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ҽƸĸҽϵķ
ߣ
200097աձԷ棻йĸ2000ʮڣɽС20013 ʱɾڣṩȫģ

ժҪͨҽϵķҽϵͬϵΪӪҽԺ뻼֮¹ϵӦáȨ汣ԷӪҽԺ뻼֮¹ϵӦáͬͨ͡򡷡

ҽϵϽȰͨѾķΪҽԺ֮ȨϵҲҹǿҽµҽϵǰռҽϵеľ߽ȺȺ̲ԲȺȣνҽϵרָǰߣѾ²ҽϵ
ҽϵзɶλϵҽ׵ķú;֤εijеݱҽҩĸҹҽԺΪķӪҽԺӪҽԺǰҵλˣ·ˡºϻҽƷĸ˶ҵҽԺ֯ʽȻͬ뻼֮ķɹϵ¹ԣ1ƽԡڷɹϵУҽԺͻߵ巨ɵλƽȵģϵеӵĹϵ2ԸԡҽϵIJֹ˫˼ΡҽƸĸľ񣬻߲ѡijҽԺһѡijҽΪΡǷҽ飬ҽǿȲ˾߼ֹƻԺҽԺǿȡ3ȼгԡҽ˫ԵȵȨеҽԺṩҽƷ񣬻Ҫ֧ӦԼۡ
֮ҽϵҽ˫ƽȵĻԸյȼгԭȨϵֹϵ·ɹϵ·ɹϵ·ɹϵж֣ҽϵһ·ɹϵأ
Ϊҽϵһֺͬϵ
ͬƽȻˡˡֹ֮֯ȨϵЭ顣ҽ˫ȨIJֹ̣ʵϾ˫˼ʾһµĹ̡ҽϵΪͬϵмԺ͸ʽԵص㣬ҽƷصרҵԾġ
ҽƷͬdzԣʽϲøʽҽ˫ͬͬסԺͬͨùҺŷƾ֤סԺǼDZʽݶ˫Ȩ涨ܲϸ磬ֻͬӡпƵĹҺŵҽѧ֪ʶרԺҽƵʱЧԣҽԺͨȷƴʩдں֮ͬϣԻ߼ÿͷ֪º֪ʽͬʱҽ˫Ըҽƿ͹Ч֮IJ죬ЧͨҲںͬдΪּۣͨ˫ȨģͲȷףԺͨҪշɼijּͨԵĺֲͬͣͬհ֮㡣ʱҽ˫ȨҪݹƽżҽְҵ׼Ҫȷ
ҽƷͬΪͬӦáͬͬ޹涨áͨ򡷡ڵҽϵܷáȨ汣ΪҪҽԺʾо
Ȩ汣ĶǡΪѶʹƷܷʱ뾭Ӫ֮䷢ϵԶ׼÷ΪľӪڴӪΪʱΪ֮ķɹϵΪֹϵ¹ϵʡȨ汣̷롣ͬ񷨷롣̷֮ر𷨣رͨķڵ¹ϵʱӦ̷ӪΪ¹ϵı֮һӪҽԺͻ֮Ĺϵ¹ϵӦ̷˴ӪҽԺͻ֮ĹϵʱӦáȨ汣Ȩ汣޹涨ʱáͬͨ͡򡷡
ҹҽҩĸķӪҽԺҵλˣӪΪĿģ뻼֮Ӧáͬͨ͡򡷣áȨ汣

ʱ̶
ߣ

ժҪоʱҹ̶ص̶صıǨɴط̶ĴʩͶԲߣʷĻĵѧȽǶ̽ѻƬӼŽֹԭ
ؼ: Ʒ ԭ
Opium drugs and prohibitive policy of northwest area in late ch'ing
Chu chenge
(Xi'an United University Department of politic and history , shanxi Xi'an,710065)
[abstract]:The article make studies of the changes from export of opium drugs to inport of opium drugs in northwest area in late ch'ing period, and all kinds of prohibitive policy and measures that the Government of northwest make . Form the environmen of historyculture psychology geography and science of law point of view, The article study the reason for opium drugs' inundation in northwest area.
[key-word]:late ch'ing northwest areaopium drugs prohibitive policy reason

ڽ̶ķʽ"ڽ""Ͻ"IJͬʶ1840Ժ󣬽̷ʵϳΪģرǾڶѻƬսѻƬó׺Ϸȫ˳"ڽ"ʱڡ19ĩ20ͳıߣ1906ƶ"ʮ�"ƻΪ""һ֣ȫԵĽ˶ȡýϺЧʱҹ1884ǰʡຣĺ½ȱ߽ʵоһƣ1884Ժࡢ½ʡຣĵϹʡϽ˴̶ص̶صıǨط̶вͬʩͶԲߣЩԵǰĽ
һ ̶ص̶صıǨ
1 ̶ʼڵĩ̷ʱڵֲ
˷ʳѻƬУԴʡ1831꡶¸ͨʳ̷֮˲³͡ᵽ"ʡط򲻳ڻѻƬ֮£Ω˽ʳ֮ˡϵ͵˷طٲ첻²ܽ"[ ]
ѻƬҲʡ롣ֲһ̷ԺѻƬɹ㶫ʣǵĩ꣬¡֮󾸣࣬ζŨ [ ] ̷ʱڸؽ֣չʮѸ١
һߡšʮµʵ½ѻƬⷢ(½ǽͳ󳼵ȲѻƬ˷ʳ͡½ͳ󳼵ʵѻƬзس͡ݼʱ½ѻƬʳ͡,ء͵Ҫǣһ½̶йأΪ½ϱǵشԱĽѱ뿨ó׼д"Ƨ϶ز٣˽"ʱзڶ½ѻƬոճ֣ٵطٲѻƬصӿƶط档֮ǽ󳼵һζѭ£½ڵβͬ¶³Ҫ֮ͨԱҪϤ죬ࡣ﷽ʽԷ͵ΪֺʳҲ
½ֲʼ̡ͬ䣬ʱԼһ¸ũǰą̇̄ȵأȥﷵֲڡʳѻƬҪں½Ҫʳ飬½ӡȴҪԾͿֲɽϸء16-17Ī̴ӡȴ½֮Ļʳ飬18ʹ͸½ء[ ]˹ֹƺʳѻƬҲͳάȺڵݳDzƷ鶾Ʒ½ҪĶƷࡣ
2 ѻƬҪغѵصγɡ
1860꣬¡ʵʡѻƬ˰ֲȡ˺Ϸλĩ𽥳ΪѻƬֲʡѴʡ(μ±Դ־ʮһڣ"Ŀ"19081218ճ棬1-3ҳ峯ͨһʮ壬ȶʮߣ㽭ż 1988棬 8104ҳ)
ѻƬλ 1905 1906 1907 1910
10743 10815 8088 10779
4652 4652 4652 4650
4818 7988 4142 6403
45 45
½ 144 187 178 166
144 187 178 166
ʡܼ 15705 18990 12408 17348
ȫ 142698 148103 119983 158505
ʷӡ֤֪һ͸ǵʱȫѻƬҪ֮һ ʱڲʡΪĴϡࡣռũҵֵܲ90% еμϡ衢±˴ӴϵĺеѻƬ幫顷ᵽеİ˰شμط֣ѻƬӡֲڣʳҪƶμѻƬϡɽࡢĴͺʡߴ90Ժ"ʡأֲ޵֮"[ ]
̹꣬ݡʺ󣬹25꣬ݾڣĽϽأѻƬ3000Ķ32꣬ĵѻƬ1909굽1911꣬¸ܶȡ̬ȣ֡ˡۡһŲǡԶĵĴƬسΪѻƬҪءĵ1899ʼֲڣطÿĶ˰3Ǯ1Ǯ2ֵĶ˰꼴˰500˺ߡÿո̵ļڣ̷ƼĵĴ̼(׳Ƹϴ̳䷱P183[ ]ÿ궼ڵũ½͵ֲڣˡǼж߾
ڶѻƬֲĴ̼£ر¸ʵĶƷг֮γɡʡ䲻׿֤ԱȳѻƬĿɿߣѻƬԸд½ѻƬҪԸʳΪ"ѻƬӦ̷¼¶" [ ]˿٣ѻƬҪΪɴƶϣȽأķȽء
ʷϼأѻƬĴУӡ1960ʳѻƬɷ磬ԭ"ʳʮռߣ̵ʮռ"ʮռġ±˴ "ٱŮȡʼ򣬼̼ũ壬ʼ̶ƶ¨ȼƣҹ֮ͨ䣬˹ߣʮ"[ ]1906819103£ڽ䶾䶾߸ߴ 15.6ˡȻֻDzֵ񣬵ʱ20ϣԼռȫʡ800˿ڵ2.5%[ ]
ڱ⣬Զԥȵءȫʡ̹һأ̹ݶ300ҡ190912£Ľ̨͢۳ƣ"ʡࣩ࣬޽ϢԱռҼ̻𣬳ҹƣѲԵسǹ" (p8071) [ ]
طĽ
1 һطԽ̷--½·DzѻƬ³̡
ʮ꣨1840꣩£ʵ׼½·DzѻƬ³̡¼"³"ΪնϽѻƬر𷨣һۺԵĵط̷档
"·뱱·ȴβͬ""³"ĿռЧϽڡҶǼ޴󳼶ΪϽ³ۡᵽ"³"Խ֡Ϊġ"ؽǣѻƬһڵط߾٣ó֮˼д˼д֮ףԴ壻˷֮ˣԶڲФ֮ͽǹʳڰ̣ף⣬ӦһϽ"[ ]
"³"涨˾ķҪУ1""ͬó׵ĸͷдžѻƬ˽ڡ2"ڲ" ԱڽͨҪ·ƱڷԱ֮Ƕ飬Է͵©ڻؽ˴֮ͨΧСׯܲ顣3֣ ñ֮Ԥ"ʮΪһƣһƳ̷ɸƳٷþ֪ףһԼһͰ"4˷ΪڻӺͿӣֹϽǰ"֮"ڻ߽ͷľọ́Ҳǰᡣ5ͣԼԱ첻֮Ρ
2"ڽ"ʱڵ¸ʽ
ʮ꣨1845꣩ǰܶ¸ܶʱϽѻƬ뾳¤ϼӷѻƬʡ19к¸ܶ¸ʵʩ¸ֲʡҾ͹Ѷȶ "ڽ֮ѻƬΪ"ԽΪҪ1869ϰ䲼͡磬ͣ˰һ涽ٵطٽѻƬһ"ζֲܶ"ƹֲޣҿʼн̹(P275P508-509P525P27-29P530-531[6]1875¸ȫѻƬ̡ǣھӰаӺ͹֮ܣʹֽֽͬ1881ֻó"Ԣ"ߣϣ˰İ취ﵽ̵Ŀġ1881¸ȫʡ""Դ˸ȫʡ̽󿪡1884꣬Ѳ߱Ọ̈̄عԣֻջ"Ԣ"ߡ"Ԣ"ǵδܽѻƬʹѻƬ¸ʸӷìѸټΪÿĶ˰13.5ÿҲ30̰֮б˽Һ͸ߡ˳ûٵģֳ˰ֵˣ"ƴ֮Ϣδֲʱ֮״ٱδֲʱ"(P477)[8]
3 ڶν˶ʱڵ
1906 1909꣬ѲܺѫͶȺ̡ͳ꣨1910꣩£˼ʡ"ʡ̵ĶԼʮĶԷݼ","һڣݸᱨ߼ʮˣ̸꣬ԭжǧ˰ңЪҵѽټ"[ ]
Žȫʵʩֹ̻"ʡƶֺʱȡֽ֮"(P905-907)[5]ͳڽʱũҵ𽥻ָʱƻҹһЩԶɽ͵
½̱࣬һϵʽ£¼伸Ѿ½ѲݵصĽΣ�"޴ҩʡ鱾ʡ֮·ʲ٣յ⳵ʲ̨ƺΪ࣬·֮ǡԶ綨Ӿ̵أϵ̨֮ԶͼΪࡣֻϵ̨ڿ֣ȥ޶ѡͳԪ𣬽ʡڵ˰̣ΥߣĶ乫Դϳͷ"(P8100) [10]
ڶν˶ĵڶ꣨1907꣩¸ʵѻƬ궼½̳ɹûй1910¸ѻƬIJ껹Ȼռȫ11%ϣռȫܶ3.5%ҡһ֮£䳤Կɼһߡ
ѻƬӼŽֹԭ
ʣ۹ԺйĸܣǶƷвĵҪԭ򡣱Ϊ֮⣬ǻҪ徫ȷ̽ѻƬӵԭ͸ʷȥ˼뷴ʡ
ʷԣйԹл壬ѻƬսйһٰǿĸɥȨʹʹԨѰij·ε̬ѻƬһļϡѻƬʳ֮磬׿ڹ͢Ĵٹײ㣬ͳν׼ѻƬԼꡣйһٱλĹͳνײԶƷ׷󣬶²ǿҵʾЧӦ͵ãϵõ²"Ӧ"γν"ѻƬĻ"
ĻϽδԺξĻĶƣֻйϵ壬ΪﷸŵĻ֮ءñõϵӡйȥĻԻͺͻԻʹĻظҲ˥ܺʧ䡢ΡɴһԱԵһԵķŴһԵĽǣѻƬͱȽʺĻйࡢɿ඾Ʒ˷ýȻͬѻƬ඾Ʒãʹʳ߽һǵijѾ磬̶οǧһ֪㳣ΪΪģʽ˼άļ񡢶Բ̡̬һκڰӵ澳ʱײԾοⲿѹ״̬οʳѻƬʽκʿײΪӱεļ˸ڰ̸Ҿơ"ʯ�"
ĵعϡռȫ֮һǿģѻƬṩһʻҲױ֣滷Ƚ϶ӣòͶ΢ͶǿȴӮ£ʳѻƬʱƣܾͣΪѻƬʹãȱҽҩũ壬ѻƬҩ㷺ʹãƽհҽٲľҩƶζУѻƬҲһֵ׵õƷ"֮ϰɽͬ"(905-907)[4]ũһʱ
ӷѧ淶ǶȣһƵķɺΪߵľǽ̵ǰзɺ;Ļûиʵȥִ�"ͽ"ͳйṹһ""ά֣кܶ෽ִάDzͬġУֻӼҳȨȱθк͹ģֻмʶǾܹŰ䷨̶ͼеĸСŵֶ֮漰ˡˡˡᡢᵳĸåؤũȼһнײ㡣ײÿÿڽ̶̰ڣʹ̧̼ߣֻҪ漰ѻƬıܻũΪֲڿɱũ屶Щ˱㲻˹ҽ�"Ұͷ"ˡ
[ο]
[ ] ڳɻʵʵ¼1878ҳ
[ ] .ʷ. ʮߡʮ
[ ] ½ά.[Z].³ľ룺½磬1995.21
[ ] .йũҵʷ(1)[Z].꣬1957464
[ ] .йƷʷ[M].ϺϺ磬1997
[ ] .ȫ[C].ɳ:´.1986,428
[ ] .ʷ[M],199975
[ ] 춫.ǰ̶¸ſԭ[A].ʷ༭.й̶д棨²ᣩ[C]ʯׯӱ磬1998477
[ ] 峯ͨ.ݣ㽭ż磬 1988
[ ] ģ.йʷ[Z].磬1998棬193-194
[ ] ͳ[Z]41ҳ33-34
ȫĺժҪο׹Լ7000֣


ҵӪҵҿӪʽΪ
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ժҪڵǰҵУҿʵӪҵӪʽȨ澭ַܵҪԭ֮һֹҿһЩˡϻҵҿҵ˵Ķ˸Ϊ˹ܹҷ߶˰աҵΧȷƣȡõĽ뾭档׶УȨܵ𺦡ΪΥӴԳҵҹԱṩ©˰ա羭Ӫյȡ־ӪʽҪǸιŶ۱׼ĵһɵġҪıӪҵҿľӪʽͱĸҵеĹơ
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ӪҵʮңһûйҿӪҵ⣬żԸʽ˽˹ҿӪȫעĹҿӪҵʮ߼ңӪҵҿķ֧޷ˡӪҵĽӴռ˱ҿ50ϣӪҵ¢˳ڰ͹ҵ
ξӪҵʱѾӪҵԭ򡢾ӪΧӪҵĹϵڡڼǿӪҵ֪ͨ[1997]31ģϸĹ涨ӪҵľӪˡͳһҪ󣬼ͳһͳһͳһšͳһӴӪҵʵо㡢ʻԱաԳֹºͲ£γɷǶ˵λľӪʵ塣ҵȫҿۣԼҵƷơ
ЩӪӪҵĸУһЩҵǿġΡΪӪҵԣ󲿷ִҵԱʽϵ͡ӪҵԴҵԱĹһҲֻҵϵӪҵΪ˽ʡ֧ƸƸķʽɴҵԱϴԡһȱĻΧҵѵƹĻ¹޷ӦҵչҪұȻ²磬1998𣬹㶫ʡй֡ξּӴгҵżйҿӪҵ̶ͬȵܵеֹܵͣյĴҵڶַȨĸΪҿӪҵΪ磬1999 46£һӪҵù֮㣬ʹüٳƭȡǩ֤ʱʹݹԱ֣ͬ7·ݣһӪҵ̩֯ʱԱο͵ĶԶŹ¼οйפ̩ʹݵݲŵ԰ȫع
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ӪҵҿӪʽڷϣһЩˡϻҵҿҵ˵Ķ˸񣬹ܹҷ߶˰աҵΧȷƣҿҵ˵Ķ˸ȡõĽ뾭棬νƤӪҵ֮ĹҿϵʵʾǸ˻˺ϻҵˣɱߴƱΪʡ˰գñλṩı¾Ӫλһı֤𣬻򰴾Ӫνѡ.ĿǰҵҲȽձ飬൱һ̶ֹӡĿǸҵִն½ҵ񣬻һҵΪаʵΪӪҵִաʺŵȡڹҿڹҿӪνܵλһϵλҵΪʵʾӪṩӪϵıִա˺ţһȡһ档λʵתҵʺƣΪҿӪṩٵ֤˶ԱҵӦ辭ӪִԾôҿӦԼΪĺеӦķΡ
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ߵλԡסСΡ顢ọ̈̄ίţҿӪҵСʽľӪڶϵޣԣο͵ȫȻǮѵõķӪҵΪԶӯΪӪĿģ޷ߵĺϷ棬ųɷ硢׿;ǺܺõӡһЩӪҵڳֲ10˵£Ǵһƴճһţǿ˳ͶߵġСɵŶӣͬײˡ̸֤
2ΪΥӴ
ǹӪԡԽǿҵһЩΥӪҵ©ա磺һӪҵҵԱ˽̡αоӪҵ繫¡ִգƭȡĴʹǩ֤12ԱĴǺȫ飬ɶӰ졣
3Գҵ
Ϊйĸ↑ŵǰسСڣΪοͽзһ֧ҪεϢʽԼеľ÷չһdzԵĵ֪ڶ˽˳аĹҿӪҵγɳҵĻƷơַŵСʽľӪ봴ʻγеҪ󼫲ҵԱʵIJβ룬ʹҵο͵ͬʱҲźͽӴʽӹˮƽ
ӪҵӲӾĿǰҵеĻҾ棬ҵгչʹο˶ͷʼ۵ϰߣγһŶӵĹ󣬸ӪҵòֶΣΪԼͨӪ֮ϧΥΥҵڲγɵĻؿ۷Ҳҵҡ
4ҹԱṩ
ӪҵӪȱЧķɼලھҵ漰ϣ͹رȣҪȥأҵ跽㣬һȨǮ׸ṩ
5©˰ա
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6羭Ӫա
ӪҵҵĹϵֻڲϵܶԿˣڳʱеһɴ˲ծͶߵȾӪա෨ɹϵУڶծȨˣߣĿǣͨʹҿӪҵ뱻ҿеΣӪҵͨһ¾ɢˣҪԳе˾Ӫա
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2ιŶ۱׼ĵһ
ιŰÿӴο͵ΪҵжҪݣɴΪҵеλáʹʹѸҿӪҵҵΪԼĺϲΪԼͽӴԴȻԿƺ͹ڶӪҵܼëյӡԱסڱСʡȫҵеλúΡ۱׼ĵһӿ͹˹ҿӪҵķչ
ġӪҵҿӪʽĶԲ
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