ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

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Ferdinand de Saussure 1857-1913ִѧĴʼˡѧңһ㲻ΪѧңΪһѧƵĿߣѧӰ켫Ϊ㷺̡ԷϵͳѧҵӰҲڶӢϵͳѧңⱾҪӢϵͳѧңʹˣбҪڿƪ֮ʼҪһȻҽԹԿѧľݣнֱѧйصݡ
1857ߣȸһꡣһλѧҡСܵȻѧĽͬʱҲõõԽѧշӢͨġ15ʱдһƪۡѧͶߴѧѧϰѧϣġѧʱ﷨ѧҵģѧϰȷѧΪҵĵ·ʱڣĵһƪҪģӡŷϵԭԭʼϵͳѧӣʱ21ꡣòʿѧλƾӰ裬ڸߵоѧԺġŸߵصԼӡŷѧſ1891꣬Ӧصߣߴѧڡ裬ѧоȽѧˮƽҲϵ͡һǵ͵ѧģûʲô¡ʱѧңΪһΰ˼ҵĵλȴűʶġ
ǰֻټƪ൱רŵġ1907-1911꣬ߴѧѧڵͨѧ1913ȥԺѧͬ¸ݼαʼDZɡͨѧ̡̳һ顣ڷµıʼҲ٣˱༭Ȿܲףѧڽμкܶظݣкܶ಻ͬһµݡ༭ߺϲһ飬һʵɾ
ԶԶ̫עǰ֮ϡƺ⡣ʵܶΰ˼ңûǰ͵ֻᵽӡոסάظ˹̹Ҳðʿ¡ǵҪѧඨġṩԵɡ˼ǻģﵽϵͳ͸˼뼫ΪѣΪ˼ȵȡǺˣֻͨ˽˼ˣһźȻDzʢ˼ijֱЩ˼ҵ̽Ȼʧ

ʩָָԭ
˼ķϵͳԱʾߺͱʾߵĽϡԱʾ߳Ϊʩָsignifiersignifiantָߣ롰ָʩָЩѱʾָ߳signifiedsignifieָߡҪسһ⣬ΪνָЩԵĴڣ硰ָһƥһЩѪⲻ˼ָǸԵģɴǸָĸԷIJƣǸʽ101ҳһᷨľݽ𲽳塣
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ŵָǿȷģʩָҲǿȷġÿ˵߳Щ𣬴ʱʱҲЩ𣬵Ƕ֪˵ͬһʣֻҪ˵߳˵߳߳ȵȷбͿˡת66-67һΡ
ϵͳеͬһͲǴʽģɽṹ綨ġ˵ijԵλȻ˵λͬһôȷһλǶλأ磬ôȷͬbbϷͬbǷͬһλȡǷԸһξáӢbpIJ֣֮ڸһIJμʲξãbetһͬpetĴʣԣһЩͬһbһЩͬһp෴ﲻֵʣbpˣӢ﷢bpںжͬһλDzܲϸ߲ΣֱڽϵͲȷЩԪȻٿЩԪνϣá
ΪڸʽϵУģֱϵassociative relationڸۺϹϵparadigmatic relationϵȷãҪĵassociativeһҪ롱Ϊ˵ʵϸ뵽κ飬⽲߼ϵDZ߼ϵDZ̨ʣ˵˵ʶDZʶάظ˹̹ʯϹϵsyntagmatic relation171ǰpbԣfootfeetԣһֶԱȹϵ֮ĹϵֹϵԪǷܹһֹϵԷĸΣϵͳֹͨϵԽ͡


ʩָָģôԣǶϵͳ֮У빹һϵͳDzʺǸʣҲһϵͳ֮С˵ġϵͳʽɵϵͳԡϵͳԵģԡlangueparoleܳΪlangageĵһżöַʽżǸ˵ġġżȻģġҪġȵȡĽǶ˵ͬһʵԶԵĽǶԶ˵ͬһʡУ˵ҡָ˵ָģУҼȲָҲָģָ˵ˡ˵һӡutteranceģӡsentenceȴԵġ¿Ըſ˵Ա˵ԹͬԱе﷨ϵƽʱ˵Щ﷨ϵͳ˵ΪԵ֡ѧоʵΪDZصʽϵͳˣѧĶԣ
/Ӧִ壬омֵvaluevaleurڻо塲signification

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Ա仯ĿۣΪԱ仯ijЩɷֵԷġżȻı仯֮ϵͳı仯DZƶģDZģijЩɷֲϵͳеϵԼ˱仯̳85ҡһ˼Ľ۵ĹһµģʵϣҲרô˵ûȷĿԡ
ԭʼʵϵͳܲĺûκڵϵ127һⲻܲ뵽Ү˵߶ᷢչһ⡣ʷʽϵͳʹʽʽѧν淶ѧоЩʽαʹãαʷѧоЩʽIJǣʷѧʽѧΪǰᣬԶʽʹõ˽ΪǰᣬΪ˻ʹãDz֪ЩʽʽǷ״ͬģ״ȻģʽȴǴӾ巽˵ġ
Ȼһݱ˵żȻģǾDzȵݱ䡣Ϊݱ䱾ǹʱԵġ
Ȼʼһϵͳôκγɷֵı仯ϵͳı仯ȷ˵ġ̳85ϵͳбԵϵͳԱԵشı仯УҲ˵Щɷַ˱仯ϵͳȴûб䡣
˵ǶܹЩǹʱЩʱʵϣ򣬾ض֡ڹʱ/ʱҪ綨ѧоݵġһȻ漰ԶΪ㷺ʷԺʱ⣬޷Щشչֻۡһ䣺ʱ/ʱ֮ѧогΪһص⣬ΪѧоǷţǴʽĶʽȻǴʱԵķ綨ġһصļֵȫȡͨ仯ر仰˵غصıȽϣȷֵһأȻûκμֵֵȫڷϵͳλáֵﱾ֮ȻϵУij̶ֳϾʱķչȥ׷ֵּǣֵּκʱȡͬʱڵļֵϵͳ̳̣80

ṹ岻ǺѧҪͳҲ쵽ڶ/о硣1946꣬ά˹˹ṹѧĹϵֱ1961꣬ȷѧǷѧһ֧

Ȼ˲ûһϵѧѧֹΪſѧ˹ףҶִ˼̵Ӱ졣ֹһרңһʵ˼ҡһ̶ϣԱһṹṹĵԪ֮ΪԪȻģһϸ߲εĹܡá綨ġ