ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis


ΰ

˭˭DD롰ӡ

紵ҡޣ˭˭

˻˵ѵֵһȻǰӺ˺ᡣǣܶȴΪ䲼е"϶ж" Affirmative Actionߣ֮ʵǰˡ漰""Reverse Discriminationĸ⣬䶯Ұļݴѧ»߱һRegents of University of California v. Bakke1978Ե

һԲеİ˸߲

סAllan Bakke1941ݣ汲ԱŷŲ񣬸ʾֵĸСѧʦ1Сڷܺѧɼͣȫѧѧľ 1959մѧ޻е̡ ѧڼ䣬ƽֳɼGPAΪ3.512ѧҵ󣬱Ͷʴ֣½սӷۣμԽսڻսϣŻս¸ңΪľΪξ١½սԽսڼߵľ֣ڲҲ⡣ս˵ʹ࣬סȷ˵һҽ־

1967ۺ󣬱֣NASAڼ˹̹ѧһ߼оĵһʦڼ䣬˹̹ѧ죬ûе˶ʿѧλȻʶԼԸdzΪһ˵ҽǣڹ֮࣬ҽѧԺԤƿγָ̣ϰ׼ҽѧԺѧԣMCAT

˭֪ҽʦôõġȣҽѧԺͷѧԺѧѼΪ󡣶ңѧҵϸߣҽѧԺͷѧԺϲṩѧΣҽѧԺͷѧԺм͵¼ȡʺͰȻḽ̌ʺ;IJпԣij̶ֳϳ70ĩй½ĸ߿Լݴѧά˹УҽѧԺΪԺ1973ֻ¼ȡ100ѧȴߴ2464ˡ

ǣȴǡѡ˼ݴѧά˹УҽѧԺΪص㱨ԺУ֮һеؾǣɼݴѧ»İؿɼʥǸ硢ά˹ȴѧУȻȫѧ֮񣬵Ү³˹١˹̹˽УͬݴѧУȫǹѧѧͲѧѱЩ˽ƴѧҪ˵öࡣ⣬񱴻ڼݾסϣ˰ľ񣬻ܵѧȼѧѵ ɼҽѧԺԤƿγ̺󣬱ҽѧԺѧٴݱڿѧ֪ʶݣȷΪ97%ݣȷΪ96%ѧݣȷΪ94%1972ף־ıݴѧά˹УҽѧԺʽ1973ѧ롣û뵽ݴѧȴ־ڱصõİס˱Ÿ

ճԱGPAMCATɼ˹̹ѧ˶ʿѧԼۺʣӦһоˡΪԼɽԭѳ30ꡣǣȴӴά˹Уѧ칫Ҵ̽һһĻԭҽѧԺ100¼ȡУ16رרŷ˺˵ѧ˳Ծǣڱ¼ȡ16ѧУ˵GPAMCATɼԶԶԼ

֪¼ȡͲͬ¼ȡ׼Ļ֮dzջܱʼ飬ά˹У¼ȡ칫дһˮƽıԹšд�"ΪδҽƽҵҪҽѧҪ˲šʶ¼ȡΪ˲ӵĶǣչĴʩʵֿµƫⲻһĽ취"3һͨԹ֮1973ױݴѧά˹УҽѧԺ1974ȵѧ롣

ȻõĻظȻһ¼ȡĿҩȫˣȴҽѧԺԭȻǷɫڣС"Խ"гⱲӻǵһ"ߵڰ"Ĺ¡йԩƽ֮£ܻ뵽Ǹġԩƽ֮£һͷǸġסȻҲ⣬һ״ֽѼݴѧ浽˵طԺظݴѧӣΥȨܷ14ڶԹƽȷɱ

1975꣬طԺԱһ˫50оȻоݴѧ¼ȡƶΥδоά˹УҽѧԺӦ¼ȡ̶ͷر˫⣬߷Ժߡ1976꣬߷Ժмݴѧߣݴѧ»᲻Ƹˮ¼鰸гرٵĹѧڿ˹Archibald CoxΪʦ1978ѹ˾߷Ժ

Ϊѵ߷Ժ

һȡƽᣬݴѧά˹УҽѧԺΪλΪ˱16ر¼ȡأ˵չ˴ʩʵ䲼е"϶ж"ֱйء

"϶ж"ʣԴԿͳ1961ǩͳ10925 Ҫͬа̲ȡ϶жΪṩĹᣬ塢ɫ漮ȷӡ 4Լѷͳִڼ䣬͹½䲼һϵаΧΪ㷺"϶ж"ֳΪƽȨ淨֮"϶ж"ʵһ1964꡶ȨϷչƽȨʩͷĿǰʷϳܵӵ͸ŮظıΡáȷƵλ˵ѧҵ䷢ѧԼͷͬʱھʸͬ£ˡӡذˡԼŮб¼ȡ¼áȵõͬȨ 1969꣬صĹ͵ͳ׹ƶ"϶ж"߷´ʩȴ˹Ŀ࿴ιҪְģ걻ͳΪ͹˹͹ڣ˺𼫴ӲԶƶȡ͹Ĺ涨ѧʱһŮѧűӶһŮְԱһ򹤳̺ͬӦȸŮͶˡ⣬ǽԼǩ򹤳̺ͬ˽Ӫҵѧύһ�"϶ж"ƻ˵ҵѧԱԼڶ೤ʱʹԱﵽһͺ̸ͬ70"϶ж"ߵչ˷Χ󵽲м˺ˡ

Ȩ˶ƺƴ60"϶ж"ߵõȫߵԺУĻӦѧУ԰ɻͼĴӪݴѧ60ԽսƽȨѧ˶УȫߵԺУֵ׵Ĵѧ֮һڴ˱£ά˹УΪ˾ɵΣIJҽѧԺѧĶԪԣΪ̿ѧϰܶɲĵİرŻݺչ˵¼ȡƶȣ˱ϰ ݴѧ߱һʵǸ߷ԺһΪֵĴ⡣ԭܼ򵥣¹"϶ж"ǷΥܵشϰһķ⣬һ߶ȸӵ⡣ìеĶʱըԲͻıըǰصᶯҡйᣬش˾ͨеرΪ⣬ᣬ編ѧпάԣκնݱ˾⡣ⷨɻ飬߷Ժ󷨹͸Խ ʷϣй߷Ժͼ÷ֶν⣬ȴѺᶯҵǰӾϱսǰĵ˹ɣһScott v. Sandford1857ʱ߷ԺƫϷūƵIJþоū񣬲ʹּͨūŵ"Э"ΥܶȡܴӵɵĽǶȿ߷Ժ˹ذо޿ɺǣνǶȿһо˱ѼϱִԺƽֶνϷūĵ·ᶨϷܷūƵľģʹֿͳ"ΥҼͣıλϱսıƲĶãʹһ޷ϱս˹ذһѧΪ߷Ժʷ5

ǰ֮ʹ߷Ժ"ΰ"ʱòСԨıڱ֮ǰһλơ·˹Marco Defunisİѧ1971"϶ж"߷ѡλѧķѧԺѧԣLSATɼѱʢٴѧѧԺ¼ȡĴ˸ߵö࣬ȴδ¼ȡһ֮£طԺظ滪ʢٴѧطԺ1971оʢٴѧߣ·˹Ըؽ뷨ѧԺѧϰʢٴѧоߣ1974 ѹ˾߷Ժ

ǣ֮ǣ19742£߷ԺԵ·˹5¾ͽӷѧԺҵ"ѹʱ"İӣMoot Case޷ΪɣرܶԵ·˹Defunis v. Odegaard1974˾þ6ʵ߷Ժ˸ڹͷ۵⣬ʹֺ֧ͷ"϶ж"ߵʿΪʧǣ˳һ㲻ʮ壬󣬱ִӲΪѵ߷Ժȷ˵ҰĿԴҿ߷ԺζԱвþ

19786£ҰĿ֮£߷Ժ54һƱ֮ԱһʷϷdz˫оDouble DecisionɱLewis Powell󷨹ķԺоݣһоݴѧ¼ȡƶΥȨݴѧҽѧԺ¼ȡסڶȴܷһѧԭоݴѧȨʵһЩʹѧԴУ԰ѧԪߣ¼ȡʱ԰ΪһǣܰΪΨһء7߷Ժһоݴѧ"϶ж"¼ȡƶΥһֹ涨ԽΪѧһأʵַ֧"϶ж"ߡΪԲ˫оʹֺ֧ͼҷ"϶ж"ߵʿ׹ʴӡ߷ԺоȻǷɾκؿǣȻԸ󷨹ٵо൱ҪӰ졣

ƽ""

ǣϸķɽǶȿ"϶ж"Ȼһ"ƽ"ߡһ˵ƽȿɷΪ֣ƽȣƽȣƽȡʷ֤ʵϵƽȺͽƽȶDzܵģΨһģֻǹƽȡ"϶ж"ȴԾϹƽȵԭ޸ġ

ŶԣΪ˾ǰӵı׶ˣìܣһʷʱ֮ڣʵƽȺṫԭʱڹƽȵԭ"϶ж"ߵһҪص㣬DzڹƽԭһֽʽȺԲչˣﵽƽȡƽս

ǣڹƽȣԸãɳ㣬ʵȴǶ԰˵ӣǰ˲ò澺ľΪ"Ƿծ"شۡӾҵǶȿһ͵ɾľãһεĹ͸λ߶ټҵľѧǶȿһѧܷѧԺҽѧԺ¼ȡһ˵˥裻ҵǶȿܷŵҵ͹̺ͬϵһҵ˾Ȼ"϶ж"ߣ˲ͿԳɼͬ±ɣͳɼԸʱҲпܰ

һЩɾѧΪһ˽гùңǿʩ"϶ж"ߵչ˴ʩζ˽ҵڲĸ棬ζͶͬҵԤ˽ҵϰӶԱȨƻڹƽϷͬľûơǣͷԪ͹̺ͬ˽ҵͻ˽ҵֻиķݶһƢҲСܷƶά˽вȨ˽ƾʥְַԯޡ

"϶ж"ߵһָ֮ǣܻʹ޹߳еɵIJҲʹһЩδܵ˺ƾջ档һЩȼáȷĹ߲ͬ"϶ж"һᡢɫԱЩȺΪʩչ˴ʩ׼"һ"ߡֻҪŮԣʲôŮԣ㶼ھܵչˡ෴ֻҪǰˣʲôİˣͳĵùҲûۡ

"϶ж"߲IJǰˣҰһЩʿΪ˵ļݴѧ»ᶭ¿Ward ConnerlyΪеһЩչ˴ʩʵϵڹ˽ǹʵľֻܿͷɫռȻʵǶĹ͡Ҫƽȹνչ˺ŻݡʵУߵܻҲޣֻΪѾȨƽײһСݺ˺ͰŮṩ˽һⷽ㡣8

Ĵ̳𽥳Ϊһе⡣20015£̻ڰ׹ݼСʲͳʱлСʲλСڸ󲿳СʲػشСͷȫ͵Ʒ£ᱳûκιϵ9ý徭ЦѧƽֳɼGPAΪCСʲͳȲҲ⽻ʵδˡСʲͳʱϡͿ˳̨ߣ鷳ɾʹˡ

"϶ж"ʿΪ"϶ж"߸ͲƽȨǷƽȨǶ԰Եӡ߲ѧ;ҵ϶԰ԼƽҲʹ̳Ͷ͵һȵĹΪصǣչ߰ͷɫΪȨȨ֮ϣڷŬ͸˷ܶΪ񡣾ݡձ㲥˾ABC1992һ飬֮�"϶ж"ʷʹΪȥӺͲƽȶ˵չˡ

ǣ"϶ж"֧߼Ϊʵ30"϶ж"ߣ޷ϲԺ˳͵ūۺɵĶ˺ܺ˵κ;õλشƣܵ˵Ȼڶȹĵλ˺Ͱ֮䣬ڽˮƽƽʡλȷ涼Բࡣ⣬ܹѲƫȻٹ̵ش֮С�"϶ж"߲δʷʹ·;صԶ

Χ"϶ж"չۣȻԶԶѧ۵ķΧΪǣ浽ǧ˵ʵ棬Ҳһҹȥһõ˺漰⣬ˣȻԼ"˵˵"󣬺һͳһĿͽۡ

߷ζǣݴѧ60ȫѧȡƽȨ˶ͷ70򱴻ϰһʱ90ں󣬼ݴѧҡһΪȡϳƽȨļȷ档1997ݴѧ»õȫ񹫾ϳƽȨ֮ʣͶƱͨ飬ݴѧˡбʱչ͸ŮӶʹݴѧΪһϳ"϶ж"ߵĹݴѧϳ"϶ж"һ±չֻһʱԺͲԵߣһ޸оԷɣDzڵʩȥġ

ھҵǰδĸԺͷϣ߷ԺһһԾŶλǣ"϶ж"е⣬߷ԺעĿزȡһֳĬ͹ߡ90ȫݵطԺս1978건о߰ʼ࣬нİ2001ĺߵݰHopwood v. Texas2001ⳡ˾ıǰѧظݴѧѧԺΪѧ֮һʹɼۺǿİѧ֮⡣19965߷Ժѧоݴѧоѹ˾߷Ժ߷Ժܾݴѧߣ˰ֱ߻¼Ժ󣬲2001ٴߵ߷Ժǣ߷Ժ20016²ٴξܾߵ߰Ҹ;ܾ˰ԭ򡣡10

߷Ժսо߰ȡĬ͹߲żȻġ󷨹֪߷ԺһԾŶϵȨ֮ףΪ˱çײϰЩӰȫ֡鼫ķϰıĴ󷨹dz˱ᣬõطԺ߷Ժʯͷӣʱ֮ʱ߷Ժһ߷ԺӰȫֵشʱõĸж

߷ԺӶս߷ԺijĬ͹߻ãǽĿԴʵϣֳĬ;۴˺ܿӦ�"϶ж"߰Ѱ취Ҫ֪ݴѧ֮ԸΪȣݴѧ»֮20ǰϷԵؽȻ෴ʵڼ˿еıѵ䵽50%ֱӹϵ֮ڰڼݼΪᣬͬȨҪ"϶ж"ߵչˡ

˲ռ˿ڶԼŷĻٳΪռݾƵλĻ֮ʱ"϶ж"ֶ߲֮"ɳ"ʽϵĶԪĻУǿṲǿȺȺ干棬½ܽū䷨δսԽսȨ˶911¼ʷԴ䶯֮ٵȫս

עͣ
1ڰסĸ˱μ Joel Dreyfuss and Charles Lawrence III, The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich & Company, 1979).
2GPA Grade Point AverageΪ"ƽֳɼ"ѧһѧƽɼķơ GPA 4൱AGPA 3൱BGPA 2൱Cס3.51GPA൱ƽɼΪA
3Joel Dreyfuss and Charles Lawrence III, The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich & Company, 1979). p14.
4ͳ10925ӢԭΪ"The Contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and employee are treated during their employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin."
תJoAnn Bren Guernsey, Affirmative Action. (Minneapolis: Lerner Puplications Company, 1997). p30.
5Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law & Politics. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978). xii
6Defunis v. Odegaard416 U.S. 312 (1974
7Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978).
8Ward Connerly, Creating Equal: My fight against race preference. (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2000).
9200154ա̱Ÿ壺Сʲͳڰ׹̻
10Larry D. Hatfield, "Top court sidesteps affirmative action case ruling stands that Texas program hurts whites. " San Francisco Chronicle, June 25, 2001.


йhttp://www.cc.org.cn/ 20020308

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Copyright?2000 csdn618.com.cn. All rights reserved.
ȨУ Ϣҵ޹˾ ĴѧйĻо