ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

û壺ŷ˷ִͥ汾*

³˹Lɭ**

***

ԡԷ֮ǣѡᡷ****David T. Beito, Peter Gordon and Alexander Tabarrok ed.,The Voluntary City: Choice, Community, and Civil Society, University of Michigan Press,2002.¡

ķоͲ³˹LɭȨ

Copyright? 2002 by The Independent Institute

100 Swan Way, Oakland, California 94621-1428 USA; http://www.independent.org; [email protected].

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¾֮˽˷ͥ

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׽DZڵʧܣ˽˲ֻ֮ʧܣ

ʵϣзѧѧ߾ʶ˵Իۣͬij־Ȩ֧֡[1]Ҳһ¼裺һЧķƶȲɱǿЯֲȻʵʷмʱһ۵ȴкʵʡѧҺʷѧҳ׼˴ǰİ嵽ӡڰ˲䶼ûйҵķƶȡȽ϶ԣѧǶԸִûķ̷֤֮(mercantile law)˷the Law MerchantֻԽٵĹע̷ֻʽһǧꡣ

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ŷޣ˷ٿ׷1011͡[2]һʱũҵѸζţΪάϵ㹻ʳ·ֻٵͶũҵķٴ̼˸ˮƽóףΪ˿и󲿷ڲϳֵijıṩµĻᡣͳ˿ӵĽ֮һְҵ˵ij֣ӶٽũƷ˳IJƷóףΪͳ˿ע˶ Щչóף߶ȵطķƶ赲ǵĵ·Ϊһ⣬һֹʻ̷ƶȡ˷㿪ʼչݻ޵¡Harold BermanָһʱڡΪһġϷչƶȣһַϵ̷ˣ11ԺʵϹŷޣҾչŷ⣩ҵ׵ÿ档[3]

ִƶȣ˷ġͳΡǿԷԸܲСԸִеġʵϣòˡ[4]˷ĺϷԻһӵ֧ŵĻݡԸĹϵ硣ÿһġгó׼У齨ԼķͥԼݻķþס˵˾һ͵Ĺ̡Ǵصѡˡҵרңڸܵ㷺ءǽ̷֮һʱڵ춨ġ

˸ӶȰĻҲijǧǣβܹƶɣϿɴַɵĸԴڣش֮·ʶ̷չгչ֮ƽСκг֮УǽԽԸס˵ͨΨһġ֤bondг˲ͬƷļֵˡȼۡſܡĵȷȷûгļ۸񣬵ȼ۵ĸѷʵݡ֮Ƶؽнɫתʴˣǿġ

˽ײ㿪ʼڲͬijķչʱطҵҵϰߣҲʼչóҪطϰ֮ҪͻӦǿʼԽΡĻҵףҲгó׹ǷطΪͨЩԭطԽϰߣΪ˹˷һ֡ڳͻ֮Щ֤ΪЧٽҵ֮żһЩôЧĹ[5]Źó׵չԴͳһͳһö棬˿˵Թ򼰲þ档粮ָ12̷ͣݻһˮƽ뱾˵ľѾʵԵıҿԡӦԵطԷɺϰߵı仯Ī⡱[6]

ռݹ˷ЩǿǷҵ֮ɡʵϣ֧ȥѾŵҪЩ顣[7]ΪDzòijضΪͨй֮ǰԸȡǩһԼ˷͹۹˫ͳɱԣǽ׵ʵڡ˫˽нΪÿһԤڻñͶи߼ֵĶȻչ11ں12ڡΪȨ֮ԭ漰Ļֻ໥һֹƽءˣ̷Ҫ󽻻롰ƽءɡ[8]ƽ˷ر֮Ȼ׼ȷΪġȨԶزڶԻ֮ͬû˻ԸϿһԤڲṫƽԴķƶȡӳǿƽ˷֮͹빫ԣ֤ݾΪձϡһҲԶһǿ

齨ԼķͥԼķɲоסʤ߷Ͱ߷ܷͬͥIJþΪϿΪı˴档ӲҲһΪ˹ͬų֮вһܾܷͥþ˵õģΪͬǻϿ˿ĽC棨William C WooldridgeָͶδн׵DZڵ֮в֤ʲôͬĻǾDZǿЧ[9]ȻһƲãܹһʵвҪʵáн׵ֵ֮Leon Trakman͵ҵЭ֮ġԼҵƲõвǿЭСͨijŵоΪǡԸ⡯ܾΪʲôǿΪ[10]

ǽԼķͥкüԭһҷͨͬ˷Ҫһ˾ơڶԭ¾׵ĽͨҪǸ߶ȼԵڴసУ˷ͥʹضҵרǵη٣DzҷԺķþһ֪ľס˷ͥķٴгеѡΣЩרŴ˾ṩ[11]

Ҳ˷ͥԼҷԺŵ㣬ǵѸԺͷʽԡ[12]ǸʱDzòһлгɽ׺Ѹٵһг׾ͲòѸٽԱҵĸСʹöҵϵ߶˽ķ٣ѸԺͷʽԾͲͬȳ̶ȵʵ֣ΩЩٵIJвŻ˹ͬءˣƻƣparticipatory or communal adjudication˷һر

ݴˣ˷ͥǵӦﲻ֤ͬݺͳ汣ּͷʽΪⲻҪϡӡԼҵţ߲׼[13]ͬȴ֤߳ЭΪ֤ʱͨҪ֤֤Ͽͨʽ¼ծ񡱣 written obligatoryʽתƵծһԼչļծת֮򣻴δʽȨʱ˼ǵΪЧҳδʵʽȨתơ[14]ںܶҵķԺЩͨϷ˷ͥǺɵزǣΪЩٽҵѸԺͷʽԣ˽׳ɱͬһʱڷչġҷԺִеĹ֧ǣԺͽнʵǣ˷ܹѸӦһϱ䶯ҵ֮Ҫ󣬶Զ޷֮ƥС ˷Щƣŷͨʹ½ջDzֻΪʲôһֽҪ̽յĹ̼

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12ǰŷ޸ʼϵͳ䲼˷ȷϰ߹[15]ʮͣš¡(Carta Mercatoria)ķ仯ӢҲ⡣ǣǼʹԼķͥˣҲʼƶЩʹҷԺϵķɣ/ʹ˷ͥôӢƲ1353꡶ҪƷthe Statute of the Staple14ҪóĶԡҪƷҪëƤǦ衰ˡȻౣ˷Ѵڣں̶ܴϲϰߵķ仯ͬ÷ر涨漰Щ˵ľ׿˷ҷκοõijзֵעǣ˻󷨹(chancellor)ͻʼҷɹίԱ(Kings council)ߣˣ̷ִзҷԺһǰδеĹܡҲҪǣ÷ͨߵĿԣּ˷ͥ˷֮ȨߵDZڿԵ˷ôоȷΪ˷ƶȵȨڲͨƶݱԸΪܡ

17ǰ໥ķԺϵӢжͨԺͨϷͥ[Common Pleas]ͥƷͥ[Exchequer]̻ᷨͥȨͥroyal prerogative courtsҺ·ͥԼ˷ͥȣDZ˴˾͸־׽չȻͨԺھӱڸȡʤķʽƵģصͨԺ˷ͥľϣǿԺҲڻѰ¾ס ˷ֱͥ17ͳԿ¾ףаİתƵٷԺM˹¡A˹ɽʾҷԺ𽥴˷ͥԽԽİԭӢپϵ棬Ƕʱн̶ܴԴϷѡ[16]ΪŬ˷˼ءһʱ˵ȷԼķͥҷԺѡ񣬹ԽԽѡҷԺ֮ʵζЩͥ˷ò˽˵˷֮ͥвʼմڣʹȨij̶ֳҷԺҵ񣬾Ͳòǿʵķʽִзɡ[17]

1609꣬άɶVynior caseͨþ(4 Eng Rep 302 [1969])ʵԵظıҷԺ˷֮ͥľϵתƵҷԺðǰѾ˽ٲûþ»¿ѫðʱڷƣһ˱ٲòþԿɳٲԱΪһ˲ͨԼΪɼϵɳ֮Σ趨һɳȨ֤[18]òþζţ˷ͥڵ˽˷֮ͥþΪҷԺΪ¿ѫٲԱĿѰһʵЭٵĿǶ԰ǷֱþʵϣðˡҪƷ˼ľ׸˷ҷı֤16ͺ¾Ӣ˽˷ͥʵʧˡ

˷ȴδֻǸıˣڹҵӰݱձԸٶطԸࡣʼֲͬҵĹǵߡͳӢһתΪڿ¿1609IJþ֮ӢԺ˷ۡ[19]ͨϵУDZԽԽţΪǷչķʽġѸٵĻʧ͡Ȼ˷һܺõɶȫʧʢڹó֮УӢһó״ӢķٲòҵķԺʵо¾ףϣసҲòϿ漰ó׵İ֮ҵϰߡ

ִ˷

һЩʷѧ˹ƶѫLord MansfieldΪӢ̷ĵߡʵϣָ˹ƶʵǽ˷Ӣ[20]˹ƶǿţҵʵķչӢ˷òչҲòϿϰߺ͹ͨٶ˹ƶµĽ̻һЩءԺΪעĹʾԱԽԽˡ[21]ӢóеԵλʼ˥ʱͨԺʼʧȥ¾ףЩ˱ԺʹһҪԭڣŷ޹ҵ񷨽Ӣͨ׽˷[22]һԴǴʹͨԺٶϿ˷һءȻٶϿ˷ĵڶҪһЩǵٲ³ֺͨԺ̷ֹҡʹ֮һδش֮ʱ

ִٲ֮˿׷ս˶ϲĺϷӢµķԺӵйع䡢޻егµĺͬϡЩϽʱ䷽ɽ[23]ബԸ͵ԽЩͼ͵ԽĴ󲿷ִ䴬ֻˡ۸ԲԤڵķʽӢսʱƷķɣ˽һĸҪô޷ãҪô򼫴IJȷԶ貢临֮ЩҪԸ͵¹ʸ費ͬ͡ΪЩصѺͲȷԣԼɴ˵µĹԺİѹ޻ϻͬͬٲ漰ˣΪʱǾִ󲿷޻óס빫ԺIJȣٲ֤Ϊ൱ͬʱҵŵƻҲСķ֮ԿܵУͼҵϵ֮սᣬٲõЭڹϵı棩̻ܿͲ[24]

ڶ̶̵ʱڣٲֵijɹ׶ضٲõIJɡƷ(ףͲѣ޻)ĽƶٲDzִ̡̺գʦʦˡ̵ְҵЭ׷ײһкͬϸ趨ٲԱϽ׵ľײٷԺЩ͸˲˿¿1609оѸϿٲõŵ㡣ͨ˷Ͽɲɱ⡣һУҪǣٲ±ˡ

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ʹ˷ڹҷƶܵԼԲ̶ͬȳع淶Źȷʵˣ̷ִһձԵķɡDZȻǷͳһҪDZԨԴǵĺ봴̷ΪЭ鲻̫ܲ[25]

óЭᶼԼľ׽ѽʵٲûĹ̻ᣨICC̻ٲԱΪרҡͨѡ鵱˲ͬĹ̻ٲͥijѸطӳ˹˹֮ͬЭ飬֧ٲóIJþЭ顣[26]ʵģ˷ûܵ͵طε֧Ӱ죬ܵʩӵҵķ֮ڹ̷ȣ䷢չͳɳΪȻЧ

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ӢͨԼ˷䷨ͥǻǰǵķ뵽ֳأܿ콨ԼĹ;׽ƶȡ[27]18ͣϰߺ˽ٲû̷ʩС磬17ŦԼͷѳҵķչٲñҵڲ໥֮ľ׽[28]簬ϣAikenڶԺʱŦԼĿн͵ԣ17ºٲáӢͨȣƵѸԼġ[29]ΪٲûˮƽDzȥҹԺļ¼ΪٲòþӲЩԺˣ˹Jonesñֽ˵źŦԼ̻ᵵɵٲóҹ㷺ڰоĺֳʱڣ16241664꣩ŦԼӢֳʱڣ16641783꣩ŦԼ[30]ȷʵŦԼ̻176845յĵһλȵľٴ֮һƶٲҸûһٲίԱͬ67[31]֤ݱԸ̻ٲ÷ڡ൱󡱣ΪٲίԱᶨֱ1775̻սʱƳٻ顣[32]˺177997ٶһٲίԱᣬʱڣٲûһֱûжϡʵϣӢռŦԼʱڣ̻ٲίԱ°ΨһԺеռ¾ίɸ̻ᴦ[33]

֮ŦԼ̻ΪԱṩٲã[34]ҲйٲõĴ֤ݡ[35]ʵϣʱڵĹٷԺûһΪƽݵķʽ̷һŦԼ˵˵ԺʩС߳ķɡҲڷչٽҵķԭ򡣡[36]ֳʱں͸ʱڣٲõõõ˷չܿƶӢֳԼ´ĹңԺõ֮ΪӢͨ1609ͨþһʵͨϽٲõʹáڸԼһЩ˽ٲԶ׼ûдӹһȡȨʵϣйعҳķٲòþ߷Ȩ[37]ȻʵȴӵȨȨڲγɵĻЭ飬Լ˶ԾܾٲòþDZӰ֪

1775굽1825ڼ䣬ݷԺϵͳķչͳ죬ԶٲûС⡱ڴڼ䣬Ժٲõ̬Ϊһֲĵ⣬ɡڵٲвΪ֪ܶõǶʱڶѾˡ[38]ʵϣٲõԴȪѾ֣ȡšŦԼž漰խרҵߵġҵ壨Ƿʽ齨չڲٲóʱŦԼ̻Ϊٲ÷ṩߣ𽥱ԽԽҪˡ[39]磬1792괴ŦԼ֤ȯ1817³ʽ涨ٲãʱһֱɹҪŦԼ֤ȯԱͻ֮ľס[40]

ٲõijչ1830ͨԺٲõĵ֮һЩݿʼת[41]ȻϣڷԺ̬ȿʼת֮ǰٲסţڷԺ仯ٶ۵ŦԼڷԺӦݵݣٲýԵõ˷չ磬1861꣬磬ΪŦԼƷԱṩٲõ֤ݡ[42]֯ЭͽʱͨͳԱľƶٲ൱֤ݱͬеٲԼó̻Ʒṩٲõõ˹㷺á19͵ĺ40ִ꣬ٲ÷ͨǰ֤ݵ֡[43]

ŦԼ̻Ϊٲ÷һṩߣҪ˥Խٲ÷ͨζҪ̻ᡰ19ͣһֲķʽ[44]ΪԱṩٲ÷񣬵Ը̻ʹ19ǰȴ½ȫʧ̻ŦԼٲпʼʧȥ֧ԵλʱʼѰ֧֣ͼΪԱṩз񡣡[45]1861޶״ȷ涨ٲίԱᣬ涨統ϣԺִٲòþίԱIJþɵǼΪԺоȻܴڷԺ֧֣̻ỹdzʧٲðšˣ1874ͨ˸״һ涨ݳһλŦԼ̻ٲԱ̻֧ꣻ⣬Ϊٲþ׿ɴ̻ԱȻǿԶԸٲԱԶ̻Ͻ[46]1874껹һ涨̻ԱӦ֮Ҫ䰸ύ[̻ٲ]ͥҸ÷ͥķ٣judgeϵ֧ꡣ[47]̻ΪѰ෨棿̻ٲͥѺһЩʹٲþءһλ̶ʰķ٣Ȩѡһλضרҵ֪ʶٲԱ÷֧꣬ЩɱܿӰ˾ͻ̻ٲԱΣһλ٣ҲٶķҪ̻Աύ÷ٲþ統ͬ⣬̻ٲòþ߱Ժþ֮ǿ̻ʵϾ޷ٲҵˡת׽ɸСģʽʽٲá̻ٲõķҲֻڱǰ֧ꡣ˹Jonesó۳ƣɴ˿̻᲻ϵͼΪԱṩٲñȻȴδƳһȫƶȡ[48]

һЩ۲ţ¾ݷԺ̻ٲõûԼʧӳ19ٲõձ˥ʧ[49]ڴڼ䣬ݷԺ¾׽ʵǣڷʽҵ塢ʽóЭԼ֯Ʒ֧֣֮ٲһͶõ˳ϵáĹǵӢͬȣٸ׽˷[50]ȷͳһ̷䡷ҵϰѳΪʵ巨֮ԨԴ֮ķע⵽֮Ҫ󱣳һ£෴[51]һܷӳڵĹϽȨְ֣ʾŶԾ׵ľӢҪشöࡣٲΪԺDZڵԷʽʼմʹѰ¾׵ĹԺִչķɡȻˣٲ19ͽΪdzã͵ڣٲ϶Ի˸Ѹٵķչȷʵ̻Ŭṩٲð֮÷ȣӶԴ˳ٲҵ빫Ժȣ֮ԶٲõΪѸ٣֮һDzķԺӵг⣬⣬ܹƵݶεijδ֮ʹתٲԱ֮ܿšҲԭ֮һ[52]һսʱٲԵ¡ԺΪڶλ󣬲ȫࡣ[53]ˣݵٲáΪ [1920]ͨһķ涨йδ֮ٲЭִȻγɡ෴Ƿз֮ЭѴˡ͡[54]֮ԱܿٷԺΪЩͥûΪ֮ʽ̷

Դӱ*ٲٶȳʵڳ1950ʱٲý˴Լ75¾ף[55]1965ʱٲõÿԼ10ı[56]һƺڼ٣޷йٲͳݡҵźʹóЭᶼǵĺͬٲ

˶ٲݻ֮Ӱ

19ĩ20ͳٲ³ʱ֧һ˾֮ԴӰʦǽ飬ӦʹʦֵԸٲãԻⷨԺӵ20ڣڶʦ˾ԱͷԺس½ƣҷԺӵΪһش⡣[57]ˣʦʵеֿon the defensive[58]ѰһַʽԻⷨԺӵͬʱٺʦ֮λȻԺ֮ԷͥҪһǿӰ졢ƵķͥٲΪһԷͥչѸͣһЩʦѿʼʶٲöԹٷĶԿʽ׽֮вҲϣٲá֮Եǣ׷ҵϰߺ͹ΪĿ١ľ׽ʽ˷ˣǸ̻֧ŦԼʦΪݶٲáϷԡ֮Ͽɶеǿ˵ЩŬ1920ŦԼͨһķּƷĿ¿ѫ1609ȷͨ򡣸÷ʹٲЭݷоŦԼķԺǿִС˺󣬼ݽͨƵķɡ[59]

˹Ͳ˹ɷӳַɳ۲ҵĹ۵㣬ţͬеٲʵЧں̶ֻܴΪԺִдͬDzִУͨͶԽΥܾͬٲõĵȱЧƲáصϵӣ[60]֮˽ٲǹԺһֿ֮ѡΪõЩԺ֧֡һȷȻġȣ˷ķչʷܹشϵ֮Ʋáȷʵ˷ûǿȨ֧´񡣳֮⣬1920֮ǰٲòþ빫Ժ[ִ]ǰٲþвõ˷չٲ1920ǰʵϱǿƶɹؼңϵһָ߶ЧƲá[61]ܾٲòþ˻֣ᷢδ޷óЭٲͥЭԱֲˡָЩͷزþijɱȡҪԶԶ˿־壬Ը˽˵IJ[]Ըѭģ⼴㲻dzҲԴ档[62]ȻⲢζŦԼݵDzķвķδٲòӰ졣ʵϣٲڹԺԣûЩʱȱһѡ[63]

Щɣʦǻزٲá磬ŦԼݵijķͨǾʹԺ룬ͼȷٲõЩԺΪϷ[64]漰ٲԱѡεʵʽʦǷͥǷټǷʽ⡣DZȹע˾֮ǰòʹٲóϳķ漰ͨг1920֮һλ۲ָͨٲöȡʩԱ֮ˣ˼߷ζǣΪͿ֮رᷢԼڷ֮ͥΪǷֱսΪٲõǷֱսĻıϲ硱չʾ˹ٷɳڡӱܸӷɳ֮Ŭijɹ[65]

ٲõò֮¾סһҲƹ㵽絽1970꣬չ˾ٲ50000⡣[66]ȫסլϻᣨThe National Association of Home BuildersѿʼһΪסլߵƻüƻ򷽶ϻὨ̵Ͷṩٲá1981ǰдԼ950000סլʵʩ˴ƻ1980꣬ٲЭᣨAAAͽ1800ڴస[67]ͨٲý߾Ҳҵٽ֣Better Business Bureau»ȫطʵٲüƻǹ˾ͶύٲáȻ߲ܴӹ˾Ľصҵٽ֡ǣҵٽֻͼٳɷʽͣЧߺ͹˾һ־ԸѡһٲԱ硣సУߵļнٲʿɶ覴õƷм顣ҵٽֵٲҪйաü̶ҵٽ»ǩ˺ͬٲЩ˾Ͷߡ⣬ٲЭÿҲٲ15000հ[68]

ٲҲͬ߾ס磬ҽ¹ϱøΪ󡢸ӹ㷺׷1929ҽ¹ٲ׶ΡٲǰЭЩҪ磬ȫҽƱԤ֧ϵͳľ˼ݿƻᣬͬǩٲЭκṩٲãݵҽԺҽϻҲһ200ҽԺɵٲϵ[69]ٲЭҲṩҽ¹ٲá ٲ֮ɫͼƶܵʵӰ죬Ȼɺԡ[70]ͬҲɽֵӪ˽˾׽(private for profit dispute resolution firms)͡Ƹ뷨١(rent-a-judge)ƶȡ

Ƹ뷨֮˾

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¾֮˽˷ͥ

ڹȥУ˽˷ͥѴڲ¾ס磬Ӫ˽˷ͥڿǰͷͥٲͶߡȾס˽˲ں̶ܴδ򣬵ֶп֮ ˾׽֮ǵٲá[75]漰ϵ˰˫˴ԼЭ顣ϵ˱Ȩ֮һԣٲ빫Ժ˽·ͥ൱ͨ漰òЭͬ˵һλٲԱͲѰЭ˫İ֮Ƿֱþ˾ĵٲù㷺Ӧº߾סʹϵͼͥ͡ͻ֮С [ͻ]֤֮˹עԴͳʶɣνⲿԡĴҪԤΪ˽˲ź͸޷⡣൱ȤǣԽԽͨ˽˵໷׳ɹ֮(1)һˮλˮվɵйˮλ֮Э飻(2)һ͵糧գڣתգڣú֮Э飻(3)˹һѡַ֮(4)һη·֧߽һרߣԼ(5)йϿݸ˹֣Francis Marionɭһƻ׵ĽüƻвϡеıݺBackman's warbler֮Ϣز˿ܵЩԼɹһЩ۲ǵó½ۣȱЧʵġ֮ӣɱ߰һЩ˱ʤʱеһλӮҡ[76]磬ԺIJпֻijЩļҪδʤʵǺġԿʽԺƲѰһ˫˽Ը֮ͬЭǿһһֻ˫ԲĽʵԤʾδijͻ ˿ܻȡ಻ͬжټ漰׸֮Ļ飬ڸ䴫ϢΪʵߣԼ顣дж֮Ŀڣ̸ͨйеЭ˴һ໥֮Э⣬⻹ơȣʹ˰ѽ㼯ϡ磬˹ݰ¿Eau Claireһѡַ֤ϣصĻӰ֮ʵ۲ݡЩۿڶˮȾĹעϣΪһ̨Ͽע⡣Ȼʶȷϵһʱţ˭ʹãֿɽ룬Լڱʱóᷢʲôһע⣬ֻλʹЭ飬Э˱֤óһֿɽܵķʽ[77]

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19701980ڣٲЭﶷŹδ˷΢¾׺¾ס[78]ԽԽʶٲú/ʱٲЭײͳΪչIJš

TS˶RV˶ָ1960ٲú͵ӦڴĿƻ֮УԽԺܷ̫顢̫׽ijͻͥ͡ĦԼ֮Ƶijӡ[79]Ŀɼѳǡ˹ǡ󡢾ɽɽܡʿ١ӵdzǡŦԼԼõ˷չЩĿƳɣͨ־Ը߳䵱ˣʱΪٲԱѰ֮Э׽ijǣѷĿĸػḱָܲڴףԺͨһʵijΪԺһֶԿʽĻʵϲǶֻ֣żѡˡݻھӡ

ȻЩĿ˴ףѿʼ¼ɼһУһλӻظһ̵ĺꡣԸ룬Ϊϣ˹˿͵Զ[80]һУһλδͬ20Сʱ๤Ϊ⳥

ѳǵٲЭᷢ׽Ŀ֮һӵķԺ1969Ϳʼ΢°˽˷ͥǵijɹΪ΢°Щ˾ṩ˶

ľ׽ƶ֮һʵǺüΪѳĿΪ֮䷶漰ԺİţһʵʾţһЩʵϲ˽ԸԹԺѡ񡣵ȷЩĿɸǵķչʺ͹ʵԵɫʱЩֵ֧ĿǰĻȥôһЩ۲ǻͻó½ۣʧܷӳ˽˲ṩΪľ׽ˣϳϴʧ֮DZԣԼǿǷʧܣҲʮа˾ŷӳ˹Ա䷢չ͹ǿӸЩضġΪƶ֮ƺ˳¡

׽DZڵʧܣ˽˲ֻ֮ʧܣ

Ծ׽ơADRĸһֱǷɸĸǹע֮㣬ΪԺӵһDZھҲͬõʦЭͷǵƳ硣ʵϣں̶ܴһչղΪ˺ѰĸĸDӣԨԴʦͷԹԺϵͳЧݱΪʰ֮ʶ[81]ʦͷǿʼΪµĵŬԺΪ΢͡ʺС֮ס˾ѷࣨȫ˾ġȻзζǣ֧ͨDZ˾ƶ֮ڷЩĿijɹ[82]˾Ķԣʵаɷٻٽ졣ԱٻԸǵľύЩġʵϣ˾1980һгϣĺüĿԺ֮죬ңйذٲ[83]һ˾ʱ[˵]ʮԸDIյ£D. I. Sheppardָٺ˾ϵԱ־Ըġ顱ǡ˵ġǿѹ֮΢ʽijδͥ¼֮вϵʹﵽ൱ģҪء[84]ˣЩνġ׽ŸͲΪġ׼ȷ˵DZΪ˾Ƶһ֡˿־ԸߣЩĿʦѧԺѧ֮ˣ˸ֳһ˽˲֮󣬵׵˲Ը֮ˣĿĴ۲ӦΪ˽˲ŵʧܡ ʵϣгֵԤڣǿలŽסǻһ£dz˷ͷ˷ֻ֮ͥҵΪԽڼͥ塢ڽ̻ϵ֮ϣҲԹڷҵԼϣЭᣩDZԸġ[85]ԣ˾ĿԵϽΪ֮һκϽԷǾлϵ֮ͬ磬ɼĿͶλһȱͬĿͼֵ۵Ķ֮˿С[86]ȷʵѧɵ¶Laura Nader1979Ԥԣ˾Ľ֤˾Ʊ׶˲ȵIJǡΪԷɺͷִеĿѡ[87]湫ͷԺƵIJǿԴĿͼľİϻ֮DZڿԡ

¶ͺգAuerbachóĽۣʹܽҪԻΪµ˾ġҲ˾ƵIJܵΡ[88]磬

[ڶ˹]зͥķɸĸǣּ͵͡ǹͳͷ֮׽Ļ롣õԺϯٶԷרҵ׽ƫڵ⡢ԼͥЧ֮ǿҵıԺȫԱͨİпƺֹԷİ˵ⷨͥĶڡΪ[ٷ]աŵԺϯٵ㷲Ψ˾ԼԺ֮ƫЭ⻬˸ĸƵġ뵱ط˾Ȩ֮ƶѷС[89]

ࡰĸʧܣΪ˽˲ŵѡ񣬶Ϊֻйطִеƶ԰֮һ֡ǵķȨȫڶԹٷԺǿĸ

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˱طɡԼɶʱܷԺþ֮ءصԴ֮һǿƣDzΨһԴϿɷɵȨԵĸ棬ǾͿܱ˵ӷɡͺִ˷Ŀķɺ͹ٷķԺڹһЧķƶȲ衣ֻDZҪܵһԸķƶ֮档ֻݿг׶˷ҲͨϵڽֻΪ໥֮磬סլЭᣩˣ˷ɹ֮ԭԼͼӰݻ֮ͻΪõijЩִԾ׽ƵijɹһЩDZڵʧṩ൱ҪĶ졣ֻҪԾ׽Ʋ䷨Ȩ໥϶Ը֮ѡͿЧȥһ棬ⲿǿǽԾ׽ʽȨԴڶԹٷԺ֮ôֻڳϵǿƺ֮²ſܴڡ

ο

Aiken, John R. "New Netherlands Arbitration in the 17th Century," Arbitration Journal 29 (June 1974): 145-160.

American Arbitration Association. Lawyers' Arbitration Letters, 1970-1979 ((New York: The Free Press, 1981).

Auerbach, Jerold S. Justice Without Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Benson, Bruce, L. "The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law," Southern Economic Journal 55 (January, 1989): 644-661.

. The Enterprise of Law: Justice Without the State. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute, 1990.

___________. "Reciprocal Exchange as the Basis for Recognition of Law: Examples from American History," Journal of Libertarian Studies, 10 (Fall 1991): 53-82.

__________. "Customary Law as a Social Contract: International Commercial Law," Constitutional Political Economy 2 (Winter 1992): 1-27.

___________. "Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitutes or Complements? An Exploration of the History of Arbitration and Arbitration Statutes in the United States," Department of Economics Working Paper No. 91-03-8, Florida State University, 1993.

___________. "The Impetus for Recognizing Private Property and Adopting Ethical Behavior in a Market Economy: Natural Law, Government Law, or Evolving Self-Interest," Review of Austrian Economics 6 (1993): 43-80.

Berman, Harold J. Law and Revolution: The Formation of Western Legal Tradition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.

__________, and Dasser, Felix J. "The "New" Law Merchant and the "Old": Sources, Content, and Legitimacy," in Thomas E. Carbonneau, ed. Lex Mercatoria and Arbitration: A Discussion of the New Law Merchant (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Transnational Juris Publications, Inc., 1990).

Cook, Roger F., et al. Neighborhood Justice Centers Field Test-Final Evaluation Report. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1980.

Denenberg, T. S., and Denenberg, R. V. Dispute Resolution: Settling Conflicts Without Legal Action, Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 597. New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1981.

Domke, Martin. Domke on Commercial Arbitration, Revised Edition by Gabriel M. Wiker (Willmette, Ill.: Gallaghen & Co., 1984).

Ellickson, Robert C. Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991).

Fuller, Lon. The Morality of Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964.

. The Principles of Social Order. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1981.

Greif, Avner. "Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade,"Journal of Economic History 49 (1989): 857-882.

Hayek, F. A. Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

. Law, Legislation, and Liberty, Vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Isaacs, Nathan. "Review of Wesley Sturges, Treatise on Commercial Arbitration and Awards," Yale Law Review (1930): 149-151.

Jones, William C. "Three Centuries of Commercial Arbitration in New York: A Brief Survey," Washington University Law Quarterly 1956 (February 1956): 193-221.

Koenig, Richard. "More Firms Turn to Private Courts to Avoid Expensive Legal Fights," Wall Street Journal (January 1984). Landes, William M. and Posner, Richard A. "Adjudication as a Private Good," Journal of Legal Studies (March 1979): 235-284.

Lazarus, Steven, et al. Resolving Business Disputes: The Potential of Commercial Arbitration. New York: American Management Association, 1965.

Levy, Jacob T. "The Transformation of Arbitration Law, 1835-1870: The Lessening of Judicial Hostility Towards Private Dispute Resolution," Mimeo, Brown University, May 1993.

Milgrom, Paul R.; North, Douglas C.; and Weingast, Barry R. "The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Law Merchant, Private Judges, and the Champagne Fairs," Economics and Politics 2 (March 1990): 1-23.

Mitchell, W. Essay on the Early History of the Law Merchant. New York: Burt Franklin, 1904.

Murray, John S.; Rau, Alan Scott; and Sherman, Edward F. Processes of Dispute Resolution: the Role of Lawyers (Westbury, N.Y.: The Foundation Press, Inc., 1989).

Nader, Laura. "Comment," The Pound Conference: Perspectives on Justice in the Future. St. Paul: The Pound Conference, 1979, pp. 114-119.

Odiorne, George S. "Arbitration Under Early New Jersey Law," Arbitration Journal 8 (1953): 117-125.

__________. "Arbitration and Mediation Among the Early Quakers," Arbitration Journal 9 (1954): 161-169.

Poole, Robert W., Jr. Cutting Back City Hall.New York: Universe Books, 1978.

Pruitt, Gary. "California Rent-a-Judge Justice," Journal of Contemporary Studies (Spring 1982): 51-64.

Sheppard, D.I.; Roche, J.A.; and Cook, R.A. National Evaluation of the Neighborhood Justice Centers Field Test - Interim Report. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1979.

Smith, Joseph H. Colonial Justice in Western Massachusetts (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961).

Sturges, Wesley A. A Treatise on Commercial Arbitrations and Awards (Kansas City: Vernon Law Book Company, 1930).

Trakman, Leon E. The Law Merchant: The Evolution of Commercial Law. Littleton, CO: Fred B. Rotham & Co.,1983.

Willoughby, William F. Principles of Judicial Administration. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute, 1929.

Wooldridge, William C. Uncle Sam, the Monopoly Man. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1970.

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* ϵоĿɵݻһ֣ĿأEarhartоIJԴڲչоɹ̷ȻݻSouthern Economic Journal 55 (January, 1989)ɵҵûйҵ塷(San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute, 1990)ΪһԼϰ߷̷Constitutional Political Economy 2 (Winter 1992)Լгг˽вƲͽܵΪ֮Ȼݻе塱Review of Austrian Economics 6 (1993)

** ³˹LɭBRUCE L. BENSONо߼оԱѧDeVoe MooreѧڡڱǿɵݻΣ1990ʾɵҵûйҵ塷ڡ뱣˾˽˻ͬ塷1998꣩ڱܷΣûʲôЧ߳ɱĹԹ޷ȴȻ˾¢ϡ˷ִкȥڡֻӦ¢֮񻰣þٽ졢ԺƲøӦ˼Ȩ֮Ҫɵݻһ˼ȫܽμҳhttp://garnet.acns.fsu.edu/~bbenson/

*** 꿣廪ѧѧԺʿ廪ѧѧԺ˶ʿ

**** Է֮ǡһ鹲ʮ¡ԣһཨԷ֮ǡɷijй滮/ʥ·˹˽סͨ˽˹滮ijл/ƷԸṩ/ҵijй滮֥Ӹҵ/ڶԷ֮ǵķɺ񡪡û壺ŷ˷ִͥ汾/1819͵˽˾/ʮľӡ20ǰѰĻͳ/ͨҽƱеѰЭ/Է֮ǵĽ/Է֮ǺЭ/ʵеԼ/ϵ˽˻˽˹ͬƲȨķȡϵ֮/޶ֵİסլЭ顣βгսʧܣԷ֮ǵĽѵ

糱˹̹ѧϵɭɭNathan Rosenberg˵Է֮ǡӼΪһش֮ҲһҪؼṩһסŻģʽסͨҽơԼԺ¿ǣͨгλԷţͨй滮ߺִרҵԮܸõṩЩ񡣡Ү³ѧѧԺ޲ءɭRobert C. Ellickson˵Է֮ǡһ̽Գսĵ߸Խ·֮ʤʷ޵¡ΪԷ֮ǡⱾҪǣᳵ·ͨ־ȤͶ֮˺;ס֮˵Ը϶ṩƷڽƷṩѾԽԽij͹ˡ ߴάУDavid T. Beitoݴѧڣء٣Peter GordonϼݴѧϵߡƻͷչѧԺڣɽˣAlexander TabarrokооΡ

[1] һ۵ҪԼμLon Fuller,The Morality of law(New Haven:Yale University Press,1964)The Principles of Social Order (Durham,N.C.:Duke University Press 1967)ԼF. A. Hayek, Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics (Chicago:University of Chicago Press,1967) Iaw,Legisation,and Liberty, Vol 1(Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1967 )йûй֧ʱȨԴ֮ϸ֣̽ԼףμBruce L Benson ,Customary Law as a Social Contract: International Commercial Law, Constitutional Political Economy 2 (Winter 1992):1-27ԼThe Impetus for Recognizing Private Property and Adopting Ethical Behavior in a Market Economy: Natural Law, Government Law, or Evolving Self-Interest,Review of Austrian Economics 6 (1993): 43-80

[2] μHarold J. Berman,Law and Revolution:The Formation of Western Legal Tradition (Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1983),Lein Trakman, The Law Merchant: The Evolution of Commercial Law (Littleton, Co.:Fred B.Rotham &Co.,1983),Bruce L Benson, The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law ,Southern Economic Journal 55(January, 1989):644-661,Avner Greif ,Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade,Journal of Economic History 49 (1989): 857-882ԼPaul R. Milgrom, Douglas C. North and Barry R. Weingast,The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Law Merchant,Private Judges and the Champagne Fairs,Economics and Politics 2(March 1990):1-23

[3] Berman, Law and Revolution, p.333

[4] Trahman, The Law Merchant, p.13

[5] ͬעҳ11

[6] Berman, Law and Revolution, p. 342ڲͬĵطһЩȻˣⲢζţ÷ƶȺЧʻ߷ӳ˵طȷȻĶӳͬƫãЩھгУ¹ƶȵı仯ԸСǿ˶Էչе̷֮ձϿɡμTrakman, The Law Merchant, pp.20-21

[7] Trakman, The Law Merchant, p.10

[8] ͬע, ҳ12ԼW. Mitchell, Essay on the Early History of the Law of Mrechant (New York: Burt Franklin, 1904), p. 16

[9] William C. Wooldridge, Uncle Sam, the Monopoly Man (Hew Rochelle, N.Y.:Arlington House, 1970), p. 96

[10] Trakman, The Law Merchant, p. 10Grief,Reputiation and Coalitions in Medieval TradeԼMilgrom, North, and Weingast, The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade

[11] Milgrom, North, and Weingast, ͬע

[12] Berman, Law and Revolution, p. 347; Mitchell, Essay on the Early History of the Law Merchant, p. 13

[13] Trakman, The Law Merchant, p. 16

[14] ͬעҳ 14

[15] Berman, Law and Revolution, p. 341

[16] William M. Landes, and Richard A. Posner, Adjudication as a Private good, Journal of Legal Studies (march 1979), p. 258

[17] °תٷԺܱṩִһֽ˷õġɡȻһԸתưʾţǷùٷԺ档ȻעⲢеϺִгɱԿϷѲ˰˾ִеһЩṩ˲йص涯ʵܹкִǷɵijɱֵת޸ˣǹٷԺṩ˸õķɡμBruce L Benson, The Enterprise of Law: Justice Without the State (San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute, 1990, Chapter 3)⣬ͨҷԺߵȨ˷ͥȨȻˡ

[18] μ֤֮Steven Lazarus et al.,Resolving Business Disputes: The Potential of Commercial Arbitration (New York: American Management Association,1965),p.18

[19] Trakman, The Law Merchant, pp.26-27

[20] ͬעҳ27

[21] ͬעҳ27

[22] ͬעҳ24

[23] Wooldridge, Uncle Sam, the Monopoly, p.99

[24] ͬעҳ99

[25] йظϸڣμTrakman, The Law Merchant; Harold J. Berman, and Felix J. Dasser, The New Law Merchant and the Old :Sources, Content, and Legitimacy,in Thomas E. Carbonneau ed, Lex Mercatoria and Arbitration: A Disscussion of the New Law Merchant(Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: transnational Juris Publication, Inc., 1990)ԼBenson,Customary Law as a Social Contract

[26] Trakman, The Law Merchantҳ3

[27] μJohn R. Aiken, "New Netherlands Arbitration in the 17th Century," Arbitration Journal 29 (June 1974): 145-160; Jerold S. Auerbach, Justice Without Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983); Bruce L. Benson, "Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitutes or Complements? An Exploration of the History of Arbitration and Arbitration Statutes in the United States," Department of Economics Working Paper No. 91-03-8, Florida State University, 1993; William C. Jones, "Three Centuries of Commercial Arbitration in New York: A Brief Survey," Washington University Law Quarterly 1956 (February 1956): 193-221; George S. Odiorne, "Arbitration Under Early New Jersey Law," Arbitration Journal 8 (1953): 117-125Լ"Arbitration and Mediation Among the Early Quakers," Arbitration Journal 9 (1954): 161-169; and Joseph H. Smith, Colonial Justice in Western Massachusetts (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961), pp. 180 and 188.

[28] AikenͬעAuerbachͬעԼJonesͬע

[29] Aikenͬעҳ160

[30] Jones,Three Centuries of Commercial Arbitration in New York,p.209

[31] ͬעҳ207

[32] ͬע

[33] ͬעҳ209

[34] ͬעҳ211

[35] ͬעҳ219 Auerbach, Justice Without Law; Smith, Colonical Justice in Western Massachusetts, pp.180 and 188ԼOdiorne, Arbitation Under Early New Jersey LawԼArbitration and Mediation Among the Early Quakers

[36] Auerbachͬעҳ33

[37] ϸڣμBenson, Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitutes or Complements?1698Ӣͨ˵һٲ÷涨ٲòþһͨԺͲԷɴֻʵΪƷþˣ÷ҪԺٲòþթġȻ÷δƷɳԭ򣬲ҸҪǣͨԺѲӢƶ

[38] Jones,Three Centuries of Commercial Arbitration in New York, p.213

[39] ͬעҳ212

[40] Lazarus et al.,Resolving Business Dispute, p.27

[41] μJacob T. Levy,The Transformation of Arbitration Law 1835-1870:The Lessening of Judicial Hostility Towards Private Dispute Resolution,Mimeo, Brown University, May 1993йعҷԺϳٲݻۣ֮μBenson,Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitutes or Complements?

[42] Jones,Three Centuries of Commercial Arbitration in New York,p.217

[43] ͬעҳ214215

[44] ͬעҳ215

[45] ͬע

[46] ͬעҳ216

[47] ͬע

[48] ͬע

[49] 磬μAuerbach, Justice Without Law

[50] Trakman, The Law Merchant, p.33

[51] ͬעҳ34

[52] Auerbach, Justice Without Law, p.101

[53] Wooldridge, Uncle Sam, the Monopoly Man, p.101

[54] Jones,Three Centuries of Commercial Arbitration in NewYork,p.218

* ָ20͡

[55] Auerbach, Justice Without Law,p.113

[56] Lazarus et al.,Resolving Business Dispute, p.20

[57] William F. Willoughby, Principles of Judicial Administration (Washington, D.C.:Brookings Institute, 1929), pp.7-26

[58] Auerbach, Justice Without Law, p.103

[59] йٲóķչԼʦһеãϸۣμBenson,Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitutes or Complements?

[60] Landes and Posner, "Adjudication as a Private Good," p. 247磬Willoughby, Principles of Judicial Administration, p. 56; Lazarus, et al., Resolving Business Disputes, pp. 31 and 125; American Arbitration Association, Lawyers' Arbitration Letters, 1970-1979 (New York: The Free Press, 1981), p. 34; Martin Domke, Domke on Commercial Arbitration, Revised Edition by Gabriel M. Wiker (Willmette, Ill.: Gallaghen & Co., 1984), p. 27ԼJohn S. Murray, Alan Scott Rau, and Edward F. Sherman, Processes of Dispute Resolution: the Role of Lawyers (Westbury, N.Y.: The Foundation Press, Inc., 1989), p. 435

[61] Benson, Customary Law as a Social ContractԼBenson,Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitutes or Complements?

[62] Wooldridge, Uncle Sam, the Monopoly Man, p.101 [63] ٲ÷ݼӰϸμBenson,Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitues or Complements?

[64] Wesley A. Sturges, A Treatise on Commercial Arbitration and Awards (Kansas City: Vernon Law Book Company, 1930)

[65] Nathan Isaacs, Review of Wesley Sturges, Treatise on Commercial Arbitration and Awards, Yale Law Jurnal 40(1930),p.149-151

[66] Wooldridge, Uncle Sam, the Monopoly Man, p.101

[67] T. S. Denenberg, and R. V. Denenberg, Dispute Resolution: Settling Conflicts Without Legal Action, Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 597 (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1981), p. 5.

[68] ͬעҳ8

[69] ͬעҳ10

[70] ʦٲ÷ٲӰĸϸڣμBenson, Are Public Courts and Arbitration Substitutes or Complements?

[71] Gary Pruitt, California Rent-a-Judge Justice,Journal of Contemporary Studies(Spring 1982): 51-64

* ݷԺϵͳгԺijνһ£ǡطԺԺǡ߼ԺLos Angeles County Superior CourtɼصijԺ

[72] ͬעҳ51

[73] Richard Koenig, More Firms Turn to Private Courtsto Avoid Expensive Legal Fights,Wall Street Journal(January 1984)

[74] Landes and Posner, Adjudication as a Private Good,p.237; Willoughby, Principles of Judicial Administration, p.56;Lazarus Lazarus, et al.,Resolving Business Disputes, pp.31 125;Amercan Arbitration Association, LawyersArbitration,1970-1979, p.34;Domke, Domke on Commercial Arbitration, p.27ԼMurray, et al.,Processes of Dispute Resolution, p.435Щʾţǰںͬûٲ˽˲оͲһеѡ˾гijֶԴʡ

[75] ۣμDenenberg and Denenberg, Dispute Resolution,p.2ϸμFuller,The Principles of Social Order

[76] Denenberg and Denenberg, Dispute Resolution,p.15

[77] ͬעҳ21

[78] Robert W. Poole,Jr., Cutting Back City Hall(New York: Universe Books, 1978), p.55

[79] Denenberg and Denenberg, Dispute Resolution, p.15

[80] ͬעҳ18

[81] Auerbach, Justice Without Law, p.123

[82] ͬעҳ131

[83] Roger F. Cook et al.,Neighborhood Justice Centers Fields Test-Final Evaluation Report (Washington D.C.:U.S.Department of Justice, 1980),pp.4-6

[84] D.I.Sheppard, J.A.Roche, and R.A.Cook, National Evaluation of the Neighborhood Justice Centers Field Test-Interm Report(Washington D.C.:U.S. Department of Justice,1979),p.56

[85] Benson, The Enterprise of Lawڼ˹ũ֮䣬һûйҵľ׽ִ֤֮μRobert C. Ellickson, Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991)

[86] Auerbach, Justice Without Law, p.131

[87] Laura Nader, "Comment," The Pound Conference: Perspectives on Justice in the Future (St. Paul: The Pound Conference, 1979), pp. 114-119

[88] Auerbach, Justice Without Law, p.131

[89] ͬעҳ134

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[90] ͬעԼBruce L. Benson, "Reciprocal Exchange as the Basis for Recognition of Law: Examples from American History," Journal of Libertarian Studies, 10 (Fall 1991): 53-82һִũ֤֮ Ellickson, Order Without Law