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ɡˣ17291792꣩Ӣ18ΰ˼֮һӢ弯ߣӢӢεķչ޴ףĵ۹˼˼Ҫ֮һ18ĩ˶Աӡⷢ˴˵γµĵ۹˼룬ĵ۹ͳԭ򣬳ӢֳصͳԭΪӢӡµͳλƵĽ˾޴ףӢ۹ķչ˾޴Ӱ졣

17291²ڰһʦͥͶԸ񵳣Ը񵳵޽ķ˽飬ǸõۼҡμӹԸ񵳵ĸĸ˶ʱ֧зɵֳƶȵݽľ۹˼γ˺ܴá

˵ĵ۹˼ҪԱӡֳطݽУ棺

1"۹ܷ"ĸ۹ǰ

δ۹ƵĹDz˵۹˼Ҫ֮һھɵֳƶ£ӢֳصĹڿƵ۹óףӢδ䲼ֳ˰ķֳҲӢֳ˰ȨӢֳصijͻҪ˰ġΪӢֳصĹϵӦñԭˮƽԵʱŵ˼Աֳ˰ȡӡ˰Ժ�"۹ϵ"˵У᱾Ӧʸ־άӵȨԭ򣬱ͨκµ˰ȨıĸֳͬصĹϵΪ˼ʱ䡢Լ׵ȾЩˣǵͳνDzǵġͬĵڱֳأ"ǵܷķسǵľһصġȥѹǡ"

ս󣬲ѰЭսѹߣһٶش뱱ֳغͽ⣬ϣѱֳڴӢ۹ڣֳͬغӢ롣ʵϣǼᶨάӢ۹ġӢֳߵͬʱ˵۹˼롣ָ"ҵĵ۹˼ǡһ֮ͬҵļ""ҪطȨͻȨdz֮"ơΪ"۹ԣӢҲֻһ֣Ȩ֮£۹κһֶȨijִȡ˵۹ȨǾƻ۹š�"Ӣͷɳֳ˰ͱ˺DzϺġ

ڴڼ䣬˹ڵ۹δƵҲ졣17753£Ժ"ֳغͽ"ݽδ۹ΰţĵ۹˼룬"۹ܷ"Ϊ"ҿһ۹һһġ۹һͬµļϣǾǹ͹ͳ""ܷ£౾Ȩͻ⡣ЩȨĹͬȨ֮ϵ΢�"Ϊ֮£ӢԣַԣҲֻеһԱ

󣬲ŲȡIJȻȻŦжˣԼάѪԵʹͳ֮ϵĺƽѺùϵӢ޵зԿɳ֮ɡڲ˿άϵ۹ͳһŦǹͬijνѪ֮飬ƵȨƽóױƶԼͬĻ"ЩŦȴ"Ҳ˵ֳضĸĸֿΪ۹ϵŦӦǶԶֳʵиѹߣܷгֳ档˵�"ǵĹٷ顢ǵָǵδİܰۺһ"

ֳʽΪӦԭϣֳǵԸʵһʺǡΪһ£Ȩһ£Ĵڲ޹ͬϵ

˵ɵĵ۹˼룬ʵһȨΪص˼롣뵱ʱֳ۱۵ģ뼯ȨΪصͳθģΥ˵ʱӢ۵ʱӢڱֳأʹԱձϰգǵĹ۵һ£ָǵȻֳۣ԰ѱֳصһûдȨӢ˾ͳΡ�"޴˰"ֳһҵӢͳεķݡ˵˵ԶԱӢڣܸı˵Ӣ̼ǿӲߣֳܾͬͽ⣬ѹֳصķ˶Ӣ뱱ֳصìͻңսսһӢ۹塣

˵ֵ۹˼뵱ʱӢҵķչкܴϵ18ҶʼӢҵʼѸٷչҵʹ˾˵ķչӢҵչʹӢ羭÷չΪ"繤"ӢԭϺϹӦԼƷ۷ԽԽصںгó׶ӢҵҪãΪӢҵķ̡1740ӢҵֵΪ2420ӢгڶΪ630Ӣ1770ӢҵֵΪ3690Ӣ 1120Ӣ1800Ӣҵֵ6820ӢڶΪ2350Ӣ̡սӢó׵ĺ·ȡ˰λӦģӢ۹ߵĿҲɿֳأ¢ֳصóףתƵȫóףսԻأԴ۹ó,Ӣ۹Ѵת򶫷͡˵ĹҵʱҲҪϳֳصó¢ϣԱʹӢԵҵֳؽóס£ɵֳ۵ĸѾҡϳֳصó¢ϣɵֳϵı׶ˣʵó׳ӢҪŬʵֵĿꡣ˹ڵ۹ݽʵϴ˹ҵʲ׶εĹ۵㡣˲�"۹İ뷱"ҲעɣʹӢܷȫµгάӢ۹ȤҲΪάֳƶ"۹ܷ"ĿʵϾҪһɢУӢǴӢ۹ͬԣӢҲһԱܵʱ˼δӢܣDz˵Ĺƶ"۹ܷ"˼δӢ۹ķչ˾޴Ӱ졣1970ֳĽ20ӢĽ˲"۹ܷ"˼롣

2"˵"ԭͳӡȣ"ֳй"ۡ

ڲ˵ĵ۹˼Уµ۹γɲشӰ"ֳй"ۡνйܼڷϽijУԸ˽Ӧõ۹ͳϡ"ֳй"۵γ뷢չ18ĩӢ۹ش仯ķӦһӢ۹ҵ۹ҪĵΪһֶȡ󣬱꾡ĵ۹ó׷ɣʹūٿΪӢ۹ijЩʲôΡȥӢӡȹ˾ӡȵӶΪδܵǵָ𡣵18ĩ"""˵"˶ķչ˱仯

18°ҶӢھϷٷչ֮ʱڽĻ˸Լ֮˵˶˶ܵв׼Ĵ֧֣ϲҲ˺ܴӰ죬ʱǸýϵͽرǿȣǿ˵ϵ۸1ݡǼеϵﶼƽȵģе˱Щҵֵͬ飬⣬ǵ塢ɫΪЩͥijԱ2ݡɵĸˣش̼˵ķչ"˵"ۻǻ"ϵǰƽȵ"ʼʱڵ˵˶ӰǶֳص̬ȡȣ˵˶ķչӢ˷ϳūó˶ūó׵Ĺ־Ŷµθг֣ǶԾɵ۹ֻΪȡֶεķ񶨡Σڸɺ˵˶ĴӢǿʼǵ۹⣬ӡȹ˾ӡȵָΪ⵽ҵĹ˼뽥ԲΪĻԸ˷չ�"ֳй"ۡ

ղ˵"ֳй"ۣЩӵе۹ĹӦͳεijֳһõǴеߵϵΡ۹ͳӦԶֱ3ݡڲ˹ӡһϵݽУڲ˲ĵӡȴܶ˹͢˹˶жһԭ粮ڵ˹͢˹һݽƣ"ǺƽȾ徫񣬱񣬴ȱЩӦΪÿһӢͳεĵط"4ݡһսֳйܲͬ

ֳйڶӢӡȵߵγɵġ1880˴󲿷־ڶԶӡȹ˾ĿʷϣӢӡȵͳǸܵģͨȫ桢׵ĸĸ1781꣬˳ӢĹӡС͵ίԱϯ׼һϵı棬Щ濪ʼ񲻶ϹֳصθСӰӢֳͬطŷ᳼Ĺϵ5ݡ

ֳй۵ĺΪֳؽһõžij֡Ϊ˲ŰѶӡȹ˾ӢĿ֮£淶ǶӡȵͳΣǶԹεĸ178312£Ժ"ڸ˹Ķӡȷ"˵ӡһҪסƪ˵Уо˴ʵ֤ݣ˵Ժ˹͢˹ܶΪ׵ӢӡֺͶӡȹ˾ĺᱩͳθӡصѣӡȽиĸʼֳܽйֳֹۡأֻᵼ³ͻ6ݣ˵"20֮ӡȵ󵱳һпᣬ˺˽ĻͷӢˣһˣСкͳ֮ûꡢǶ˺ͬ顣Ӣû޽áҽԺѧУӢû·ˮ--ǽ챻ϳӡȡôӡȵĶ˵ͳεһʵʱԼΪһֻɻϻ7"

Զӡȹ˾ӡְȨӪ˽סܱŰӡ޴һ󣬲ΪӢӡȨѵ˷dzصĵز8ݡӡȹ˾״ǽ¢ϡȨ״9ݡְȨʵԼͱƻΪӡȹ˾ѾĿģ"ѾȫɸΪΪDzɸľӦðȨȥ10"綫ӡȹ˾Ȩһйܵķ֧һǵȨйܵԴͷ11ݡ

ֳʵйܵıֳ֤ʵзƣԴܵӰ졣˽�"ǰҪӰ֮ԴҪĿҪڷɵԭϹ涨ӡȵĹ12"1786֮󣬲˳־òиԺӡȴܶ˹͢˹˶Ϊ˹͢˹Ǹܵľƶȴ13ݡڳ10ʱУ۳ʲôʼղijԡڵ˹͢˹˵н"鲻˵飬Ҫڷͥȷ񣬶˽ΪõҸ⡭ϵڴӢ۹󲿷ֵӡȵ棬ҽӢҪͨһо˷Ƿᱻתɹкij裬Ƿ񽫰ѸͶ϶Ӱﷸɷӳ˵ԵĶ"14ݡ

ӡȴܶ˹͢˹ĵʵϲǶԺ˹͢˹˵ĵǶӢɵĸֳܵƶȵĵǶ"˵"ԭĺݹ۲еĹֳݽǿԿ˲ӢֳͳΣӢȨӡȫϣıӢӡȸֳܵͳΡԹӢӡȵֳͳΣӡȵӢҵԭϲؼƷгܷϣʵ"˵"Ϊԭ򣬶Ӣֳ߽иĸģӡȶӡֳؿѱͬ飬˹ӡȵ˵ţԺ˹͢˹Ϊ׵ӢӡֺͶӡȹ˾ӡȵרͳκӶ߱ȱȽǣͬʱҲͳ˶ӡı

˹͢˹ͬʱҲԼΪ"˹͢˹ΪӢȥһܶӦӢԭ򣬶Ӣʽȥͳӡ"15ݣνӢԭ"˵"ԭ򡣵ʱΪŷ޵ĵ±׼˹͢˹ӡȵΪ˶Դ˲"ǷԵۡµķ򵽴ͬģûʲôжӢΪĥӶᡢ¸ԼѹȵΪŷޡޡ޺Ͳˣ16"

ڵ˹͢˹ʱܽ"Ӣ嵯Ĺϵۣܵӡ嵯ǵȨ̤ڽ£ǵĹұɻĮ౾壬ÿһʱÿһ׶ε壬ҵͬĵ˼еѹ"17ݡӢԺ˹͢˹еָ𲻳˶Դд"ﲻǽ⣬Ǻ"18ݡ˵"ΪƶȨ޶Ϊı19"ֳй۵ԭ"˵"ԭӢֳصͳҲӦӢԭȥͳΣӢӦӡļࡣ

Ϊ֤"˵"ԭӡʵУ˻Ϊӡȹ˾һƶȣʹӡȹ˾׶عضӡͬʱֲʹɹ󳼵ӵһԴȪΪһϵӡ鰸ĿҪһִ֯--һ³ԼΪ֯20ݡͿ޶ȵظӡȹ˾ĸΪ

ֳйڵӡȴܶ˹͢˹˶ս졣µֳ˼һγɣ㼫ӰӢµֳߵƶڴ֮Ӣ˿ʼֳȷǿʼӡ·˰ѧУֳªϰӢ˿ʼΪֳصĽһЩʵʵڵ顣

˵ֳй19ӢֳкܴӰ졣һӢ۹󣬵ڶӢ۹֮Ѹγ˱鼰ȫ�"ղ۹"ЩֳڶԺȻӢ֮ڣӢµֳͳۣʵµֳͳߣעӢֳͳкܴϵ

˵ĵ۹˼ɵֳкֳܴͬйʵҲǶԾɵֳֻ۵ķ񶨡ĿǸЩδַչĵһȶ21ݣǹȥֵijֳӶᡣһӢ۹ָ½ģֳ߱ȻŨɫʡӢֳصĶΪҵƸӢ϶ֳصĿƱȽɳڣΪҵƸӢϸֳصҵóףֳؽӶᡣϿɳ뾭ϸƹ˾ɵ۹ͳƵڰֳأӢǰӢɴͳҲֲֳأûиӡȵ˵ֳأӡȹ˾Ϊ˻ȡﲻսֳصIJƸֳصѡ˵ֳй۵ĿľΪ˸ıֲֳIJ˵ͨΪֳؽһõıӢ˵ֳصͳΣžӡȹ˾ӡȵĸΪӢֳصìܣӢӡȵij־ͳΡ ˵ĵ۹˼ͬڵۼǵ˹ֳܵҲͬǵ˹ֳܵ۵ĺIJֳóۣӢֳزʵжռߣͬйҽóסΪķѾ޴ú;ռռֳأֶռʡЩãó׵İ취ȡøŸֳȨʹ֮ԶӢ22ݡ˵ĵ۹˼صη棬ķʽԵ۹ͳΣø顢ֿŦάϵ۹ͳһȻǶ˵ĵ۹˼뱾϶۹˼룬Ӣ۹ķչ

˵ĵ۹˼Ӣ۹Ӿɵ۹µ۹ʱڲµĵ۹˼룬ǶԾɵֳ۵ķ񶨣Ӣ۹µĵ۹ߵƶرӢӡֳؼֳصߵƶӢ۹µĵ۹ƵγкܴӰ죬ӢֳͳεȶӢ۹չʷҪλ

עͣ
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2 ķ롤ѶӢʷڶ130ҳ
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5ɭءڶӢ۹Ľ 17631793Vincent THarlowThe Founding of the Second British Empire1763179321964棬113ҳ
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8Ρرࣺ۹Ĺ--Ӳ˵1774194750ҳ
9Ρرࣺ۹Ĺ--Ӳ˵1774-19475lҳ
10ϣɿɡ˵ѧIain HampsherMonkThe Political Philosophy of EdmundBurke1987꣬153ҳ
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17 WAˣӢͨʷ1688-1852WABakerGRStAnbynA General History of Engish1688-1852׶أ1963178ҳ
18 HHΤ:Ӣ۹ʷHH1DodwellThe Cambridge History of The British EmpireVol.BritishIndia1497-1858ŦԼ1929꣬312ҳ
19W DӢ۹147ҳ
20ݣӢƽ۹бİ棩29ҳ
21W DӢ۹ 147ҳ
22ǵ˹ܣƸʺԭоӡݣ1981棬¾192ҳ

Դʷأժԣʷѧо2000.4.


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