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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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(人ѧѧԺ 人 430072)

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ժҪΪڱɵϴŷȵλǿãŷΪڶ˸ϡƽȨδ˱ȵļֵҪڱɵļֵΪ˱ĻȡʩijЩۡĽеҪ֮Ľܹ

ؼʣ[]ɣ塣

Winfried BruggerָģڶԴɵϴνŷ˫ΪһֻȨͬԱӦ߶ȵıȴɸڸϡƽȨδ˱ȵȵλΪʹҲӦܵģԵ¹ôΪŷΪ۹ߵϻƽȨиڹԴǵļֵӦܵơ[1]Կ˫ڱֳķǷȵλǷΪɾи˸ϡδ˱ȵļֵһֵǸΪֵҹأΪ˻شһ⣬ĽȽĻ۵Ҫ֮Ĺһ

һ

Ǵ͸ȵλġڵһͨ󲻾ã˾ͨˡɿȺĽѷˡ[2]350ҳص˾ƶȣܷΪɵıṩ˷ԨԴʹɳΪʵеȨֵıģȴ߷Ժԭ򣬱ɳһսǰŽ߷ԺҰȷɵıԭĹҲֱۣ1969IJDZڱɵļ׼ȷһΣ͵ıɵıԭΪʲôḳȵλ

˵1798йѹƹɵļ¼ʱǵ߷ԺͬΪѳ֣γڱɵı˷û߷ԺΥϡԭֱһսʱ߷Ժûдйصһİ20120ìܵļӾʹñɵ͹᣻͡һϵΪ߷ԺԱɵѹơԼڱɵĿṩһֱӵľҪijɹǻķ˹ڡˡġԶʵΣաԭ򡣴ڵĹ۵㿼죬ġΣԭ򡱱Ƿdz޵ģһˡоڱɵıΣԭ򡱴ʱǷdzģкǿԵģ˺ױΪѹƱɵķɱ绤һԭҪڹ˱һҪļ׼Դͷ̺һıɲĸ棬ǹɱ൱̶ȵΣˡ֮󣬻ķ˹ٺͲ˹˳ڵŬʹΣԭ򡱲ϵϸ;ȷʹܸ֮ڱɵı1927ġᡱСΣԭնΪҼ̵Σԭ򡱣ҪѹۣͱкĸݣΪ˵ΣǽȵģпܶԹΣա[3]194-195ҳ־ʮķΣԭ1969IJDZ߷ԺȷΪɵһԭ

ڽ죬߷ԺԱɵļԭǷdzӵġ˵߷Ժڶ۽зĻϣƽķݾ尸漰Ȩ⣬жءΣԭȻں̶ܴѾΪķȡȻ߷ԺазҪáĹУ߷ԺԤǰǡɾиϡƽȡȵļֵˣ֤еķϸΪʵҪĻƶġ[2]380-381ҳ

ô߷ԺΪʲôḳȵλأ֪ܷһȡҵĿ϶ྶͥķʽԵ¹Ϊ¹52涨51֮ɵͨɣgeneral lawsĹ涨δ˱ܵơ[1]ܷһ涨᲻ƶķɣȷֹ̻ڽ̻ɣɻɣƽԸԩȨַʽɵȵλ֮ijֲɷָϵȻıʽDzԵ½ģҪΪʲô߷ԺḳȵλͱԶ߷ԺаԭشӰѧѧ˵رǻķ˹Ͳ˹˵ѧ˵Ŀ졣

ɵѧѧ˵

Ҫֹڱɵѧ˵Իķ˹Ϊġгۡ׿˶ԼΪġΡԼScanlonΪġۡгۡŻѵķθֹ۵ڡ۵гɽ𣬶ؽʤΪľߣ׿˶ԼԼΪۻʵϵDzΣself-governmentȨΪεȨǾԲԱεĹƾٳδƵģйصġۡҲDzƵġ[4]101ҳġȨijһǷΪǷкǶ˵ԵӲ谭˵ĸԵķչ׿˶ԼȻҲdzҪľ߷ԺӰСҪѧ˵ ҪǶȷΣԭ˹ؼԹ׵Ļķ˹ٵġгۡ ķ˹ٺͲ˹ٶΪ˵ǿģѵķڹ̳ϣڡ۵гøֹ۵һؽʤķ˹һλǾõģʶʱѾƷսԵܻԼжĸݶһ֮Ψо˼ɽűȽ׻ã༴Ҫij˼ǷΪѷǽ֮˼뾺гϣϿɡ[4]74ҳ˹̳кͷչ˻ķ˹Ĺ۵㣬ΪͷԲӦһ̣ڴιУ¸ǶɺηģǵΣ˽ȣڽȫ۵Ļ֮ǰ٣κ۵ΣնܱΪִġʱͨʾôʷǸۡǿƳĬ[2]366ҳڻķ˹˹ȷΣԭͻףֵġгۡ߷ԺозdzӰ졣 롰гһооἰĻСۡ롰гۡͬǣۡһһۣϿԷΪautonomy͡ʵ֡(self-fulfillment)ֽ··ҪRichardsScanlonBakerˡ·ţԵģгֵȥǷǶԴͬʱÿһ˶лԶܵƽȵصȨÿʶж϶ӦģӦǿijֹжϣǶԺӣӶδ˵ĵλȻҲܲΣǡһģͱԼȥжʲôӦԼǷӦñ˵ȥȡijжһ˲ܲ˼ͽܱ˹ӦʲôӦʲôжϡ[5]13-14ҳˣӦijкΪɰԵĸһ۵ȨΪζж϶Ӹ˵ʵֵĽ·ǴӶ̬ӽɡһ·ҪEmersonRedishMarshallBollingerˡ[6]ĬɭΪܾͨıͽ۵չ˵˼Ӷﵽ˵ʵ֣ͬʱΪɵضԼֹ۵ıѰҸϵġ弰λáMartin RedishΪ֮DzַģΪ׷ļֵ˶ӰľĿƼ˵ġ˵IJܡķչֵּǰڡʵ֡µġBrian C. MurchisonΪ۵ķͨ˽˵ĹϵбǷԼγɸֵּж϶˵ĸԵķչԶӰ졣Ȼ·ǿߵʵֵĽ·ǿߵ棬ǿĶǸ˵棬ǿĶǸ˶Լ˼Ŀơһʹܹͬڡۡ¡ ͨ϶صҪѧѧ˵ķǿԿȻѧǸɵļֵͬűӦþȵλųǹġɲӦܵơѧǾΪ߷Ժаԭиȵλṩʶ֧֡ͻóʹЩ޷ɢۣҲҪȾ̤Ĺʲô˵ʲôΣ֮;õöࡱ[7]248-249ҳĽۡ

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ͨϵĿ˽⵽ӱеֵ֪Ϊɾи˸ϡƽȡδ˱ȵļֵˣ򡢹ҰȫȨȲܹƱɵɡʵϣĿԣ߷ԺܵһԾԵı[2]381ҳ ɡκ֮ɱ[8]90ҳ£ɴҲܵ[1]Ϊ˼֮żΪеĹ

ΪǰҷΪ޵ָ˼롱[9]57ҳԴ16-18[9]59ҳ䲻ʷչУɣ繦塢ոѧɡ֥ӸѧɵȣDZֳ塢ŵ޶˹Ϊij֮ڲ硣ָӵľʹѧ޷ʲôɹʶ[10]28ҳǴӹµѧǵ֮УرǴǵУǿԱʶ壨ǵ壩ĹͬԤͺ۵ġΪбȽҪľǡԭʽĸԼԪۡ ߣ۹һɣĻ۹ʶ[11]134ҳһȺ߶еõΪԵ̩֡ܽᵽŵ˺޶˹Ȼῴɸɵģÿһ˶һ棬ߵһƳĹͬ򡭡ˣУ˶ǵһλᶼλΣԸͬڡҶ֮κε»ϵĽ[11]134ҳһͬʼۼ衱ͬʱҲͳȱݣģһֹġһֻעһ˽νֻǸ˵ϵĽˣǿ˲ǵºԭ[12]46ҳչʾΪĸڶָ˵ԣӶ˶УͬʱҲ߶ʾһִԹȨغͱĿڵԵĻԼ?һ൱ʶϵͳдϳΪҺ֮µشĺҪĿģDZǵIJƲ[13]77ҳΪȻ״̬дȱݶ޷һ㡣ԣöȻȨֻdzڸΪ˸õıԼɺͲƲĶ[13]80ҳȨԲŵڸҪ֮⣬DZ뱣ÿһ˵IJƲ[13]80ҳ֮ӦܹΪǶΪ䳼ĸ˵Ȩ绤Ψһı绤Ǹ˵ȨǵֵϵбܹIJͬƶȰеõõı[10]3ҳ

һ۾ǶԪ塣Larmore˵ĺĹǶԪͿݡ[10]28ҳϵͳIJһľ?ֺ˶?¿ФأҪڲֵӰԪĹŲ˹㷺Ӱ졣[10]209ҳΪΪĵ¡Ρڽ̡ĻռֵЩشϣǡǡһΨһȷĴ𰸣ӲҪڲ֮ͬʵֻǡǿȨ[14]ĶԪ޶˹ġۡ𵽹ؼõġԶԪۡòֵġ޶˹ָԶԪ۵ʵʵƶȵһʵӳڹԵġͳԵڽ̺ѧ۷棬ԼѰĵºѧֵ۷棬̵ĺͲɵ͵ķ硱[15]6-7ҳ޶˹ԶԪ۲ԭΪжϵļ[15]59-60ҳԶԪ۵IJڶ˵ԵԼǿ˵ĿԵĽͬʱΪҪıһʵҪѹȨͬɱ۵[15]35ҳһʵƶԶȥ[15]8ҳ֮ԪͼǣСźļֵ͹ĺIJɻԼĶԪԡӦȷƽȵĶԴÿһֺĹҲ˵εӦøԼȷνá[10]7-8ҳ

ǿԷ֣ͨԸͶԭķչֳһǿ˵ĿԼĹҹۣŸǵһλģӦٵĸԤ˽˵һ棬Ҳdzǿҵĵԣ¹ЩɻԼļֵ͹ʱӦȨȥлеijֹԷ֣Ϊ㲢ϸۣ׵óӦܵĽۡʵϣȫ濼ϵǽᷢ˼֮Žܵϵ дΪǿҵĸɫʺλôѧR.MoonԴɵĸ̬ȹΪ·ŵȺĽ·MoonΪıɵѧ˵ǴӻٽҷչƵĽǶ֤ɵļֵʵ϶ԹڸĿ֮£ΪǶǴӵֿԸɸԤĽǶɵġ֮Իskokieоԭ߷Ժĸıɹ˷ǿҰ[16]߻ͬMoonЩ۵㡣һ棬ӦڱɵֻܷáWinfried Brugger˵¹Ϊκɣܷ涨ıɣпΪƻɵĿĶãˣĵȨĻڷֹһڵ¹ٶȷ[1]ȨΪ˱ĻѹijۣҲڵ¹ܱԭ֮£öࡣ߷Ժļ׼ȥ֮⣨ۡ۵ȣ۵ͺΪƸۣ۵ѹԤȱٶΪΥܵģ֤۵شȵΣԻҪ֤ĺԡˣڱɵϷӵøǷԵģͷδ֮ǰֻɸֹڡгɾܸԤ

ǿͨ˼֮ڵĽܹνϵǿҵĸɫʣָҪǴӸˣ߻ߣĽǶȳڸ˵ɣӵֿԸɵĸԤĽǶɡֱɹҪǸᡢ˸Ԥ衣ֱɹۿֻڱɶڸ˾رҪ壨׷ʵԴԼġȨʵܷŸ˱رıԴΪ㣬桢ᰲȫ˵ƽȨ˸ϵȣܹƱɵɡҲ߷Ժȵλԭ򡣸ıɹ۶Ըĸ߶ǿԼԴᡢĹϵ̬ȣʾ֮Ĺ

ڱϵ˼֮Ĺ͸ˡȣϵŸ߶ȵغϡŸ˹ĿģᳫСĹҡ޹ңӦٵĸԤ˽ʩ䡶ܷѧһͼ綨νġʲ׼ιܷʱܽᵽᄈУֻҪ̸ңǾͱԸɵĴΪȾʵϣԭ޵ģȨĸԤ޵ġʩΪӷιĽǶȿжԸ˽ĹҸԤӦΪ⣬˹ҸԤͳ˱֤ԵķΪ[17]121ҳҲ̸ڱɵϸ𵽵ǷԵãͷֻɸֹڡгɾܸԤɣڶ֮дŸ߶ȵغϡ

ϵ֮ĹĿͨԪ֮ĹֳᵽԪdzǿҵĵԣ¹ЩɻԼļֵ͹ʱӦȨȥлеijֹϵţӦжijֹǷΪϷӻãӦøֹɾҲԼȥжϡͲijֹӣкΪɶơôΪжijֹ۵ǷΪ棬жijһ۵ǷΪѷǽŵгϽɵĽĹ۵Ҫ֧⣬ȻҪҪԪ֧š߷Ժ֮γ˶ɫλֱԭ߷ԺΪӶԪDzΨһģڼֵжбĵλ

ͨϷǿԵóĽۣ֮ŽܵĹҲʾǣ֧ţϵҲͲܴڡңȻռλȴԭʽĸͼֵܵȺߵҹһıȻ˱ͼҪIJֲΪ׷Ч£ҲͬصȱʧͶ˵ԵĺӶ޽?ָڱɵ϶Եصĺӣ[8]90-93ҳ R. MoonҲôԺڴɰʱì̬ܵȹΪʽĸɹ۵Ĺ׷档[16]ҹܷطȻԱ˱ȽȫĹ涨ĿǰΪֹ˵ѧ˾ʵ粢δγɳıɹۡ£ڱϵͻɾͣΪ˸õııɶհģʽ򲢲ûпܡ֮ʱ֮ĽܹIJγѵʶγԼıɹ۽вɹ塣

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* ߼飺µӢ1977-Ůˣ人ѧѧԺѧϵ˶ʿоܷѧо.

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עͣ

[] νָۣ衢вȻɧŸ˻ȺܹĶ޻ӵ͵ֱӻڸ˻Ⱥ塢ѪͳԱĹۡμWinfried Brugger. The Treatment of Hate Speech in German Constitutional Law (Part 1) [J]. German Law Journal vol. 3 No.12-01December 2002-Public Law, www.germanlawjournal.com/past-issues.php?id=212

οף

[1] Winfried Brugger. The Treatment of Hate Speech in German Constitutional Law (Part 1) [J]. German Law Journal vol. 3 No.12-01December 2002-Public Law, www.germanlawjournal.com/past-issues.php?id=212.

[2] ǧ. ϵϣ[M]. йѧ磬2000.

[3] []ķס˹϶˹. ܷ[M]. йѧ磬1995.

[4] . ɼ޶[J][M], 32ɳ磬2001

[5] Scanlon. A Theory of Freedom of Expression[M]. 1 Phil.&Pub.Aff. 204,213-218 (1972), תGeoffrey R. Stone, Louis M. Seidman, Cass R. Sunstein, Mark V. Tushnet (1999). The First Amendment[M]. Aspen Law & Business, A Division of Aspen Publishers, Inc.

[6] Brian C. Murchison. Speech and the Self-Realization Value[J]. 33Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 443, Summer, 1998, www.lexisnexis.com.

[7] Collin v. Smith, 447F. Supp. 676 (1978), תMark Mikula & L. Mpho Mabunda, Editors, Allison McClintic Marion, Associate Editor. Great American Court Cases, Volume 1: Individual Liberties[M]. The Gale Group, First Edition.

[8] []޽ܡ. ŷ޹ҵźͳ[J]. []·˹𡢰ءJɭ֣࣬. Ȩ[M]. , 1996.

[9] ˻. ͬ[J]. ͱִࣺҡ۴ԡ߼[M]. ꣬2003.

[10] []Լ˹Ӧ. [M]. Ͼ磬2003.

[11] [Ӣ]֣. [M]. ӡݣ2002.

[12] . Ү˵[J]ԭ[Ӣ]ϣ롤Ү. ԭ[M]. ꣬1997.

[13] [Ӣ]Ҷľũ. ۣ£[M]. ӡݣ2003.

[14] . 롰塱[J]www.sinoliberal.com.

[15] []Լ޶˹Ҧ־. Ϊƽ塪[M]. Ϻ꣬2002.

[16] Colin Farrelly, R. Moon, Critical Notice: The Social Character of Freedom of Expression The Constitutional Protection of Freedom of Expression[J]. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, July, 2001, www.westlaw.com

[17] [Ų]ڡ˹˹. 弰ߣʩغ˹Τ[J]. []˹ء[Ų]˹˹±࣬ڡл. Ǩо[M]. ꣬1997.

On The American Stand of Freedom of Speech

And On The Relation Between Liberalism And The American Stand

Chen Daoying Qin Qianhong

(Wuhan University , Law School, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China)

Authors: Chen Daoying (1977-), female, Master candidate, Wuhan University, Law School, majoring in constitution; Qin Qianhong (1964-), male, Professor, Wuhan University, Law School, majoring in constitution.

Abstract: The authors argue that there are two stands on the problem of freedom of speech: the American stand and the European stand. The American stand takes freedom of speech as the prior freedom and insists on the passive role of the government. On the contrary, the European stand argues that freedom of speech is always inferior to values such as humanity and equality. Moreover, it permits the government to limit some kinds of speech to protect the basis of the political order. The article introduces the American stand and its characteristics, and analysis the close relation between the American stand and liberalism.

Keywords: hate speech, freedom of speech, liberalism