ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ɼܷϡ۶ҹĽ

ĻһеĿάһȨҪһûбֽûıֽҽԥѡߡ

ѷ

ŽΪǡ֮ҲdzǵɣΪƶȵĻʯϣ˹ġһоȷͨ˵һ˼룺Ķʲôûɣ޷ڡɵȷԷɱΪġͳϵָһķʩԱýĿƵĶԣ2070ϢķչɵĺҲ֮ȨһŻȡϢĻȨԺŵ˵ѾΪ˵һʽʱ޿̲ڷżලϹȨáԴˣdzĽ֮⣬ĿӦ˼һ£׻ģҹҵĽЩĽ塣

һɵݼ䷨ɱ

֮ʱ̳еͨѾ˶Գǰ飬Ȼɿ̰к۵º׷ܷ͡һ涨᲻ƶķɣڽֹ̻ŽɣɻɣƽԼԩԸȨ[1]ڵһֹ۵㣺صĽΪһȷȡۺɵġǰơΪĽΪ˫Ŀģȡǰƣҽֹɿָ̰ءɵķʵɵķչǴӱ򼤽𲽹ɵ̣棺빫Ȩ֮Ĺϵ֮Ĺϵ һ 빫Ȩ֮Ĺϵ

Ҫӳڷ̰֮СȻӢǰƶȣȻ˷̰ȨǰƣطκۣȨǾԣ۲˺Ʋ˱ɵ𺦸ܷһڱɵͬʱ޸˸ݵķ̰γ¼

1 ʵʶ

˹ͨ1960ġŦԼʱȷġ19603£ŦԼʱһι桰עǵĺȫصĺѧеĿӻԼܵĿֲ屨رᵽݵɸжþѹ˿4ٷֱݷԺ̰ϣŦԼʱĹǵ[2]

߷ԺƷݷԺо߷ԺоУϷָܷҪУԱ֤ijСʵʶ⡱Actual Malice֪Ǵģں˳Ƿ󣻷ԱͲܶйعٷΪķ̰⳥ڸУ߷ԺѾ֤μԱϣҪ֤ijСʵʶ⡱Ȼͬڵ˽̰֮ϵĹں̶ܴϣʹŻڱʱ˺֮ǣʱʱĵٷ̰Ϻ͸߶⳥ 2

ҲڡŦԼʱȷġϷоָƵĻԭDZ۵ĻᣬʹӦԸͨϷֶεõĸԹӦýС谭㷺ܿܰԱļҡʱĹҹԭԶijŵɱУʱɱģҪʹɾҪġռ䡯ͱ̡ܵݷǿȹԱΪ֤߱ʵȷʵԣʹܼ֮ķ̰⳥գҪ顭˷̰⳥˹۵Ļϵһ͵ʮ˷ͬвָŦԼʱ͸˱ľܷȨʱϷɸеּԱΪ˶ԸٵΣգܷΨһܹ֤ɲܴݻٵֶΣŻԾȨȥԱ乫ְķʽ̰ͨ⳥ͷʹ۹Ȩǰۡ²񷨹˸ù˽˷̰IJָͬ˽˷̰εĿ겢޹˽˷̰ʩ⳥Σṫɻһɡһ漰Ա򹫹񣬽۾ͲһˣһҪ֮һDZ֤гֻ⡣ÿ漰ʵĽӦڣǷɡ

1967ġ齫У߷ԺѡԱչPublic Figureֵעǹٵķͼչһ3з̰ı׼ԭǡԱôԺϡŦԼʱĹԭĬĬŵ˽ˣôԭȵķ̰Խ۵𺦣ԭǴ֮ġôԺӦȡм򣬼ԭ֤Ϊdz򼸽Grossly NegligentôʹԭǡȻӮ÷̰϶⳥ҪעǣȻǷѭ˼·ȻǡŦԼʱ߼ֻҪ漰˹߹ôӦвͬ˽˷̰ϵϹԭ͸гصľ֤ҹ˵ı׼Ҳ൱̵ģҪﵽdz򼸽

1971ġ־У߷Ժһ˵һıΧһ漰йعôŦԼʱԽá 3ʵ۷

1974ĸΤ湫˾Уָܷһԭ򣬲˼Ķһ۵㿴ôкҪٻŵģǣʵٳȴֵܷǹѻʧ޷ٽ޾ȫر۹⡣

1986ѳDZҵߺ˹У߷ԺоָڴసУֽĹ۹ϵһˣԭֽ֤ijٵģ޷𺦾ȼáעⱾоΥŦԼʱΪȱһ˵ϣǹΣоһָֻܷʵۣΪڴసУڳѶαʹƽƽ㴦һȷλãܷҪƽָָ򱣻ʵۡ

1990׶ά׶ҵ˾Уʵ۷ű߷ԺȷϸIJ͡׿˹ش󷨹оָȣ˹֧һţý屻һ̰Уݷ̰ҪȷǷȨ֮ǰйعĵ۱뱻֤ٵģij£ĿǰİӾˡˣΪˡ˹Ǹƭӡ͡Ϊˡ˹˼Ľ̵޴ֱ֮Dzͬģǰ߲Աߡ˹ȷһϵڹĵԱܹеʵ֤ٵģóܷijֱˣʵ۷ȷȷһһԱУ漰ʵñɷ̰һر˹ĻȨʹý޼ɵ۵õһĶƣ漰ʵʱýضԴƾԼغֺĸȨ档

֮Ĺϵ

ִΪ־͹ִл᷽ΪЧؽйȻҪһĹ淶ӶγӦϵԹǶҵĹȻɲһijͻô߷ͻʱ򣬾Ǹأȷе˵ȻȣʵΪıϻȻ߷Ժ󷨹ٵĿռмҪλá 1ֹǰƹ

֮Ѿ˶Գҵǰ飬1931ġֹ̰ܿȷ԰ʽչ֮ȷ߷ԺоָȷֹǰƵıǾޣֻڷdz²ܵϡ߷Ժо˸ǰƵɣԷֹ۵ʵ谭ֹսڣ򲿶ص㡣ΪİȫԽֹɿΪƷȻ߷ԺԱ˷ΪЩƾñЩƵǿֳձܷɵҪζŲǰƻĻȨʹԱָعԱΪij治ǰơԱƷΪýۣܵǶԴָصIJȣڸṩͷķ̰ϣƱֽڿǰ򡱡

ڡŦԼʱ߷Ժȷ˾򣬹淶ŵȨһöʩ⸺ĿIJ谭棻ڶ˳أΣŻ棬ôöŻʩӷԸø汨籾Ա༭Ŀƺж[3]

2ϢȡȨ

ִŵȨʹʶյϢ֮ԿǵĿ֮¼пܱרƣˣΪ˱רƵͳΣбҪʹյϢܳΪרƵֶΣôʹֱɥʧרԾͽһЧ;ҪרϢĹһҪķʽֶΣӦһйͨκΪһܡͽֹýۣԡҰȫΪͷνġйߡȻڹУһܺ͹Ұȫȷʵǿ͹۴ڵʵ˹ҵĻܺͰȫɷͻϣؼҪЩȷʵܹģ߷Ժʵжϵġ

1971ꡰǴ¥ļУ߷Ժоָʾ֤ݲԽֹļ¶κζ۵ǰֹԺΥЧгصľ֤ȥ֤ʩƵɡ

ͨ1980ġѶý˻ȨϢȡȨԵȨͳɣ˵ʹý˸IJ빫ȨҲ2070Ȩ֪ȨչһȻڡѶУ߷ԺоָеļٶѶеԣһ͵ʮȷϵɾһͬĺĿģ֤йתϢɽһۺŵıϣֹرշԺĴţòʱԺ֮žͳڳ۲Ѷͨɱرգôܵȷϵ۲йѶȨͽʧȥ󲿷塣ڽڴͳϳڹȨɱΪһϵ֮ϡϷٵͬԴ˲ķһۺͽɰݣһֽṹãԱ֤ٽǹƵΡֽṹںһǰ裺мֵĹۼΪ߱ϢṹģʽѵһĽϵԽҶĽزٵҪҪֻϢȨҪ󣬾ͱ뿼ѰַĶԿ档Ҫڸ尸нһĹϢ⣬ͱʷ鼰ϢھµĽṹֵԱǹѶι̴ͳԼѶҪԣʹƽǿҵڽܹѶĹһߡ

ͨϵķǿԵóĽ۾ǣŻ൱ԣһ棬ԱϢڹ񹫹ıһĻȨһ棬ŻijͱܼǰƣҶ¹ع͹ṫԱϹڵ֪ȨŻ˶öϢĻȡȨ

йӦЧɵľ

ɶҪDzԶġϢͨһǰᣬҪңͱʹɵȷҹʷͳҹûɵĴͳӴսĩͳߵһ߾ǡ񡱣ȨصIJ֪֮ڶDZܵġ£ϢDzʵֵģֵһѹɣйŻӦȨı׼Ȼһľ룬ҹĿǰŽ״пάһ仰ܺõظһ棬ý岻ϳȨȻΧһ棬ýδȫְ[4]ԣԴһ棬빫ȨĹϵϣɲϵַ˵Ȩһ棬ȴϸܵĹƣ޷ṩҪϢˣŽڵȱ㣬СξҪŬĿڡ һ 빫Ȩijͻ

1񹫹ȷ

˽˽Ƕȶԣȣӷҹûһķ̰Żʧʵֺܵĸֻݡͨ򡷵101ȨĹ涨Լͨ101涨Ȩ˸ܷɱֹ衢̰ȷʽ𺦹񡢷˵֮⣬˺ɷԼΣӷʵ˽ŻȨΪϵIJ࣬ҾϣŻһǿƻĹԵһϵĽܲδֺܵĸ˴ԤĿģΪȨ˽Ȩԣߵķʽʱ򷴶ӰķΧԭҪġ ŻĽǶȶԣܡйŹְҵ׼򡷹涨żҪάŵʵԡάܷ涨ĹȨ˽̰ˣҪͨϷֶλȡţرɷߵҪ󡣡ŻŹΥ涨ȴûй涨ӦĴʩôһ㷨ûԼȨȻá ڹ˵Ӧͬ֡ڣȣԱΪضλãǵΪ˽ԣһ־йԣһַʽ˵ǹְΪѾ˽ԡʱǵǹҹִߣȨ֪ҲȨල͹ִôЩԱͽͲ˽֮ˡ෴ŻȨô޷Чļලã¾޷õʵ֡ѷԣֱ񡱡Ϊ޷һԱԹƽԵȵĻȨôĹڣǾͻ˳ڵȨΣѧΪһ˽ԼڹͳԼΪĹԣҲͷ˸Ϊ[5]ԣǣ˽ȨȨķɹ򡣻ѧΪ˽˶ԣиԴǴǵĹΪл棬ҲӦӦسеΪĺ⣬ȫ乫ڵλɵֺ

ˣΪɲǾԵģ˽ȨŻŴҵԱӦеӦΡڹԣǴСʵʶ⡱ýӦ޶ȵıȨԱʵ֡

2ʵ۷ȷ

һűǴʵ֣֣ҹɲûκε֡1993ԺȨĽ𡷵˾͵ĵڰ涨׫дȨףԺӦݲͬ·ӳʵû˸ݵģӦ϶ΪֺȨ·ӳʵ˸ݣʹܵ𺦵ģӦ϶ΪֺȨµĻʧʵʹֺܵģӦ϶ΪֺȨɼԺĹעʼմʵϣעʡ·ӳ⡱ʵ֣ԺҲֻҪ䱨ﵽʵɣҪȫʵڵڶпԼ˾ƺע⵽˶ʵۣǣӦȷ˾ͲǷɣѾǶԷɵĽˣԴDz⣻⣬ǻӦڶŵ㻹١·ӳ⡱ϣûȷΪ۲֡ ۲֣ΪԽϹ򣬽˽빫֡ڹӦýۣʮּ˽ýͱʮСģַ˵˽ȨȨ

ýδȫְ

Եӿ˳ҹٱڶڹ֪״̬ˣڴʱýţ޷ʱ׼ȷػȡصϢڡǵ䡱ıڹýݱı£ýȴڣⲻܲ˵ǹýһ̵ıƵӻкܶ࣬䵼µĺ޷ýȡϢҪʹùɥʧ˶Թ֪Ȩɥʧ֪Ȩܷ񻹿ٱΪһ˼ˡ

1ųӦʵǰ黹º ýһˡҹеʵҹųǰԤƺº׷ϣʵ顢Ǻ׷µƶ[6]ҹȻûʽ̨ŷɣȴżķɷDzŹµơӳ淽˻ڷ빫ı֮⣬ʵл涨Ҫר걨ѡ⣬רĸĵȣŷ棬涨˶شŵͳһƶȡɻܵطɷԼ硶ܷų汣ܹ涨ȡ

ԴˣΪΪ˳ӦḶ̌º׷һֽΪķΪڱڻͬʱº׷ʹŻǵ䱨ʧʵغǾ޶⳥򽫻ᱻرΡǣзʽ׷ƵĹɲһͣӦ𲽷ſɱķΧֻҪǶԹҰȫ͹ʵΣջвӦŻɱҶʲôǶԹ͹ҰȫʵΣջвӦͨɻǡʽйijҲӦṫұɳ֡

2ϢĻȡȨ ۱֮ǰҪȽ綨һǰᣬǾǣҹŻͬŻҹŻɹģڹҵλͬŻͲǻĸǶġϽϢȡȨҹŲͬĺ壬ʹɥʧ֪ȨйˡŻʹֱܿģڴĿУýһ̶ϿԻϵȺţôýʧڹڵĻҲζſýҲʧڹڣôڵԺͺϷԾֵˡҹƵʹձý壬ձż¡˵ĺãɴڵŽϢ鱨ĽӽͨͨԴȷʧȥֽӽûžֻӡˢݽ̸Լ׼ķ¡ϵɡϵɣֱһᡣ[7]ŻӦýĴͲҪǿҹеϢȡȨڸ̶񹫿ij̶ȡǿԹʱṫż߽вɷúͱ

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[1] Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ;or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble ,and to petition the Government for a redress of grievance

[2] ǧϵϣйѧ2000棬390ҳ

[3] ǧϵϣйѧ2000棬428ҳ

[4] пάƶ룬ӡ1988棬94ҳ

[5] £˸ȨȨй1995棬416ҳ

[6] 1988꡶ųڼǿԱֽڿͼ֪ͨ

[7] ¡ҿΡԭ룬֪ʶ2002棬191ҳ