ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ѧ

裺 άɹ


ƪ̨δѧϵодһƪģάɹ
ߵǺȡص·ӣȻҶԱĻ¶ѧ·϶
ȥĶάԿڽ֯ά
ۡλѧͷرʼǣ

ʾһǣע̨ѧڰصоȨԴİ汾
̨ģڴ½û취档ϵĽѧУصιǿγϱģ
תĽڵĽ壩֮£½ѧ绹ûвǿİоרң
صιҲֻڽע

DZȽƫصģһ棬̲Straussһ棬⡣
½ٽһЩоԴ

ע


άɹ


*


ժҪ

ҪǴӶ(Hannah Arendt )Уʽ̽Ѱɵ塣ϣ
˼ʷУȥѰάеĶλΪά˼֮У
ɹۣҲǺǰִŵ䣩ִ֮䡣һԣҪ
ĿϲͬΪͬежеvirtu Ҳ졣
ͳɹۡĵڶڽɹ߼ɣɹ֮
ʼʽش˼йɹַѧ֮Ӷ͹ά
нӵʷԶλǴԣȥڹάΪж֮Ӧ
еvirtu ΪΣ֮伴ŹжӵеΪΣĽά
ɹУȥִֶ֮̽Ӱ졣

ؼʣɡ񹲺塢ԡִ


Ҽǰ

ά˼룬һ˽ԽϹעڡۡУֵΪ
߳аľֱ֮ѧ00Ⱥ֮
󣬹ۣһϵ˼ʷԴ񹲺壨civic
republicanism1˼ĸմά֮˼2˼ʷJ.G.A.Pocock
1975Quention Skinner(1978, 1983,1984,1990)ʷо̽Уȥά
˼ڹ͡һΪġа֮ʦ˼УҲŶɵ׷
Ѱᳫһì뷴һ˼룬ͬʱҪۡ
ʷۡȻɵ˼ҵоϷά˼й
˼̣֮ɷϵģʼҲ޷ĨƽڵıԾ
߳Ϊ֮IJ֡

άԾӦأĽͬʱҲӦ˱ҪĿģ
άɹۡĵڶڽɹ߼ɣɹ֮п
ʼʽش˼йɹַѧ֮Ӷ͹ά
ӵʷԶλǴԣȥڹάΪж֮Ӧ
virtu ΪΣ֮伴ŹжӵеΪΣĽά
ɹУȥִֶ֮̽Ӱ졣

ɡȥ

ִ˶ԣɣlibertyfreedomĹܵԼۡߣ˹
T.HobbesˣJ.LockeЧ塻ߣߣJeremy BenthamֶJames
MillӰ죬һ棬ΪI.BerlinԵġɡ(negative liberty)
ĵǡʲô޶ڣһܵ˵ĸ桹3ǿһ
˸ѣ롺ԡԱˡ˽Ȩprivate rightsΪĿĵ
ɣ༴ɱؽ綨Ϊȫsecurity4ɣfreedomҲ
˼Ϊһڡγ򡻣political realm֮Ļ͡5һ棬
self-interestϵȺţڷйͽ̻ƶΪ˵
ֵӵ֮֯ΪѰһο壬ԡгȡ֮
гthe free marketĸ˴һ֯ʥΪػߣȴ
ܵͬʥͬɱ׵ġ֮Ȼгԭػ6ͬʱϣܽ˺
֮ĶѣΪ˽ܺ;ܹɹ棬֮
ͬAdam SmithԵġһֻε֡ΡɣHannah Arendt̵ض
һܹεθ˽˵ж빫ڵĸοܣ˷
˼У

бΪθƩ磬ƵľһܶľԼ
µԾΪܺͣƩ磬׷󡺿һʵ£Լ
޵Ľ̺ʷḶ̌ȵȣЩ֮һͬ㣬ǣ˽
ΪܺͣԼܺͱֽΪʷûεķ
ֳ֮ʲ׼ӹԣֻһĻĹ
׼˵˽Ƕ̬Լתԭ򡪡֮ʱЭ
е׼ijЩΧڱΪһԭ򡪡ԶɳIJƸʵʵȡж7

Ȼⲻȥʣɵ徿ΪΣӡʷĽǶ죬˼
ֵĹɵж̬أķ࣬Դ1819꿵ʿ̹
(Benjamin Constant, 1767-1830)ԡŴ˵ִ˵֮ȽϡΪ
һĶַΪ˼оҪķο8Ȼʿ̹֮Ŵ˵
ǴŹɹۣƺǶȫò⡣ȣǰִԣ
ٱ⺭һǹڻڽʽɹָۡѧĴͳ
һͬ⣺뿪Ⱥɲſʼɲ֮
ᣬҸԼ֮ԻϡʶڵĶԻʽ֣Իʽ
ոһֱ֮Ϊ˼άthinkingڵҳͻΪʽʥ
ʥ¹˹֡I-will롺ΪI-do֮ھᡣ
ȴʾġhuman heartɲܡ9Ǵոʵ
ѧ˼е⣺know yourself˾鱤֮Уɻм˳˼
Ϊѧʽɹۡ볬ԽϵۣDzŵӵȫȻɣ
Ȼڤϵ۵ʱΪɣ׹ʱɣҵDZڳ
Ѫ֮ʱˡ10ƺɵĸڹΪ볬ס˼ά뾫
Σԭ⺭

һȱʧǿԴ˼ʷеһУҵԴͷAristotleԣ
һεĶpolitikon zoon , political animalΡthe political
Ⱥ֯ǰpolisǰйϵȺƶȻ
Թ֮11ĹʱڣޣCiceroϮй
the late Middle Agesոʱߵijнӣڴcivitasȡpolisʷ
УֵġʵԡrealityΡҲΪڡСcity򡺹
civil life֮вž塣12һЩεĴʻ㣬Ҳʼcivitas֮
ʡ13֮УɵĹһɣּ֮䣬빫ʵ
Ĺ̡Ҫͬ壨body politic֮Уpolis
civitasžʵֵĿԼʵԣ⣬λû塣˵
һɵ⺭

Գǰpolis˽ʲôε⣬ôεĿģȻ
֮ضڣԼһֵ֮ɵֵĿռ䡣һ
Уǡ˼֮ʵڡa worldly realityʵԾڿɱĵۣ
ɱĿõΪɱ̸ۡ䣬ԼתΪ¡..¼֮ռ߻
϶εģʹжֱӽ14 һɵı֣
̨ϵıԼչʾ

ȷͬĹϵݵң赸ӡϷԱּҡ
ȣҪչʾǾտļգͬжҪ˵ڳǰ
֣жҪһ֯Ŀռ䡺ƷΪˡ
ֻҪһһͬ壬һֵĿռ䡻a space of appearanceͱ֮Ϊ
ȻϣǰһȷġʽһֵĿռ䡻Լһ
̨Ŀռ䣬ط˿жɿԡ15 ɵᳫȻ
߲ıϣΪ˼Machiavellivirtuܲͣ
Ϊfortunaαװ֮ʱνɱֵperforming arts¾֣չ
ļգvirtuosityչĽ16Ȼһֹ
ɹۣǷΪά˼УȫòأΪάһ
ŵ乲ԵĹɣһϣӡԡ
reason of stateĽǶ17ѰһԽԡ¡ڽ̵ľٿˡ
ḯ֮ʣάϵɡһԵ˼ìܣ
˵еij̬볬Խ̬֮龳֣̽ʶε
Ҫ18

Ράɹ

ά˼룬ʱ˽⣬ɹۣҲ˵ոʱ
ʮͳٵ־֣е˼ΪԵ۹֣
ı绤ϣṩ൱ȷĹ19 һֹΪȨʹԼκ
ĸ棬϶ԼȨһֹΪӦȨԼΪʵķʽ
ڲ񣬼ڵĹƶȡɣliberty˴šζpolitical
dependence롺Ρrepublican self-governmentȻһֶ
ɵĿһ֮δܵʵʮͳ༴ά
ʱ䱾ͳһ޷ɣֱɢ״̬ʹάڶɵĿ
ϣĹ⣬ӵطɹۡ

1.virtuɵĹϵ
ȣصάvirtu ĿϣΪɵĿӹϣ
ʱϡ

ţӢֵϵĽ19virtu壺һָԣas a personal
attributeϳõġ¡򡺵Сָԣas a quality of
thingڹŵƷгôҩáʵϣոʱڵ
ʽġҲ˵virtu һֳˡС⣬ຬСﵽijĿĵ
ζеǵµ档

ԣڴvirtu ֵϣ֮ȻԴάĹ
͹Լʱıڹ͡AristotleʼڡСvirtueͷΪͳ
빫֣˵ͳ߾ƺıˣһҪı..
ͳߺ˾ͬĵУôһͻһλͳˣܼ
˵ĵк֮˵ĵֻͬijЩˣΪͳߵĵ빫ĵ
Dzͬġ20ȻֵеҲӶʱޣCicero
ֵеĹĿ۵۷ʽʹԤϽΪƵģΪֻ˳ǰ
ŵơе˶ӦƵĹuʹǰ21һ֡
СۣҲѧϵĵ»ϵȺšά˵ĿϣͬؽҲΪ
ֻ̬22һݼӢӣuomini grandiһһƽuomini populari
ΪʱĴݼӢӣͳν׼23Լи
֮ʣӵгԽ״̬virtuҲ١¾֮֡ʵ
24

ˣάУڳ̬볬Խ̬龳Լֵ֮
virtu ֮ͬڹάɹ۵ļܹ

άɹܹ֮

̬ Խ̬
һƽ
ݼӢ Զ̸

2.̬򡪹񹲺ɹ

˼룬ھھԺѧңScholasticismĴϮ
һֹڹʷ֮ϵĹ˼룬·֮ǿʢʱڣڹ
ʱڶǵ۹ʱڣҿʼڵһЩܳ˼ңرCatoCicero߶ȵ
Ϊΰİߣйµٹ͹Σ֮ʱͦ
ֺܱ25һֶԹԴո˵Ҳᳫ
active lifeΪֻв׵ⲻһֹľ
ͬʱҲ˱ҵʽʵvirtuͬʱӵ26˼
άڹ빫εĿϡ

һõĹ䷶ҪĵУǶԡơcommon good׷󣬶Ҳ
͹񳤾֮ά˵

κι۲˶ῴ֮Ϊдİ֮ãǹ٣glory
ƣcommon goodİߡ(D.I.583)
һĹ͹֮ڣεij֮Уڡȷԡ
飬ܾͱӹɣΪͬһ㡹D.I.583
ձԵuniversal opinionԤ֪δЧ

άڶڳ̬е˼ϣΪıҪԣ
ʣhumorϵֲ죬༴ƽչֵĶ
disunionΪǶڡơֺΪߵԷԣṩ
γ򡻵ġܶԡԣԣ

ҿЩ񲻺͵ˣʵʹɵҪԭֻ
Щδ˼ýDZδ˼й͹
йƽжԵġϰԡhumorsɵķʵϽԹ鹦DZ
˼IJ͡
κ˺úõ̽ǵĽ֮󽫻֣ᷢɵIJкڡơcommon
goodķڹɵķɡ(D.I.4:1)

˵Ƕڲڡгԡһֽ͡һֳͻ붷Ƕ
Σṩˡ̬г˶λIJ죬һ
йķʽ׼ԶǵԼľάϣת
ʱ˵뷨ΪӦáƽԪԺ֮ĵжԣΪﵽΰġҪ
֮(inconvenience necessary)(D.I.6:4)֮⣬άҲᵽһӣ
ڶԹУжܴһ̬֡гԻٰcalumny
ߣaccusation̽֡

Ըкǰ߶ԣұ루useful and necessaryȨĪڵ
Υ״̬ΪʱǵȨƶȶԹ͹ԲõЧһ
Ϊ±ߣԹDzҴΥɵ飻ˣϾͻᱻ
ΣijλʱйhumorĹܵûа취
Ĺܵй֮ʱԷdzֶΪ֮Ϊ͹
(D.I.71)

һɵij̰Ƕô˱Ҫƶȣ֮õķ
ǹ㿪֮šΪ񲻳̵ĵط̰֮ͻʢСԹ͹Ӧ
öƶȣ޾ؿˣϳͷ̰ߡƶã̰֮𣬽
൱ʧ״̬D.I.82

άҲԹż񣬽һ֣̽뵱ʱԱȣƶȴ
ô֮ʧаҪԭȱ߹̰
ȡΪΪǵҪְߣܵ˷dzķ̰ǣ̰ɳޣȻǷ
ѡжԡϵ»𡣶ΣΪ˽
չڡ򡻣public realm֮Уܵ˲ֺʱԹ
˽˽С֮ѣɸ

ԣϣԿάŵɣһͶе״
̬ڽÿһ˽ҵжͶڡιͬ塻body politic
жУ׷һֹpublic serviceĸչԷԵIJ롹27
ܹ֮ʵָɣΪġСԷḻ˵ıԡ

3.Խ̬δ۵28

ӳԽ̬ĽǶȳԿά߸Ե塣̸һ
ߡfounding fatherһ򸯻߹ҵĴʱ̣˼
ϣһԵ¡ڽ̡ѧĸ29֮ԸΪά
ԵʱĹػ˼УرطӳһɹۣΪ̬
򹲺֮ԿܣҲ뽨һǰ򹲺͹Ķϣνǰ
ӵɣdzԼȺȨ֮⣬κȨǣ
ָıΡ30һϵ֣̽άһ治ṩڲġܶԡһ
ҲϣܶҡӵеġСһιͬĴ
Ĺ

ڴǿԿߵĵǰˣΰij̶˸ݿʼʱߵ
virtueѶ(D.I.1:4)

ԣڡߡԣӵеУζܵǰҵΰҫȥκαҪ
£Ϊʵǵµƻ񣬶ΪĽǹߡ֮ҫ
ЩһߡѹȥĹ淶Ӷܿ¾֣DZڽ̣
ƶFortunaϵ̽֡

ȣۼ۵ķ31ڽ̵ĿϲٽϵΪ
һȨԴĿģһеҪ֮һ翨ԣά
̵Ŀϣʹáڽ̣һĿģѾͳеһֹߣ
˵Ļζеһǿһ
ʵ֤32άʷNumaij

NumaǵͣϣԺƽķʽʹǷӣcivil obedienceʹ
άڽ̣δηڽ̣ʹԪԺ
ΰļƻʵ֡

NumaΪڽ̣ҸҪԭ֮һΪõƶȣƶȲ
˵good fortuneкõʹҵܹɹڽǹ͹ΰԭ򣬶
ǻԭ(D.I.11:1-4)

⣬ʷѧϣ־۵飬άո˵ߣ
ʷѳΪܶΪϵ֧е񣬵ʵ
ǰжףһ߼һ֧䡹P.XXV1ң
Ȼ޷ն˵ȴƾ˵ǻ뾭ƿˣ

ǵû׼ֿ˵ʱ˾Գ.κһλ
ȫ˵Ļ˱仯ʱͿ̨
һܹʱ̬ķչıԼԸô˽Dzıġ
P.XXV3-5

һԡߡԣɵǴ֮Ϊ
ʷǻۣԼõľ飬չȫȻΪɡ33

֮䣬ߡҲ׵ϵΪжΪ֮ɵ
һױ׼λĿڱֺͷչȨжλı׼
ܷɹشﵽһĿġ34ǷӦʱֵ֮ӵҫglory
Ƿӵʱڹڵ֮virtu ı׼ܡƣ
ܹʹЩֵķʽʹ͹ΰ볤áά˵

һǵңΪIJԼǹͬƣcommon goodΪԼ
common fatherlandӦŬӵȨܵ˲ǴΪ˶ʹ
κμжextraordinary actionΪжָܵʱΪЧ
effectsԿˡҵЧǺõģRomulusǿԿˡжΪԱ
ԱؽߣӦܵǴ(D.I.9:2)

Romulusɱ֡롺Brutussӡ(D.I.16)¼Ϊ棬ԣ
άij35ˣۡߡ޷֮淶ܷ
Ҳҷ

ͬأΪ̬еһֹ淶ɣάҲ֣̽Ҳ
άѧиһԭԡΪɵ⣬ǣ浽Ρȣ
ոʱڵԣʱάֵ֮ijй͹ʷ
ɿУԣҲΥģάҪĹṩһΪ
ͳһԻһ壬ǷΪһֹ淶뵼Ĺߡ
ά˼֮УڳԽ̬֮״̬ʱɲֻΪҵһ֮õĻ
good foundationsP.XII1֮⣬ߡΪҲܵԭȷɵĹ
ڴDZ볬Ȼ֮ϣȡϷԣһõƶȼɣ
ܽ򸯻ٿ֮ʣʹһܴڹɵ֮УҲ
Ӧеġʹߵijϣ

ҲῴRomuluspNumapƶķıԣnecessityʹ
ةp۵ƩpԵʤpԼ۹ΰܸü֮
ãʹ˵ԡ(D.I.1:5)

ΪԼϵıȻΪάdzǿνıԣnecessityڴ
ṩһ֡ܶԡ졻ܸĹƷʣŵù
ԣνĸ(corruption)ĸSkinnerά˼ڹΪ
֮δܣãԣҲ޷ȷϵǵɣ֮Կܣ
ǶԵķ׼IJ롹36Ϊ˷
֮ߡṩɣؼڣ37

˳DZҪΪơڶѡ񡢿֮ʱκ½Իʧ
ƶʹ㣬ʹƣlaws make them good(D.I.3:2)
ȷʵģûΣգǴӲ淶ԼΪǿ˱
necessityǴӲͬһƶȵķɡ(D.I.2:1)
ԣӳԽ̬ۿάvirtuӦƫһַǵġ
ָһֶ۵жϣյԴԡߡС


άɹ뵱ʧ

ɴˣԿά˼ƺʱеɹһǰִpre-
modernϣʿ£AristotleʱڵѧޣCicero
Ĺ񹲺壨civil republicanismɹΪĶͶ
ڡУΪչԼʵΪˡ֮Ե壬Ψˣɵ
civil and free way of lifeŵά֣άĹ͹
ijξð֮ҲԿܣ˵һӦеvirtu
virtuе¼ڽϵƣ⣬ԡԡ֮ǶΪ˼ڹ
֮ɵĿܣDZԹҶΪǰᣬάġߡӳԽ
ڽ̡֮ϣƾŶʷǻۡʱգһ־
decisionsvirtu չֳɣ޷ӳ̬еļֵȥУֻܴ
ijɹʷӵҫ

ά˼ֵУִ˽ϾӰģԾ
ߡ¼ʷһϣΪάǶɵĿϣҪ
Ϊߡڳ̬֮⣬ڵ¡ڽ뷨֮ϣھڽ̸
˶֮˶ڹŵϵĽ֮ʣ֮ÿҰ
Ϊάۡеǣ̩(Charles Taylor)ڡִ֮ǡ
The malaise of ModernityһУִָ֮һһֶԴͳҰʧ
βĿԣҸֻ֪ΪԼ38ά̸򡺴
ߡ֮ʱе壺һͶһԵĴڡҡƶ֮⣬Ϊ
Ļ֮ն񣬸ߣΪ˽ǶԹѹȵ
һָݼӢӻͳߣִԣɳ֮Ϊеһֶ
ʷʹ֪ҫҲΪһµسιͬΣ
ضܴʷ


ο

һԭ䲿

άNiccolo Machiavelli
PThe Prince . Tran. Quentin Skinner Russell Price . CambridgeCambridge
University Press1991(дΪP½֮P.XX1 ʮŵһ
ΣԱο)
DDiscourses on Livy . Tran. Harvey C. Mansfield Nathan Tarcov . Chicago
University of Chicago Press1996 дΪDʽͬϣ
ۡ˺롣1994

ʿ£Aristotle
ѧ һػ룬̨֪鷿2001
ľ
1994 ʱʡ˼ά˼롷̨ѧʷѧо˶ʿ

1995 ʲôʿµĹ۵㡵̨о
ʮڣҳ165-194
2001 ·̨

1981 ε----ʷѧ֮о̨ͼ鹫
˾
ɽ
1995 άԡ֮̽һ¼ڳݡ࣬
Ⱥҳ77-102

1996 ͬĸһ˼ʷĿ졵̨ѧ
ţҳ257-295
1998 ά----һѧĿ졵οѧ۴ԡھڣ
ҳ145-172
2001 ҡοռ䡢Ļ----³δۡοѧ
ԡʮڣҳ25-46
Arendt , Hannah
1977 Between Past and Future , enlarged edition , LondonPenguin
Books
1982 Ȩ塷Ӣ룬̨
Berlin , Isaiah
1986 ۡ 롣̨
Bouthius , Ancius
The Consolation of Philosophy. Tran. , V.E.Watts, LondonPenguin
Books Press,1969.
Cassirer , Ernst
1992 ҵ񻰡 룬̨ڡ
Cicero , Marcus Tullius
Cicero on duties .Tran. Miriam Griffin , Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1990
Constant, Benjamin
the Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns, in
Constant , Political Writings. Ed. By Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge
Cambridge University Press ,1988 , pp.309-328
Haakonssen , Knud.
1993 Republicanism, in Robert E. Goodin &Philip Pettit(eds.) A Companion to
contemporary Political Philosophy . OxfordBasil Blackwell , pp.568-574.
Pocock , J.G.A.
1975 The Machiavellian Moment . PrincetonPrinceton University Press
Skinner , Quention
1978 The Foundations of Modern Political Thought 2vols. Cambridge
Cambridge University Press
1983 άӢ룬̨
1984 The Idea of Negative LibertyPhilosophical and Historical Persectives,
in Richard Rorty , J. B. Schneewind & Quentin Skinner(ed.), Philosophy in History
Essay on the Historiography of Philosophy . Cambridge University Press , pp.193-
211 .
1990 The republican ideal of political liberty in Gisela Bock &
Quentin Skinner & Maurizio Viroli (eds.) Machiavelli and Republicanism . Cambridge
Cambridge University Press , pp.293-309
Sabine , George H.
1997 ˼ʷپ½룬̨ڡ
Sunstein , Case
1988 Beyond the Republican Revival, Yale Law Journal 97 (1988) ,
pp.1539-1590
Taylor, Charles
1992 The Enthics of Authenticity , Harvard University Press
Viroli , Maurizio
1990 Machiavelli and the Republican Idea of Politics in Gisela Bock &
Quentin Skinner & Maurizio Viroli (eds.) Machiavelli and Republicanism . Cambridge
Cambridge University Press , pp.143-171.
Watkins , Fredrick
1999 δͳ֮չ룬̨

? Ϊδѧϵо˶ʿо
1 ڹ񹲺⺭°ĸ1ιеġ须
deliberation2ƽȣpolitical equality˻ڲιеĻ
Ӱͬ3壨universalismڹƵɽɼɣ
γɹƵĿԣ4ݣcitizenshipΪʵݵȨڹ
˼֣֮ɲοSunstein19881539-1576
2 ڹ˼ĸ˹̣Ҫأһʷѧ߶ܾ
ڹͣǿʽ֮Ӱ죬תǿ񹲺Ҫԣڶ
͸ոʱ˼رά˼֮ڹͣ𽥻ָ
Ӱ±Ĺ񹲺崫ͳ(Haakonssen ,1993568 , cf.壬1998
146)
3ο룬200115
4 Hannah Arendt1977149
5ͬע
6 F. Watkins199999
7 Hannah Arendt198234-35
8 ڿʿ̹ɵĵĻ֣οConstant1988309-328
9 Hannah Arendt1977157
10 BoethiusThe Consolation of PhilosophyP149
11ο룬1995168
12 Viroli1990152
13rule of lawjusticelibertyself-governmantconcord and virtueͬע
14 Arendt1977154-5
15 Arendt1977154
16ͬעp.153
17ά˼Уеġԡ⺭Ҫοɽ199577-102
18龳еĶԪο壬1998145-147Լһƪ³˼
Уеδ۵ĶԪ壬200125-46Դ˼ܹڹ
άɹۡ
19 Skinner19786-7
19 The New Shorter Oxford English DictionaryV.2p.3586ԣľ
199460virtu ά˼Ӣϵvirtueʱͬʱͬ
20 Aristotleѧ1277a15-24
21 Aristotleѧ1227a
22壬1998156
23ˡۡ׸⣬ʷۡ׸ЩͳΣȴһ֪
ˡ
24ҲSkinnerԽ˼뷢չУԳе븯֮ʣѰ
;һǿƶȣƣinstitutionsӰgovernmentУΪHume
Ϊһǣͳߡͷеġ˾񡻣proper spirit
ٺõ̬ٿ̰֣֮ҲͽȻMachiavelliMontesquieuΪ
Skinner197844-45
25 Skinner197845
26 ڹʱڶvirtue壬ɲοCicero񡷣1990BooK I
27 Skinner1984213-214
28һ֣̽άֻ۹δһı丯֮״̬ͬʱ
䡶ۡ롶ʷ֮ۡУڳ̬ͳӦΪƺΪ
һѣԶ̸ϮľP.II2
29ɽڳ֮Ϊάοɽ199583
30 Skinner198357
31νġۡthe theory of emanation⽨ƶ̻֯Ҫο
Cassirer1992179-181
32 Cassirer1992187
33 ڡΪɡ֮Ϊǽӽʷ(Carl Schmitt)ԵġĻԵ
ۡΪһ֡۵ĻԵۡsubjective occasionalism ԹҡΪ
ϵУѧմСʷ֮Ե˼룬Ҫο19813-21
34 Sabine1997:358
35Ҳչάŵ¶ֵһĿԱCiceroͬ¼
ۡ˵άڴ̸virtu ŵϵ롣
36 Skinner1990304άԸ֣̽ɼMachiavelliʷۡ
I.xvii-xix
37ڷɵġЧԡ֮ɣߡҪҷ߸ɴһ壬ά
ڴƺһȷĴ𰸣磺(matter)δ֮ʱɧ벻
˺ϸˣƶõķҲһ˿伫֮(extreme force)
ɸʵֲȷУϲŻá(D.I.17:3)һҪ
ĵط͹Dzܵģκ˳ΪǵIJþߣarbiterҪ
reorderǣ˽kingdom֮ûбİ취ԭڣΪ
̫ĸڷɲƺ⣬ҪԸҲ˵
ԾdzȨѹЩǿthe powerful֮ȵҰ븯
D.I.554֮ľ⣬ҲӦΪɡ
38 C.Taylor1992