣޣ׼͹˼ǵۡѡٻڣڣȽײ⣬İȣеĹл뵽ʹѡٴ˵ȨΣɹ㷺ɣǿѡֶȲҪڴڼѹҲҪڸ˶õѹ̶ԿĴڣǺƽӺƽԿл档

ֱʹ˵participatory democracyһֿΪƶȵֻͣǶһǿֱǴҪģڲߵУIJ̫խֱIJʵ֡ˣҲôʻ£""ϣ͡ӱ֮ǽ""λãǿһԷԸIJ룬DZ룬DZȲ롣 ϣԽֱʹûܸһЩÿһ㣬ǾͿԽһЩµ鵽£ݸgrassroots democracyѯconsultative democracydeliberate democracyȡ

ݸ ""еĹϵϣڹиԼˣڹԼáȻ͸幫˵ʲôʽֻҪߵһ࣬ÿþͻ½10У幫ʮ֮һһ˵УƽȲĻ幫Ҳͳ˰֮һij൱㡣ˣҪָ幫еãҪ㹻СͱȽϺõطֶ塣ˣνݸҲڻʵеĹйλȡ

ѯ ǿ߹Ҫ㷺ȡˡʵʩߡרԼȤĹȷЩ߿ԶԾ߷Ӱ죬Ǿߡԭϣ߿ԲǵҲԲǵԣӦñȽϹ㷺Ȩ壬Ǵ壬ϵͳϵͳԲѯһ棬߾ѯʵеıʽ顢̸ᡢ֤ȡ ܵͱ͵һҪԭȱǻۣ״ˣҪһ˼ǵḶ́ľҪùΪĹ񡣷ԹʿҪɾͨ޷ͬߺרȣǶԹҪ֪ʶ˽̫١κι߶漰ϢһרҵϢǹ漰ֻоרҵѵ˽ϢרⷽƣһǹϢǹ䷽Ϣⷽ棬רҺͨûʲô𡣹ߵʵڵڶϢ˵ڶϢǾͿԽйۡճĹУЯеһϢƵھռƣмֻͬӵеڶϢ˽ۣĽ򳣳ͨڵ档

Ҫǣ1ѵѧṫߵһ㼼ܣҾͰ˽ֹʡԼԼӰ죬ߺר򹫹֪ʶ2飬ԼĵĹͽ飬ǿԳΪijɻߵĴο3ۣʽĺͷʽ̳ijֹչۣҪõָ֯Ա֤ijֺ룻4Ӱ죬˼۵ijɹҪԹ߾ӰҪһֻƱ֤߹зá

ڷչĹУ˼·һְԴϣͨͽʷݣһǽΪIJḻƴ

ʵķչ˵һ˼·ʵֵĿܣڶ˼·ǿܹΪܣֲѡٲIJ㣬ܹΪչܣȨµĽŹϵʽϢʱֲԡԵIJ֮·һֵÿ϶ѡ

ڴչȽϳĹңԲձܵ˼·ڴչĹң˼·ҪǡԲ˼·ֵйķչй濼ǣƶһԼսԡ

ʲôǵ

жĶ壬žжٵĶ塣ϻʵУֻһ̽еڶĸֽͻֻdzԵġ

ʷġǵߣ1994մݵĵϵͳȫ˶䡣Ϊָǡǿ̣Ϊ˻ȺṩĻᣬΪṩȺѰĻᡱ1ǴߣǿIJֵDz빫ۣΪ˻ȺùҪϢ

ոĹʵΪµICTǿ߹̣ٽ--رͨѯ͵ߵķʽոʵΪģոȫȽϵͳֵǿֻϵһǹԹĿһǹԻزƶ̡

Ӣ߶Ի򽫵򵥵ضΪõԹ̡2վصǿ˵ѯϵͳΪϵͳ֧ߣΪͬǰӡˢֽķһICTиıľ޴DZDZڴٽҵķϡ

2004224յӢѧҡ־϶ԡоICT෢չǿָּȨͨתƣͨѶÿδı仯ӡˢֽӣնϵĴ仯ͨûбԤ⵽ɶ̬ģ޴ʱԼı仯ֱ仯ʲôĿǰǺߵ--ȨξӢͨת--ʵ3

Ĭ´ѧİˡ¡˵Ķ峣ICTӦúĿ棬̺ƶȴ·4ˣΪܽΪICTеļӦãӦǿα죬ⷽҪֲͬɫж

ЩҪԵǷûпǷչĶˣΪһȫԵĶ壬ǿԽΪһICTΪߣҪأ̣ƶչҵijЩչ˵صICTҪأڷ˵صICṬȫ˵ҪICTƶ޵Сٵࡢӵ͵ߵķչ

ֲϵġһϵоĿ꣬ҪЩĿɾķ

ĿĿأ˵ĿĺIJ֡йѧƽĿ꣺1ϷԣȨԾϿɺͷӵʺ״̬2͸ԣϢĹԣ3ԣָǹԱΪĸ̶ȣ 4ΣɳΪι׼5ӦԱ͹ԹҪʱĺ͸ķӦ6ЧҪָЧ5

˵ߴĿ꣺ 1κ2ϷԺ⣻3ͷ 4ʹ͹ƽ׼5Ч;ߣ6ѯ7μӺ6

ĿϹǧԣԸICTٽĺͲʽ¸߻ӦԺЧԵ

ǴӡԲĽǶȣİ˴Ŀ꣺1Ϸ(legitimacy)Ŀ꣬ȨܹõĹ㷺Ͽɣ2(representation)Ŀܹ꣬Чش3(accountability)Ŀ꣬ԱIJΪܹܵ׷4(openness)Ŀ꣬ϢûйΣյܹ񹫿5Ӧ(responsiveness)Ŀܹ꣬õʱ͸ĻӦ6׼(access)Ŀܹ꣬ƽصõ񣻣7(engagement)Ŀܹ꣬㷺μӹ̣8(deliberation)Ŀܹ꣬۹⣬Ӱ칫ߡ

˴ĿеǰҪĽǶģӳ˴ҪҪӹĽǶģӳ˲Ҫ

ӺϷ

һֹ벻ȨȨ벻ϿɡϿɵʺͳ̶ȾνĺϷԡ˹ΤĶϷ֣1ͳͺϷԣǹȨͳѪԵϵϰߵȶñߵϿɣ2ͺϷԣǹȨĸñߵϿɣ3ͺԷǹȨϺԵķɻñߵϿɡ

ִϷԵĺڡϺԡй˵Ļ˵ҪҪ񽲳ɣ˵ԼȨԴģܹάȥиǰᣬߺͱߣ˵빫񣬶ͬij֡ɡ˵ԼȨɣ˵ʱߵȨͻijֺϷԡɡֻijضʱͿռڵĹʶʶζеţǴ󲿷š󲿷ijֹʶأҶҪ֪ʶķ֤Ȼ𣿲ǡΪŶŵģЩȨ˵ĻЩȨ˵Ļνʶ̬Ȼʶ̬ģҪʱľ ˣϷԵĻҪֹһǴʱľ߼ǽ͹Ȩ־߼ִͽ;ֱӺͼӵĹ ԺϷԵ׾ֹ棺

1ѸٶشʱľһʱľҪΪξ񣬶ʮ͵ξ˶ʮһͣ־Ȼûиı䣬ʽȴ˱仯ǾDzԽԽĿռ䡣вΪԣͻ˴ͳռĸϰͱݣ޲ضԴÿһǰˣԺ׵زԼʲôʱʲôصʲôʽõʲôԹ۵еǣǿΪϾԵģٿ˵Ժ׵Ϊ񣬶øס

2ڽʶѧϰ߼Ÿָվȫ빫ҵȺ֮ǰδеϢҵ񻥶˼ѣ䶼лýԽԽʶһ͵µĸ硰ŻһվʽЭͬ׼롱μӡ顱ϵһ߼ȫͬڵȼΣҲͬڴĿǰֻ֮ܳΪʽĻϡ 3԰ùͬ⡣ʾ˼룬ʵпӹжٻIJǣȸṩ˱ĴڣҲΪṩ˱ĴڣΪṩᣬԼΪʵ֤ṩϢΪԼΪн͵ܹõ֧ͬ֡᲻⴫ͳȨȼṹҪȨȼԸΪķʽڣһֽķʽʵת䡣

ϢʱҪ֤ԼĺϷԣҪùϿԼȨᶨŵȡʵʩ֮⣬ҪЧҪվӡģ顣ģϣҪƶȡļ¶ùӶΡͬʱҲҪǰѾƺѳʵرȡͬ顣

ȡΪⷽ棬մݵľֵòοdzλǵ˰ա֧ΪԻù⣬Ҳײ᲻ڻϿһԤϢߡϵͳΪӮϷԵҪٴ롣ϵͳֵע1Ԥľݷŵϣùѯ2ԸԤı绤Ҳŵϣù3ṩһĿùϵͳͨЧdzԣùĻѼƻ˸õ˽⣬ͬʱҲȷе֪ĹעȽаյضԤϵͳڽһ֮УƩ˵׼ʵʿ֧ĿľϢ񻹲̫˽⣬ǻڴıС ڰһԵ˽ṹ͹ܷ棬ôվϵġĿֵò룬ṩ˹˽ôļӣȫ渲ṹ͹ܣڰ֪ϿɺͼԦá

ġӴ

һҪǣɹѡĴԼõҡ壬һѡĴܹѡΪƫѡѡĴܹЧؽǴĺݡ ͵һ˵κʵĴУΪѡ֮䶼ڲ࣬Ҵһѡ֮Լѡʱѡijŵ죬ôڵһڣڱŵΪһ㶼һ죬˵ڶڣΪѡٳŵ֮ͻиIJࡣ

˷ƫһַʽѡ֮ľԼҪѡ֮䱣־ϵͳϵ߷ú͵绰ȷʽǰǴѡҰ˽飬Ǵѡĵ绰ѡΪѡ¡ 缼Ϊṩµķʽ˵ʼ֮⣬Աѡ֮Ļ̳̳Ǵѡר̳Ҳijֹ̳ںͲڵѡ̸ij⡣ѡҲѯΪҪεĴ𸴡

͵ڶ˵ҪԸгŵҪгŵиԵģijרҵ֪ʶȣҲнṹԵģڹеõȡ

ǰûЧܵս

һǹֱӲ۹⣬ڴܹ⽨š̳˶ȣ趨̵ǰɴġ ϢʱֵƺȴΪԾΪǿ󣬵űȴ鲿иICTͶʣζ˵Ϣߣ빫ֱӵĻвѧΪϢķչʹȨӴתƵ

Ƚ϶ԣڶսǸΪصģǰһսΪԴ䣬һսǶԴܹвǶвڼô󣬽һۣǹ֯ĹѯԱõ⡣֯ѯǵеһ㣬ΪԻԵı֣Ҳ˵ģȨʧı֣Ա˶˶ԣICTֱӶЧ빫ͨѡý⽫ȫصȨƽ⡣

еĵҵŵļ͹ͨICTʩȱӦͶҲıԱãԼı乫ȨӰĿ ձΪѡ˵ԱûʲôãôҲ١ʵΣˡ

Ϲᡱ̳ 2002ָսԣЩңijԱʶôΣ֮СȻңʶûӰ쵽쵼ߵս˼

ܽϢʱڿԤδȻȻҪӹؼãԽϸߵԷɺ鰸˼ǵȻйؼ塣ˣҪһҪڹзӸЧá

ͨȫ͹ְԱ͵ѡԱĵ飬ֻ֣лԵICTͶʡҴ󲿷ֵͶֻǼϢϢ׼׶ΡǼȲרΪ˸ƴ߹̣ҲΪù׵Ӱ̡

ΪˣȫĴµĽ飺

1ÿ̲ĺϷĹϢһֽŷʽӷʽ͵κ˻κεطҪԺõĵʽùڲġ

2µġ仯ĺ͸µݣҪʱ֪ͨڣԱǸܵϢȡʵĸжʹöּʼSMSıݺ߹߽棩֪ͨԻ

3ICTǿίԱ̼á֤ǹԵģôԶ̼ලͲΪܡͨƵƵеġ֤ͽܿʵʱߴ

4ӹ䣬ڷǵɻϹԱʹã֧ԱŬͬĹиܵĹͨͻѡٻӦΪԱһ׼ICTӦûƽξĵͶʡбҪṩICTʩѡʩ֮佨һϡ

5ⲿϢι̡ⲿϢϢڸ͵ѡԱǾ޴ģЩϢͨĹˡȫ翪ŵϢΪڵѡǵľߣ˱ִȫijֿŶDZҪġ

⼸Ҫ̵ӻij֡ᡱŬѾõĻӦ2002꣬һطѡԱ͹Աĵ飬ڵ۷dz档88%ܷùԱʹʹǿѡϵ˵73%߹ԱΪϵǸõ⹫ڵ56%ΪĹϵ54%ΪǽӴǰû˵Ĺ7

ҪָǣġָԱָѡٲԱˣڸЧҲǡЧɲ֡вٹѾʹߡʮǰͿʼʹһ߾ϵͳڸ֮ǰDZ߾һһļб̬֧۵յĻɾ ӦIJɥʧ˵ȨרŵͶƱȨڣڸ80%ľɵӷʽģʡ˾߳ɱ

ݲٰº಩ʿPaula Tiionhen˵ֻѵڻؽġ8 ٰº಩ʿǷδίԱְԱµĵĿӦý칫Һ͹Ժľ߹̴ߵĽ׶ΡôʡǰDZŻ飬ڵIJյ߸ױʡСڸ顱תɢ9

ܾǴһҪĿ꣬ѧˡresponsible government͡(accountable government)Ҫʵ塣߾кأ߶ҪԼΪеΣеĹ̺ͷʽһ

ĺҪ㷺Աһ˲εΪҪܵ۵ָܵϼܵŵ𷣣Щij̶ֳ϶ԳΪĺ塣ͨ˵ĸҪΪӵļҽ̸𡱣һôĸĸôأܻܵĺ۵Ǵܵӡĸijͷ֮⣬û˭׷ˡ

иϸĺ壬accountӢĴʸǡaccountҲ˵һΣбʵġ塱Ҫͨ˵ijijҪԡ˭˭ίл͹ˡ塱һ׷ΡӦͨ壬ģʽ£һΣӦίеĻ׷Ρ

˵ȨIJŶԱIJ׷ܹڸ̶϶Լж̺ͽ

ȻϸĩڷչйңڷңĹڲ½Ǹε˿ڱ½״ѾԱרѧߺ͹ǿҹע

20033£֯OECDڡڱС߼˵

ܹ빫֮ΣζҪġICTܹùμ߹̣ٽĺҰֹܣξֹвġ10

ΪʲôҪΪĿأõЧĸ߲ʿģһЩɱԼͷĿȤ

2000꣬һ ׿ԽίԱᡱֵ֯һε绰飬ַӳҪ11ݵҪѡʲôҪġõģ£

28%Թ

19%Чʺ͸۵

18%Ϣĸ̶߳ȵ׼룬

16%ܹṩҰȫ

13%

6%û/ȷ

Щȶʱ䡣2000꣬׷ݽʱ쵼˶еԾΪǰĺܶϢǿҵءȫڳɱԼЧʻú͹档ڵϢ׼롱͡𡱵ĽָICTڴٽ÷Ҫ

ӱȽϵĽǶȿ2001꣬жʿձƵĵ12ͬʹƵģ

31%Թ

16%Чʺ͸۵

15%Ϣĸ̶߳ȵ׼룬

27%

11%û/ȷ

20002001ձͬǣձѡ񡣶Ҷλ

Щ飬ԵߵĺǣʲôICTӦܹأ ǹҪеĺôܴԺϢ׼룬ܴЧӦüӮùͬԣǰߵķҪʵ񷽰ֱӦȫ㷺Ŀݡ

ʵĿмӷʽֱӷʽ֡νӷʽǵŸ֮ԽԽΪ¶֮£ͼලſԸ׵طֲΪƩ˵ЭŵƻأЧؼලŵҵкʽ̡ලŻͶЭ硰лͶá

νֱӷʽ磬ֱԹѹһֻδ繫ҪԴʹԼIJΪ2003йҪ¼һǺѧ־ڹ㶫ݡŹļ󷴵йϳǶͷĿӿһ̣󱻸Ĺߣ߷Ժȡ˼ʹõжΪ̡Dz˵۵нȷĹϣܹⱾӦĽܹʩӰ죬ӦεĽ

͸

½ij̶ֳ͸йأǺԼ˽Ķ빫֮ϢԳձ󣬶ʱϢԳDz̫ܵġҪҪϢƫбѧ߹ƣĿǰϢ80-90%ΪƺռСʵУиָɲϢЩùϢĹһ⣬󲿷ǿԹģľúЧ档֢ǣԱϣûмල¿չӱܼලһЧ;üල߲˽

ںܶ෢չйңǸоκءܸʵϣαأϲղĽʹʵ˴пصġʷϣԮɣùලŵõҪϢͳͱȽϲȨΣˮ¼֮ǿϢɷƽƻ

йѾʶ͸ı׶ˣĴƽ񹫿20044£ȫڶ񹫿ٿȫ񹫿쵼С鳤Ҫȫƽ񹫿˺ڽܡǡ־ɷʱʾȨȺصĸֻҪڵ͹һܣҪṫȫ湫ϢԸõؽලʵֹ֪ȨڽҪ塣

񹫿߱κ壺һʵ幫Ӧܵij⣬Ӧһɹڳ򹫿岻Ҫʵ֣ҪԿüķʽʵ֣ΪҲˣҪķʽõʹҪԿü͸ʽ񹫿

ִICTΪ򹫿ṩҪֶΣij̶ֳϣƶ£񹫿ĽȸСΪڣܶڸǵܿڻϹˣڱεľء䱻ӦԣعһЩұȽѸٵ˷Ӧ1996꣬ԡϢɷּҪԵӻֶδٽϢɣֹԭ򣬡´֮Ҫᡱ

ʵֻҪһ¸վݣͻ֪񹫿еķһ˵վҪݾǽйĸϢùڲѯйվУݾ񹫿ڴӸվȷʵԻñǰöϢ֪ͬʱҲǿͬ򽻵 ߡӻӦ

νӦԣҪʱػӦ󡣵ѧ޲ءΪҪǣضԹҪӦڴ棬ҪѡԹڵлӦģΪʱΪһЩ߷ѡͨЩѡӦŹѡٶڴ͹Աĵѡʵĵ壬ôֻӦҲʵ塣

ܵԱԱѡ֮ѡĻӦ̶ͣѡٶάϵֻӦҪáѧߴ÷ڡ᣺ѡᡷһָµѡĶڽԱѡιϵŹؼ13ֹϵʹԱѡһԱƽÿھһѡлЩûѹԱ˵ϵѡڻ½Dz׼ⷽŬһΪΪԱҪԼҪԱʣһ棬лκһ㶼ϣڹмӰ죬ȼٶѡĻӦɻήǵӰ չйҵԹĻӦҪţšִеԹǷչйҵձԹһ㲻ƶȤǶŵ߱ͨȤԣҵص˵Աʹִʱչ˵ߵ档ԱѡضЩлӦ׵õӦһǶԸԱǰĹдٽõƩ˵ijλ쵼ץιôʱ򣬴ķӳȾͻõӦǸԱֱӺôлܻ֮ȨǮסһЩڵϵĻӦƩ˵人ԱڣΪЩȺǽѣƾ˵ĵӦŴ ȻӦʵѣﴥ˸ײ㡢Ⱥ͸˵棬ӡеĻӦܵظѰµĹܵйĸ↑ųڣйΪ˼дڵŷð칫ңӻӦһáڣŷðҲظԺŷðǰųʱXǧˡ ӳŷûƵı׶ˣһûжʵȨIJżлӦЧ˻ɡŷþ־ֳռ˳200311½ܡ̸־ɷõʱ˵ݵڵǰȺŷرȺڼŷ÷ӳУ80%ϷӳǸĸͷչе⣻80%еһʵѺӦ80%ǿͨίŬԽģ80%ǻӦýҲԽ⡣ĸ80%ַӳ˸ڻӦиܶಿȺڣŷð죬ŷðֵðѰͻظòš

бҪıּлӦʽΪɢӦƣICTķչΪתṩ˼֧֡ȣÿӦһֻӦģɸòŵϢԱܡĸ𽫹ַͨʽͶߡ绰Ͷ߻ʼͶߵȣб༭䴦״̬ùѯΣҪйĴ˴æһ쵼µ˴صӦǴ"˴"һҪݾǹ˴ĵ绰͵䣬ԼĹͶߵĿݡȫ˴ΪæµŷðѹȻͼˡλдƪ¡һ˴һŷð졷˵и˴Ҧ٣ϰճ�"ƽ""ƽ"ΪΪһزʶĹԩǰ8꣬෽ϧ΢˽ãֱɸ蹫о14

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֯Ϊṩƽ׼롣ЩͶƱȱϯͶƱĻᣬԴٽ̶ȵĹƽϵĴ󲿷ֵձҪܶ¡ֲࡱβĿɣΪܴһ˿ڲܽ롣Щ׼ܵ൱ƵĵطIJһֵøǿҡʱЩĵطDZõõĵطֵģһֺ¡

ʵǣһҲ5%50%˿ڣijʽġĴڡĹңһƶʽڣ֯ýѧ֯áȴֺ蹵ϣǽý黹ʱΪʹĻᡣ ڶ˭ߵ⣬һܹչҵеIJʽȷڶɢܹͨýڷչĺת͵ľУӦÿ̨ڴýӣӵĵáʼܹΪռʹͳĴڴýṩǼܺͽṹ񼯻Ϊɹṩ档

йУ˭¶һҪ⡣ʵǣЩڴͳŶע⡣ӲҵҪµġǷܺĿ֤ݻ٣ʽ֤˵ܶ͹ͳӴֶΣ˽Ӵ绰ӴýӴȣע

ͳʽġ뻯ĸ˲루in-person participationǵλãʱշԡҪڹץסάֹȤĻ𻨣Ҫǿκʱκʱ򶼿Խ߲롣ֲ룬߹߿Ϊ߹ṩʱԶ׼룬ԷæµĹַͨʽԱľ룬ŬĵﷶΧ

ݹͷľѵÿҪӹճӹܻӴûᡣÿ죬һϵû6100ǵ䡣ֻ10%ûʾǷһվҲζÿ600ҵ˷ɢǧվͻ˵߶һطվļֵҲͻ˽ַʱɳϵҪ

׼롱ֳԪϳݡӢ򿪷Ӻ͵ս֯ǵϢͷʹӦͬûµ񹩸۵ġںϳ򣬸׼RSSʼȵطűķ䡣ЩսԴⲿվµĻõݡ

ͨʼţе߹ϵЩſٽ㷺ĻݣߺͲߵҵ Щ༭ĵűΧûһһԵġʲôµġͨѶվüʱ̶Ⱥ塣վÿʵ顢һ򵥵鶼Ҫ϶ŬͨԼѡʽʼͨѶٽЩᣬһ۵ĽӴ

ձСȪһɵM־P200ʼߡͻȥһվϵݣгڸҪݡǵվĺ壨ܶվһеЩʱ򣩣ʱͷǵͨѶ15

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Ҫһ£ǡ(civic involvement)""(civic participation)""(civic engagement)"

--㣬ָǹ򱻶ؽ㷺Ḷֱ́ԱǿȵĽ롣

--խָǹѡٹ̻򹫹߹̣Ҫ漰Ļ

--εӽڶ֮䣬ָǹͶȰĻҲĻ

ҪָǣǾ䵽ĿǰΪֹƵʹõĺġʵϣЩҲڷ仯Ʃ˵Ϊθij֣ĸҲڷ仯ͼεݰһбɵѧ߾ʹչβΪβ漰ӰͼЩֻ漰ԼͥжڴС16һβ루룩͹ξûʲôˡ

˵ΰЩأȣܹ빫ۣΣܹйܹȡж

ЩڴٽηŲɱƣƺΪηġ

ȣйԣĺǿԺܷһΪ˹ͬĵнڽбȻʶΡǿԵһЩ̳һߣ֣ᷢǴ˽˵̳ûصġʵÿ˼˽ģйģ̳ʱǾͻǿ˽ģùԳƩ˵ʱźƽʽʽˣӹĽǶԼŵġҲЩ˽µС̣СDzõ̳Ϊijű绤ġ˵һҪݾǷչ̳Ϊ˵ҪһЩġù̳ԱԽԽĹ빫ۡ ΣйģһҪı־ǣ̶ܽȶߣͬƽʱжijַŭξҪŭתΪԵжΪ˱˵IJƽΪ˱˵кΪֺṩ˼õǰ˵Щߵ¼ܿϵõӦܶ˼˺С̳Ϊֺṩ̨ܶûǰѱع⣬Ҳô˵ĹΪˣΪȺΪҹʶڴͳֻ֪ʶӣᣬͨڡ 粻ΪDz빫ṩ˷㣬ҲΪDz빫жṩ˷㡣жҪ㷺ЧĹͨ֯ԷĹжǺ׵ġжעȫµĻʹʱȽȱķչйңֹжҲֽϿķչơں鶼˹һΪɳչ硱400ɵʵ壬ں鶼˹ĹзҪáΣʾļֵ磬쫷ϮΪʳƷҽҩë̺ƷӦĽǵĹӦԴͨңǵķҲͨЭ̳лϢпɹõݿ⣬Ϊжṩ˷dz

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ǰ˵Dzһ졣ȣһǿǹ񣬶벻ܽͶƱΣǿҪ˼ǣdz顢Ը˶ǶԹߵƶߣӦʵʵӰ졣

ҪԹεĹΪ߲ǹ̾ߣרҵ£ҪʵԵ뵽߹ʵָ㷺Ĺ档Ҫʽһǹ飬һ˼

ν飬ԾԵġϵܵ⣬Ըѡ񲿷ֹɿ۵С飬ԸۡСͨרڿΡ̸ĶϣöıҪ˽⡣СѰʶֹʶдɱ棬ṫ߲ο

ν˼ǾijһʾķʽһϴƩ˵1000ˣȻ벿ܷ߲μһۣ֮󣬾ͬʾٶǽв飬ȻȽǰı仯Уר̸ͨȷʽá

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Ҹ棬֮·߲ͨεĹ顣Lincoln Dahlberg̽մݵĵĿе̳˹ġҪ19

鲻ҪлĹ񣬶ҪɫˣҪڹ֮ЭߵĽɫܹһЭߣǵĹ۵㡣Ϊ֯һЧ飬ҪΪһߣˡ

2002꣬˸˼280ˡ10-20СȺ巽ʽרҵ˻棬ʵʱָ߽һΣĸڡÿλ֮ǰ߱ҪԷǵɵķʽۣƽ⡱ĶϡʾΪȫ⸺ԸͬȸƶṩҽưĹ51%ӵ67%СĹҵı56%ӵ68%20

ĵʵֻǴ𲽽׶ΣǻµĸЧʽʲôʽĿ궼ҪùġЧز뵽

ʮһй֮·

йչ˼ᶨijŵչݱ£йѾ޴ĵ񹤳ûһӰӣûа취񽻴ġ

йִȨļƴƶȣĹ룩ľĿꡣֳŵĿչijһµģҵʺйƽ֮· йķչй˵ٹҵϢ˫սٲ˫սйھ÷չȷˡϢҵսԣηչҲҪӦսԡѡսϣҪƳֻеʽ˼·˼·Ϊֻдչˣܷչ߼ֻйҵչˣܷչϢһԳġԶһ̬ڴչ£ԷչҿԴķչƩ˵йչеһɫڴչ·չġȻDz˵չڿԤδֻǴIJ䡣 ˣΪйĺսǡԲԽʽʵչʵսԵĹУԷӷdzáʵϣ йʮ󱨸ѾָҪ롱ΪķչṩζǿԽԲսΪһӡսԡսԣйչӦ˫սѹ

йĵЩأ

һӿ췢չ˴󡱡ǰ˵ҵ˵ICTͶƫ٣Ȩǡй˴˵ICTͶʸ٣Ὣ˴ڸӲĵλʵй˴Ѿ˵ӻijֺôƩ˵йڹҼʡ˴н˵ӱϵͳ˱Чʣ˴ȨֵÿǵǣԽϵͳӴϵͳϵͳȡ

νϵͳվӵ˴վϣרļĿռصķɡļרĿѡרѧ߶ijЩо£йĿѡǹijЩĴԹ۵㣬дĿѡ˴ҪʱijЩʶ

νӴϵͳרΪ˴õϵͳģ棬ÿλ˴ϵ绰䣬ųӴѡڣԼ涨빫۵ڡЩûеԵĴ˴ҪṩԿ˴ϢģڼԱİ£ۡ

νϵͳרΪ߱һϵͳس񣬾ijҪ˴ලг飬ݽ˴˴繤ԱҪţ״̬ѯ

˴ԸչijһɫϵͳϵͳϲΪһϵͳ

ڶ衰ӻ㡱 ӻ㡱ĽҪνĴίᡢίҪеĻңֵҪɼԱָӻ㡱ԶվҲһվĸҳйchinaren.com"վѧİ༶ҳһӻ㡱¸ָ֮ϡ񡢴̳ĿУ񡱺̳͡ĿΪ񹫿峤ѡȷ

չӻ㡱ϰһֲ⣬һ⡣ֲ˵йũ壬оĵӵʡ뷢кܴIJ࣬һ͹۵ϰ˵ ӻ㡱ԴĿԱĻԲߡϰҪʶֲһҪ˷⣬йͺ׷Ϸҡӻ㡱ǿ˷ֲһҪ;Ϊ㹫ṩ˽˺͹ĿҲǰѧϰʹõԺһƽ̨

չӲΡйһչдǿ̫ǿ񣬸ǿΡᣬ深࣬۸ӣҪЭִܴ׳첲ִ⣬羫ϸԽϸ⡣᲻չЩϸҲ䵽ʱ䣬ݻɴִ⣬ÿ춼Ŵִ⣬ͲظֱйҪһ˼룬ֹһҪֹ֯ķչķչΪ֯Ľͨͷչṩǰδе磬չ֯ʱѵε ڹ磬չͬʱҲҪ磬빫жԻЩվ»ȣһЩԱ빫ԻһõĿʼһҪĹǴӵӲ飬չĿ ҵһΰҵҲһϸҵƲƽҲмжչӦǿڲͬ£ǶҵĿռ䡣йҪչļ򵥻˼·ѧڸŬءϵƽҵֽʽ˼·ԳڡԲһս档 ע

1 http://www.dowire.org.

2 www.dialoguebydesign.com.

3 http://www.economist.com/surveys/showsurvey.cfm?issue=20030125.

4 ?ke Gr?nlund, E-democracy and e-government - state of the art, 68th IFLA Council and General Conference, Glasgow, 2002.

5 ƽͳε, http://www.yannan.cn/data/detail.php?id=2868.

6 Steven Cliff, E-government and Democracy: Representation and Citizen Engagement in the Information Age, www.pubulicus.net.

7 http://www.pewinternet.org/reports/toc.asp?Report=74.

8 Common Interest and E-Things . Presentation by Dr. Paula Tiionhen to International Symposium - from telework to new forms of work in the information society, Quebec, Canada - May 2001 - URL: http://www.tieke.fi/online/jtiedotteet.nsf/38e4483ea7238da4c225650f004a738d/20fec21d380f6b6fc2256bce00236f5a/$FILE/Quebeq5.rtf .

9 http://www.gov.bc.ca/prem/popt/cabinet/.

10 OECD Policy Brief "The e-government imperative: main findings." March 2003 - URL: http://www.oecd.org/pdf/M00039000/M00039948.pdf - Accessed 6 May 2003.

11 The New e-Government Equation: Ease, Engagement, Privacy and Protection, Council for Excellence in Government, April 2003 - URL: http://www.excelgov.org/displayContent.asp?Keyword=ppp041403 - Accessed 5 May 2003.

12 Individual survey on e-democracy in Japan - Summary of Survey Results, NTT Data, May 2002 - URL: http://www.nttdata.co.jp/en/find/report/index.html, Accessed 5 May 2003.

13 David R. Mayhew, Congress: the Electoral Connection, Yale University Press,1974. p.6.

14 http://www.blogchina.com/new/display/24528.html

15http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/m-magazine.

16 Olof Petersson 2001, Makt. En sammanfattning av maktutredningen. Stockholm: Allm?nna F?rlaget, p. 23.Ӣ

17 Republic.com. Sunstein, Cass R., 2001. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

18 Online Deliberation: Possibilities of the Internet for Deliberative Democracy, Paper submitted to Euricom Colloquium Electronic Networks & Democratic Engagement - Tamara Witschge - October 2002 - URL: http://oase.uci.kun.nl/~jankow/Euricom/papers/Witschge.pdf .

19 Extending the Public Sphere through Cyberspace: The Case of Minnesota E-Democracy, by Lincoln Dahlberg. http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue6_3/dahlberg/index.html .

20 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/btp/polls.html.

ӭʡйվ www.cc.org.cn.
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