ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis


طá(the political)


    ߣJ. Gebhardt
1808101գڰأص˽ºһϷԱ磬ԷϣΪɶˣǿ(politicsΪǿΪķ)ˡŵϷɲ񣬶رĶħʽԱ֯˵ߡǿμˡһɬѽĹʽ䡰ɫʵġʼڵ¹СڸԸΪձصһ䣺಻ٷӹ˵ˣΪѾǿȡǿδµı磬Ǿͻ֮ɵֿ˵ĸԶԡ
ºͺڸΪǡ-ʷ塣Ժڸ˵ζ羫ġɽͿһעҪʷʱߵԡЩӢǾΰݻߣԵĽΪĴߡںڸʷУǿ֮˵ʵʶɵʶЩӢ۾ǽġˡһǿԵġǿΡԽ͹ճҵָνʷ̵˶ĵⲢҪϸͺڸйǿϵܶ(agencyģҲ)˵ʵضŷ޴½ŷ˵ȷʵ˸񻯵ˡ
ڰصFurstentagƹԺ˼Ȩ塣Ѿŷ޵η羰1803-1806䣬ʥ۹ĹķѣһǧʷǾԶǨĹؼʱڡͳʽͻȻжʹ⣺ʲôӰˣƺɢ޶ʵ⣿ĵ۰ִʱڵʵڵǰ̨
һͳԵǿʱУʧ֮以ĸ顣ԺԵķ׷󡪡ǽ⡰ǿΪˡһġֲԹֻܸиΣthe politicalӦʩأ20սΣӰ£ͼ˼ǿεıʡԭԺԸǿΣҲǺڸǿˡǿΣְѡΡϵǿδֳбճλеIJȷǿκ塣
Ȼһʩصԭ֪һϵĴ죬ںڸڸƺȰһʻġһУΪʷļ塣ڡѧʷָʿ˵ߣΪʵԣĿ----ˣڰͼһԭġѧʷݽ¼ڶڸѧijϵԭ򣬰ϻϣǰ-ĻġΡڸûвǿμķ죬Ϊ˵ֻСҡʷĶ󣬹ҾڵϵĴڣѾʵڸࡣڸȻŷ޵ĹΪĵǿιħ֮¡ǿԲչŴѧ˼ڸνεġȻdzﴴµϣԴݴʡεġ(politikos)֮廯γһΡ( to politikon)ָһ˼󣬱ʾǰıʡáΡ(to politikon)(ta politika)ʻζϣ˼ձתԣʵ֮ԵİգӪ˿ѧԵĵһ׷ϣ޶µġʷ6.57ǵķԵģѧģ̽Ѱ빫-֮ʣͼ757c-eʿᵽΡ(to politikon)Ϊڸϱ˵ıʣ塣һθе֮淶ʽǰںϡڸ˵(the political)һ塣˵εһѾĹ͹͵۹Ĺ֮ձȡԴˣȻʵŲһŲͺŷ޹ҽõݺա
ӹγʱһֱ£ŷ޵ĻOڹһȨΪĵġǿΡԵ͵뻯ΪǿιΪεĺͿѧĻԸΤѧСִѧлձijϡΤǿε⣬ڵġεϡڸڣҳɹŶʹ¢ϣǣִһֱΪõǿȨԴȪεءȡжжֻҪĿӰһ쵼ȨááٷֻμΤᡷɭ˹(Talcott Parsons)ΤԽ󣬶˵սοѧ֮õΤͳεĺͳ߾ӸµضԱͳߵȨùϵͳ˵һжηҪжΪļֵ۵ȨԷĹϵжҲȨ֮ʹõӰ졣μDavid Easton֮ϵͳ
˹ٵij̶ֳϾеΤȻdzοѧ֧ǣҪεĹϽǿ֮ȨΪĵķʽΤĹäĿijȺȨ-æµ֮εܶȻڷϵ˵֮УȨߵѧͳ(self-rule)ҲΪʲôִλռǿηʽһŬ˹(Janus)ߣȨΪľ֮ߣһµĹΪ̺͡Ź(civil government)ͳλģʽΪбġָǿξغʲôIJͬ⣬ʾȨﲢûн£ΪһྺǿԸʼ֮˼гˡ
ǿ¹ŵ˼֮ģʽٴθˮ棬ͬĽ·־ԺոĹѧ(scientia civile)ǰ-壨Ϊԣ⣬빫Ϊĵǿι淶гģΪΪҹεṩ绤Et si non est civis non est homo, quiahomo est naturaliter animal civile.ʮʮͰ³-ѷǿεġǿε൱ɷעӢ˼롣ʮͣ˹Ѿˡеľ֮һͬ(regimen politicum)뷨Ƶר(regimen despoticum)ֱȡTolomeo of LuccaμRemogo deGirolamiӢУ¹ŵ乲ƽȺǿιһϵһ𣬲˷һֱִ˼ң¿Фء˻أǶս֪ʶΤʽСڡԱķ˼һдԼΪͳ֮ԵģֻּԼԭʵŻʵĶԳֻȷе˵³֡
ֲͬͳ֮ijͻִǿ壺İ汾ЭһºԹΪģƻҰ汾ѽȨͳΡȻݹŴοѧҵͼݶ弰ķ⣬汾ûгԽָʵ֮˫֦(bifurcation)һиθִܹ̽ȷβյˣdzСңǵ۹Ҳܽ淶زǵ塣ʷѾȫģ֮ܶͷŵĶ̬仯⣺ɲ֮˭֮ңִ֮ܶͼ֮вŬµģôضǿθ񶷳ݳġⱯ磬ʾΪҴĶֶʽ-εģʽ֮ʣӳԵ-ʷĽṹòǣɴĴ˷شǵ̽һȥѾ⣬ǿνǶ˵±ľˣɱľȣû˵κΪĶ֮У㾭ľ̸һ⡣
ֱʮ͵ĵ¹ȻڹΪĵǿι֮Сͼֹҵĵһԣ⻯ǿλΡԽһô˵ֱʩص20֮ǰûһԲdas Politischeϵȼ۵Ĵʡ
һս¹˸ľϵܡζʽıֱɱ֮1803ĻңĻĻʧȥġԡΪҺ壬ʵڡεġᡢ̻ᣬ̻ᣬȵȣκʶǿı֪ʶͬеġǣҲܶõӰ(epitome)ȡڶԪȨܶߣǿκڣѾתΪȨʩδƵ֮ϣһܶõɢˡΡһµԡ
ڴУʩصġθΪӰġʩػعʱ۲쵽ҵĹŵǿε¢ϵ˥˶ѡ¡βšɴ˶ж˼һķ˼ڣǿ԰ѡǿΡӡΡֳ³ĸֽɫΪΡĺġԴΪ˺Ͷǿʼʶ֮µ壬ЩԾʵԾڹһǹҵǿΣĵѼȺľij1919ĵ¹״ϣҺǿεͳһܵǿ֮ɻսϣ¹Ȩ͹ʵλ򷲶ԼԼһĿdzӽǣDZصķӽĻ۵̶ܴʩصоƷʡǣǹĵIJνʩء۽һϵԡ
ڶǿεУʩضԴͳ-ĻΪģʽ֮˥˵ЧΪл۲쵽ִ״µ汻ܶãagencyδᡣˣδԽҡϵʩ°δκһж߼ţֻҪüų䵱յĺ;ϵʵ˭˭ǵˡָռʽֻҪÿһڽ̵ġµġõġĻⱻתһʵ壬㹻ǿܹǵЧذǼһֱˡΪһ廹Ƿ롢ϻǸΪ֮ҵ̶߳ȵĵкѡˣͬγԭǡεġǻھԳͻ飬Գͻվǻս顣
ɴ˿ɼʩؼ̳Τļ˹壬ϵĸսֵ꣬ս鵽Ϊ˹ͬҵԸʥСֻʩظֲѧѧصĻ˹ѧ֮ԡѺ͵˵ķʹͻԾ廯ɴ˰ԼΪһЧ˵ЧֻǼ粢ͬ־ûᵽκвͬƷʡЩƷʹǻ׽ʩȻᶨ𤸽ڹΪĺȨΪĵǿιξصȨϷ˭ܾϷ˭ʧȥԴڡʩصʷ۷ԭڱεάȡӳڹΪĵȺǿιۺͻ֮Եԭѧ¼˵εݹ˹壬ʹѧ˼ѹ˼ԽսսǡǡҾӪijͻ֮ȶ
ʩضεķ˵Ƕԡ򡱵һ̽ǣⱻܽΪ⡣ڰͼУʩؿǵ(stasioteia)(politeia)δӹǶԵġʵΰ㲻ͬ򣨾ãĻڽ̣ʹ֮ȻҲ˵-ʷ类֮߼͸ֻҪ֮-ʽ֮棨ʵĵģ˵ʩصĹ۲ǶԵģһгͻģõģ-ĻģΣ֮УͻתɡεġͻǣתͷʱͻתΪĶȷθʷеĹԭ(formative principle)·ֵָĴйءһδֵָ֮Դأڶԭֵָ֮Ĵ۲⣬̶ܴϿŽصʩ֮δ⡣
20ͺں21ͳ緢Ѻ۵ʱڣµԣϵת˶ǿθ˼ʩغθѾӵѧ֪ʶ̡ǿκεѧѾģĸԡѾӿ˷ḻ硰εĻع顱εսεķεת͡ε˼롱͡ε㡱ǣƷûдﵽӦеˮ׼ṩĸģġͨΡǡǿΡĸŵͬʡȣض֮ŵ䴫ͳĸԭȻʤһػԵػָ˹ϣеεԭ⣬ʵϣֵչŵĹŵ乫ǰηʽùŵĹΪĵǿһ淶׼󡣵ǣһνһǿκΧ֮ҽͺʵ֣䵱ѾȫԵʱ(ecumene)εձ̽־һ֪ʶת򣬼ԽȨĺķǿΡάڶġۡһıߵиһ⣺񣬲ΪһѧƵǿεĴͳʹ۵Ĵͳڽ֮Сʷǰǣɿɣ͹ҵǿ֮ʺǡʽΪһԵĽ㣬ǷرΪ۵Ļ⡣Ĺؼε(coherence)
֮ĸ֤ʵ(substantiates)ԭԵѧΪǰᡣڴϣָʮо;оչġǿε¿ѧͨ˵ġοѧһθֵָһֿѧͿʵֵģ˿ѧоʷеָֽ֮޵ļ̸Σʹʩչ۵һЩСʮƬۡ漰1927ġθⲻ⣬ʩضָо⡪һȺ˹һȺ˺Ȩ֮Դͬ۹סⷽ棬ָֻʩеһݸȤʩȨʵʣһʵʡںͳԽȨʽ佫֮Ϊ壨ָļ32ںʩصġܷѧ˵ֶָۣûֱӴʩضεĸǣǿԴЩмٶָҲΪʩضε̽۵㣬Ϊ۷ʵͼһ𡣻ɣָתθáʵڡһΡֶָΣļΪоڷΧԶԶ򡣴˴۵һ⣺ֵָǿοѧǷΪθһ۸ʹ֮ȫȺʱȵ֮ľ顣
ڡǿοѧС(cosmion)ǽҽʹõ(illuminated from within)ʷоĶ󣬾ʷϵпԱֵͺұķȻЩС(cosmioi)ҶƵĺͷյʵ塣ǽʷ򣬶СʷϵǺҽ¶ʷӳģʽЩģʽԡʷչDZ֮ʣ˶ԵʶʷľӴ˹۵ԣʵڲ֯ᣬdzǰҲǹҡʷе澭֮ߣ˵˶Լ̽
֮ҽһʵڵĽѧ·࣬ΪҽͲķǽԱǶľ顣ָֽ˵Щ飬ֻܾɷ̽ǵIJ̽õȷϣ̽ķйкڹ֮ԭ򣺾ʵҽ͵ġԴԷ˼һ壬Ҫѧ˵еʵǾԵij򣬰˵Դģ̬СDZǰȥʱж׷󣬶ʵڱDZǰչΪҽ͵Ķ˵ҽ͵ġһֽѧǿοѧҽ͵巭˵ԣųΪܡνѧеĽѧתִָӿʼѧѾڼˡһԣŵ¹ѧ(Geisteswissenschaft)Ľѧʽ֮ص㣬Ϊѧѧһѧѧּڸ˵ִģʽʹѧ(the philosophical)½Ͼ(the empirical)ѧǽѧоѧҪָʵʩһ滮תͱ仯ȻԭĽѧΪʾ-ʷָ߼Ļ1ʾ֮ҽеľ֪Ե̽2֮״ķԷ
ָ֮ȡǿνѧڶιооѾΣţǿԴУк̬ȵĸ仯Էǻţµǿ䵽򡪡Ҳ˵䵽ѧѧ򡣡ûм衰һʱνƺ֮ļϵǣΪǵۣСٻص㣩һ£ȷʵ˼ԭϣٻУ˸ͶУһͬĴȻͳӡιʷСιͬ壬ͻҪܣɹͬٻһȷϣһõ棬һλãԴһ˵潹ǡдֶָԴоָģϣǿⲻòԽ͵ĸ󱳾족ιʷһҲڡʷϸġ

״(condicio humana)Ȼָ̽ʷе˵֮ķ˼ġṩ֮ѧΪ-ۺ(complexes)ԴԾ˵ľ顣ɣģʽ̽ߡرָЩνڽ̹ηųȥķ۵ָDZԹοѧȱڽ̾鼰֪ʶǿ-ڽʱϳЩǶЩὨеľĪ֪ĪֵָУдڵԶ䣬ġԵĺڽ̵ԡ˵κνĴԴȪ˵Ը֮飺ԺͱԡǵΪĴڣҲǿסġһ״²׶ΣʽϺϸͬԱΪijһԽ˵ġȫܵijĴھ顱־ȷԳԽijֲɼġСڴˡϵġ(beyond)ʾΪԾеռĺʥ֮Ϊϵʵ(realissmum)ΧһʵڣԸԳΣȫ塷ȡѧ֮ܶ(agency)ǡڽ̡1938Լзdzȷ˼·Ҳָоĺ˼֮һ
ȻһȻģôҪԶԸΪԸԲԻʱľ˵ʶ鵽˵DZˣҪͨϺ˵Ķ֮٣򡣡ȫʮߡÿһֳԽ鶼漰棻(sensu stricto)εģ¶ʾġǣÿһ֮ԽΪģ֮ķʽõԱ·Ի׷֮ͬеġڽ̡ʱѱɡεġ
Խָ֮ռ֮ʻ֤ͬľģʽĶԣΧƾɶ쵽֪ĵ춨ѧҰɭ˹(Samuel Eisenstadt)Ҳۼκ֮ƻš˹(charismatic)ԸԪأȨ塷Ը߼߼ĻΪṩԣȷͳͬһ(overall identity)
ҽ֮ʽٻ˵ҳԽ鵽֮ޱ֮ıָָֺ֤ڲƪǿ뽹֮ػǶ֮صķӦ׷ǶԽǵķӦһÿһݳ뵽߸˹Ķʱijɷ֡ÿһ֮١вάָ֡˸ĺģĿĺЧӦأÿһֱ֮پǺά˫عܡȻʾΪ֮֮֮䣩߸˹ôѰԡ˶Լ׷ԼʷĺĴʽԴ׷Ӧڸͬʷ(differentiation)״̬Уϵˡ֮ۺʵӳǵģ̬Сָ֣֮DZǰĴԲض˼Ӧ򷶳ģҪʷغͱȽϵоǡһۡһоòڡ֮һ㷶롱ʷе⡣Martin SchmoelzࡶеȻ
ֵָоУǿСչ˾ȫȺʱȵʷ-ε硣ΪǿȻġԵٻءڡ䡷гʵеԴͼҵ֮Ķơڡʲôʵڡһ⣬ش֮ǿۡ⡣ʵ֮ʵʹһӽµ档ӷ˵Ļ漰Ӿ˵ʶ֮ʷϵ˼֮򡣴۽ۣǿεѧǾġȷкϣ̽㾭ǵϤáˡһʵѾ˵ģѧ̽ѰĹҪľоʹ˵ʷÿʶ֮䲻Ͻ䡷ʵ뱾Ȼ˵غϣҲ˵ڳԽ˴⶯ľ֮άȶԡ
˴ֵָǿθȨͳ򣬲ǹΪģԹΪġⲢ˵ʵȨյشΪߵλĶΪĶѲȨ˾ȨΪһյIJɼ(intellegiablity)ȷͲֵ֮۵ŵ弰佨ƵĿ˵ʼմžͶʷϣԼڵΪ֮Ķͨص⡣ǣȨص˵һڲе(figurations)Ψһء
˵ʩѾ̽򣬵ǣĿעصĽִ򡣽͵ǰ֮ۿʼָһۺϵιҲֵָʵڸָʽе߼λ̽ѰͶĴԻӦԴľȱ֮֮(in-between)֮ṹУ˾֮ʾ̽Ѱʱڣӳǿ֮УҲָ˵ĹͬΪ֮Խյ㡣ݴˣʵ༰չͬԣζ֮Ĺģ̬еĸҪ(epitome)