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  ߣ ѩ塡־  ڣ 2000-11-17

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Դ1988סίԱ֯йũֱѡΪĴʵʮʱˡȻίѡֻһ֣ΪίѡٵĹ㷺ԺʹʵҪԣѧĹעֹעʱֵѰѧ˽ίѡйƸĸͻƿڣʵҲһɻ弶ѡչij嶯Ĵ硢ڴֱѡʵѡ٣ѧĹ㷺עýļȤ
1987꡶ίԱ֮֯ͨǰʱȫ˴ίԱ漴"˴ίԱᣬũȺڰƵԭʵֱҪʲôʲôȰʲôʲôȺԼ㷺ʵũȺڰһܺˣ𽥾ͻһ飬һܺˣ𽥾ͻһص飬𲽶죬Χ"ˣֹ۵Ԥƣ"ѡسźܿҪᵽճ"*1ΪίԱѡѾΪ()ֱӾѡģ"ʽѡ"ʵĻ*2
Ҳ˶Դίѡٳֻ̬ȣ˵򳤵ľѡˡΪίѡٽɱز"ڽ"*3ӢΪ"ΪѡɱǮν㷺ڣطҲӰѡٻ"*4ڿ˵"ҲһЩͬ߶ũ'Ⱥ'޲ڣⲻ֪ʵл'Ⱥר'ģʽҲӢרҵ֮ǰ19͵طεͼ汾׾ӷ档" *5
̸۴κʹίѡٵĺûȻܽ⣬ֱӵΪίѡٻеչƺҲŷ뽫κʹίѡٷڹҺ۾ᱳƱ£Ӵαε᱾ʽп죬ſܵóȽϿɿĽۡ*6ҪӴίѡһ¼ĴׯʵĽǶȣ۵ǰѧ㷺ע鼤ҵĿԺйеĵλһҪ⡣Ĵ·Ϊ֣һۣڶص۴ׯʷָ壨ίᣩǹȨĽ˵ǰʷγɵʺ״Ϊڵ˼ϵ""IJ۴ίѡٵ״ƣͼʾһдίѡеص㼰ѡٵĿԣ岿Ȼ壨Сһѡ壨ίᣩѡٵһЩͬ㣬ֱѡίѡٿܴڵIJͬ㣬ӶֱָѡȻ壬ʱʵIJͬʵֹɵıҪdzۡ
ׯʷ
Ȼ
˵йͳУũ໥ģȨأǹҹŵʽͳΣʵεġµԴׯΪסλҲڴׯΧչԸġ仰˵ڴͳйᣬũԴׯΪλҵϵׯũ֯ʽһĵԪĿ֤Դӽ⽨ƶδγԺйṹĻɾһʮص㣬ԴΪλľӣͬվ۾ӵĴȻγɵģһ˵һеϵĴ䣬ھӣһһ壬һٶƽве֯ϵͳϵֵ֯ϵͳͰѪԵϵֵ֯ϵͳ಻ͬʵ֯طУʵǺ϶Ϊһġ仹һյʵ壬ڲϵԸ㣬ϱȻһķʽʵ塣һӵĴһıڱ *7
ȻйͳУȻγɵĴͬ۾Ըص㣬еȾȻУ"ÿӶ˼пųģںΧҲǴСͿߵ"֮˴˽ϤΪ""У"ǴˣкˣõŶ˵ô""ϤõΡβûиݣʵɿûˣΪǹء""òǶԼӣǷڶһΪĹϤ˼ʱĿɿ"*8򵥵˵Уһ棬֮˴˽⣬˭IJŸΣƷΣҶȻġһ棬Ϊұ˴ϤȻȻüأû˭ᣨңԽú͹أܵңǣǿijͷ
ӦйͳΪҪһ൱Ȥһ򣬶ϣΪΣճΡ֮ܶķǿȨƺûеλѡٴɲдɲĻҲȻȻѡһϿɵЩ¸ص峤ϡ
Ȼ൱պʹͳʱᡣڵǰйũ壬ͳͽ壬Ȼú͹ҲѲɿΨһȽϿɿǴ໥֮ˣԲ˽ԷIJŸƷԷҡƲѹϵȻ봫ͳʱͬⲻ""ױƾá"" "ũ"õĿܡ֮""ѲͬȻָ塣

һԶʮͳִصɹҹƣһȻγɡ˵ʮͳɹȨƽִ˶ԽԽҪIJ˰֧֡ΪǿԴļȡս͸ũΪһжŵжĸȨǿȨũ͸Ϳơ񻮷ֵпƣǷִĹȨǿԾ˰Ϊһʩ""Ȼ֮ϵγɼһŬijɹ*9
Ȼ"滮Ǩ"൱һۣУҿ޶ࡣԹ1927-1939Ƴ""ΪΪӦԴʩ"Ϧĵĵط֯йϺ״̬ڼǿƷҲϣķ""30֯е磨򣩡뱣ͬʱ棬֯ϼظǤķɢ"*10Ϊ20Ļʷ֮С1949ԺεijνݿࡣŬũγµνṹ塢ίᡢ֧
γҲһ̡ڸս1949-1950ףũЭ񵳵ı֯ΪʵĻȨ֯ڳũЭʱһԹʱڱΪλ״Ȼ൱1950Ժ䷢һϵзũձ齨磨壩1954ͨһܷǰ硢ͳΪ磬ΪҪũȨƣѡϣȱԣʱ峤˴ίԱίԱΣ֮£ȻС顣ְܵʱȷʵĸء
͹幦ܵģҹũҵУ1953굽1956̶3ʱ伴ɵũҵ졣ʱ䣬96.30%ũμ˺磬вμӸ߼ũռũ87.80%߼ĹģϴǺϡũҵĹУҪֵȵƫ1956׺1957괺ز̶ͬȵس""ΪʵֺͷֹӣΪ֯ũҵԽ޴ҷεĹܣʹϲ"ίԱʹְȨ˵֯ͬʱҲ磬һ" 弶֯ʼγӵؼũҵϵһúᵥԪ
һΪ"滮Ǩ"ĺ˴ͳȻһϵйܡĻӰԽԽһۼ
ΪĴί
1.ȻıȽ
ίǷҲ᣿ȷڲǧѺˣȻ໥ʶкҲԣҾ߱ͬĵط֪ʶǣ൱زͬȻˡȻΪӵд乲ͬռ䣬໥֪֪Ϊ滮ǨIJȻӵͬռ䣬ȴȱͬռ䣬ڱȻڴšꡢϲ£ڱȻھиʽϷġȻΪṩ໥ĻᣬȴδΪ໥֮ṩԣ໥˽Ĺռ䡣
壬ԳΪ ""˴֮֮⣬Ͼṩ൱Ĺռ䣬ЩռΪׯӢṩ˻̨ڴ̨ϣׯӢijֱݣʹʶһӢķ棬ҲͳΪǵˡ̨ͨׯӢΪĹһ巶Χڣ֮໥""ҹһЩ㹹һ""
ԽԽĹһۼͬʱδ㹻ĿȻн빵ͨĻᣬһԽԽΪϲ㽨ļǰȻһشȻģ¾ǿԼشйغãͳδׯijҲѭͳӮôΣڴеĹأҶһͬģûзڣҲзڵĿռ䣬ⲻѹԳڹͬӵеľŲɵԹһгȶڵǰУ֮䲢ȫϤֲϤ˴һѣڹһϣȻ붫Ȼ˾һµʱΪIJͬЩΪ໥˽⣻Щ໥֮䲻̫ϤɵĵΪȵȡ 仰˵ڰУ֮ʶΪʶһ±ΪɴڣдڵĿԣȻغõ໥Լ£ѹƶѹȻĹת䵽ѡΣίΣαΪΣϱΪԼΪΪΪԳ˱ɫɳαΪΡ һ仰幦ܵ͹УΪΪʽ˾޴ı仯ֱ仯һ¼˵ѡٴɲһ¼
2
ίһаʵŹȨũγɵģѡٵĽǶȣҪһȻʣڶǴɲ֮ĽDzͬȻĴ֮Ϣصģ·ֱ˵˵֮ԡ AȻռ
ȻĹתʱҪռȻȻڣ齻֡ûȵȣ󶼷Ȼ巶Χ֮ڡˣȻڣÿ˶뵽ȻͬĹϵ磬Уд໥֮乹˽磬Ҳÿ˶Ȼ໥Ϥ˵IJ֡ѡʱȻΪλĵΪӰΪҪһάһؽΪѡٱΨһҪ Ȼ幹ӰίѡٵйأһͬһȻŹͬĵ棬ˮʩ·ڴڲƽֲ޺ޣޣΪȻĵʷʽڶȻڹͬÿ˶Ϊ˵ˣṩÿΪĵѹûɣͬһȻ˵ȻԸѡȻ˵ɲδɲʱDZȻȻһΪϤķΧڿǷԼΪʺϵɲˣ仰˵ΪԱȻ˵ϤѡȻ˳ɲ
񲻽ǿҵĵʶҲΧƵзֲڵΧʺϵɲʱɲĵϷֲͳΪӰׯҪ棬ʱ򣬲Ǵɲĵֲƽ⣬ίѡٺܿܵòϣﵽЧ Bɲ֮Ľ
ڴίһΪС鱾ܵɲԽԽؽ뵽֮У衢ڿɿƻ;׵⣬޴дɲӰɲӴʱԴɲֹͷƬɵķʽСΪɲṩһ㷺ӴĻᣬرǴеְɲ֧顢ίκʹƣ֮Ź㷺ĽӴᣬֽӴȵĽӴһֻҪϴɲܿ㷺ϵ˶Ϊй
㷺ĽӴʹɲΪеĽɲƷвˣ㣬ܿͻᱻʶƣ´ѡʱܾͻ᲻ѡɲδɲԼ´ѡѡͿܲȡֲԣһֲΪֵαƣֲӴʱ䲻ʱЩãʱ䳤˾ͻᱻʶơڶֲΪԲִʩССݣӶ򲿷ִԻôͳԵѹϵֵ֧֣ܡ׹ϵͬѧѹϵʱҪϵԵϵԻЩ֧֣ѡʱʤȯա
֮򲿷ִͿ´ѡʤȯգ֮㷺ĽӴʹΪеĹһЩΪȱڴί᷶ΧڱݵĻᣬԳΪй C֮Ϣ
ռҪȻڣͬȻĴ֮໥ʶʶȻУÿƷƢŸϵȵȣΪ֪˭˭һĿȻڲͬȻУ֮Ϣ涼죬ҲʶЩʶɴ֮̽˽⣬˽ⱳȻ˵˼ʽ˱ȻijȻǡмݣ״ij˽ϼ״˱ҴΪ˽⣬ҴҲ״ij˳Ҵ߶Լ״ij˸ΪϤȻ֮˻ΪϤΪȻȻȻڱȻ巢齻ǸȻijij֮ij˶ӽʱʱʶҲΪˮ·ì򶷡ȫڣȻ֮ҲŸռ䣬ͬһˮͬһʱͬһƬɲȻĴС鳤Ĺȵȡ
ΪȻ֮ϢÿȻͲͬ׿ռ䣬ҷͬĹڴС飨Ȼ壩ڣһЩϵľӢˣڴС˵ҲԸЩԼìܣԼѣԼϲáȻľӢ֮䣬ݵĽڣձ顣ӢڴӴлӣ뾫ӢԼæӵľУȻľӢУ˳ΪȫȻ幫ϵȻ弶Ӣ ЩӾлóɹȻ弶ӢԳΪ弶ӢΪȻҲȻ弶ľӢֻеЩȻ弶ľӢĻΧȻ磬뵽ȫķΧDzڶȻ弶ӢľгΪΧĹڴͳũҵ£ܹȻӰչȫ壬ΪȱٿȻɡũ徭ֻΪصĵþӢпԼϳɹ漣ĴҲʵЩԭԼȻ弶ӢݵԼĽ¡ڿԳΪ弶ˣȻĴϤȫ˶η

ΪĴί໥ġȻռ䣬ʹȻڣȻ𲽾һЩڲľӢȻռ䣬ʹͬȻ֮ĴϢһ棬ͬȻ֮໥˽⣬һ棬ͬȻĴвͬĴׯӢڴׯľУֻм˿ڳΪȻľӢ֮ٿȻΪίһĹ ͨȻļȣĸɲΪ潻ʣȻȻΪׯ񲻵òܲȥ˽ɲرְɲǡڴίķΧڣ㹻ɿϢȥ˽ɲĵϸ۲ɲУǻʱȥɲ潻Ҵɲ鷳ɲЦɲӳѽҪЮȵȡ֮ڴί᷶Χڣʲôԭ򵣵˴ɲְܿͳΪһԿĴׯϵУرڴ´ͳũҵũ壬ɲΪΨһĴׯֻͬЩΣЩѾΡЩطڴίѡ֮ǰ֧ȰһЩĴΪ󱸸ɲãͿԴЩôѡɲĻᡣ С鳤Ȼ徫Ӣ幫֮䡣μӴɲ飬ôС鳤˸ϤȫĻᣬҲ˸˽ԼĻᡣΪ࣬Χܻȫѡزμѭɲڴ໥ԺȣڻɥȢʱ"̧ׯ"ȵȣգĴС鳤ڴͳʱɲԾĵ·ҿѡٵʱôѡĸᡣ еԱŹԵĹȥҲС鳤һIJμӻĻᣬˣеԱҲгΪׯĻᡣڵǰʵд£ƶ𲽽ȫܵӣˣҲ˸ΪׯĿܡ ׯƦҲܳΪй㹻ĻׯƦĹݳ˿ΪҪĴǵη⣬һ㲻ΪӡҲˣѡܵвƦǻۣһ㲻ѡƦɲ ġίѡ
ίѡٿǵǰйģԻˡÿһȣũͨͶƱѡٴɲεĴɲͷεĴׯӢӭӴѡʱ־ڱصãɻ̳ɿ֣ر1998꡶鷨ʽ䲼ʵʩԺ󣬴ίѡãԸѡ ѽѡٵĵũϵƽȣδʽͨ鷨֮ǰܶĵ"ѡٻũ"ĺ ϵĴίѡϺ϶Դίѡٵ󣬿йĴίѡһйֽ׶ΪӴԻӡʱ"ѡ"ĴʻֳͶƱĵӻ棬ίѡڴׯͷҲ⵱ȻDzģΪƭˡ뵽ίѡٱǵΪΪʽȥ ίѡڴίһչ֮͹֮Ļʹ֧Ϊ뵽ׯеģׯΧׯǴ֮֯ʽ̶֯ȵȶίİһЩϵ ӰĽǶίѡ٣෢֣гĸ档 ƽ
1998ʽͨ鷨֮ǰΪĵɲձΪίɴѡ٣ЩһֱʵĴɲǶѡɲΪУΪֻҪѡ٣ȻԽЩԼĴɲѡЩԼĴׯӢѡȥʵϣѧɲʹͬĿѡ٣Ȼѡ˶ѡЩȥΪ̫Լԭδɲ
1998꡶鷨ʽ䲼ʵʩ󣬸ʡƶ൱ϸµ"ѡ"Ĵίѡٰ취ӵĴίѡٸкϷˡ˲²⡣ȷ½½еĴίѡУνϷ̨Ǿѡʹ룬ʹίѡһӳΪйΪҫĿ¼Щ˿ϷڴһЩ˵ĵǺܿһĿȻˣĴίѡٲδɲĴ󻻰࣬ίѡУԭδɲһһѡֻм׵Ĵɲijϣѡԭδɲȥ򳷻Ĵɲ࣬ЩѡĴɲ׼ˣѡĴɲеĴׯˡѡ֮󣬱һԭѡֻ˺ǡ˵ѡøɲΪʲôѡأѧ˽˹ΪѡٵʽͳʶĹԺʹĮȵȡ
ǵί"ѡ"ʽѡԭδɲձβìܡһ棬ڴί᷶Χڣɲ񻥶صʹ弶ȱʹɲΪȫд񶼹IJĹҲԭδɲÿȻѡٵƱжߣܲߣÿȻжԵõѡƱԭδɲƽӹƷʹڰܻϢ໥ĴһжܾѡԭδɲˣǿԵõߵܵƱѡͬģÿȻУƱҲԭδɲֻڱȻеƱȻ޷ƱĽܵƱͶܵѡһ棬ڴίѡܵȱṹԵõġûͨṹIJ룬ԸƽԭδɲǣЧܸвܼᣬԭеƹԱ㷢áڴίϾİᣬɲ򽻵ڽȫ˼͸ĵƦʽѡȥ
ԵԱ
ȱרҵԴṹ£ίѡҲζԱֶΣѡձãزѡʱѡٹͬ ϼǵǰũһȴձڴίѡУ׹ͬá
ڵǰίѡУΪձĶԱԵԵΪչġѡУߵĴߵĴвͬѡһdz֧ǵĵطϱ߾ͱίΡȻҪĴɲСȻ䵱ǡÿС˶ϣѡСľӢɲС˲μӴίᾺѡСѡڲμӴίѡʱͻû˲μӴίᾺѡĴСĴصᡣЩɻϻشвμѡٵĴ񣬴ڱȻвμӴίᾺѡ΢ѹЩ̫̫ѡֳΪ֪ԼڵӵһƱҾĶ֡ɴίѡеԵԱҪɣĸ档һԵصͬͬסͬһȻУڶͬһԵĴŹͬĵԵ档޴嶫·޴ڴ嶫ʹĴҲȫͬĺ塣ͬһĴɲΪԼȡĹ̻ᡣ˹̣Ȼ˵ɲ¸¿ԷЩοɲڱȻʵϿ̧߱ͬһĴͬɵĹϵ֮з棬ⲻȻ֮໥ѹҹȻڵ໥ģʵͬһȻͬһƬĴϤƬľӢDzԭδɲʱDZԼܱߵѰľӢ
ԵԱΪίѡٵķƬǿʢĴ壬ԵΪ徺Ѿ˥Ĵ壬ȻȻؽƱͶͬһƬĺѡˡ
־ѡ
ԵԱһֲֵľѡίѡУ⵱ɲ˺ЩѡԼɲĴоӢ򰵵ͨѡѡĿܡܵڴί᷶ΧڣΪڹͬ粻棬ӱҪġΪӵҪίᾺѡ㲻ܱ͹ֳ൱İԽϾ ڵǰίѡУѡʵձڵģҲ൱Чģд;ɲΪƱDzʵģDzϷġ
ʵҶڴίѡڼ䵽ũ飬еطũ񶼻˵ѡڼҹȮͲֹԽٽѡͶƱҹȮ͵ʱԽҹȮ˵߶Щ߶ԭŵҹƽ˼ءǧҪΪЩҹ߶˶Ǿѡ߱ˡڴʱ򣬾ѡֻΪܵ߶ԵԼϵǼΪܵĴƱôƲһЩᶨ֧ߣЩ֧˽嵽ΪΪƱ֮ǣΪΪƱΪûʲô֮οÿ˶ԼѣףʣģһƱΪľѡʱЧܺá
ƱʱķУƱ˵ʱҵȻѡ㡣ͶƱֳ˵ôɵˣдƱȽϿɿѺѵѡеھѡУΪڸȻжпɿѡͬѧݻֵͬܣԱŸɻƷʵΪ˼ԴϵơɲΪȥһЩоӢЩоӢѡΪæɲٴεѡDZܴӴɲõһĺô
񷴸еһЩʵĴСֱҥԡڴίᾺѡҵĵطйںѡ˵ҥԣֲ׵ĴСֱЩҥڵ˵֤ʵ²ơׯΧ޵ģЩƵҥԺηȻҥ߱ܰʯͷԼĽšЩҥԲ׹ƣΪڱҥءЩҥԱȽڱҥ֤ʵ޷ϵЩҥԺܻ֤ʵʵӶһЩ˵⡣һЩطĴίѡгΪԭδɲĴԣָܷ⣬ЩⲻʹЩԭδɲ˳ѡҲòԷɵƲãΪʱԭδɲΥΪ
ڴίѡУ򰵻ٵƱΪһֱǴڵģҥԺʹСֱҲСܵ־ѡʹǼҵģҲdzģȻҲDz淶ġijϣһ棬ڴίᣬѡڴõ˽ѡˣһ棬ίѡٲȫھѡֵľѡֻдӴίĽǶȲſнϺõ⡣
Чܸ
ίѡеίѡٵĵĸЧܸеΪίʹׯ֮о룬δɲΪдʶΨһйЩ˵ӰȻڣɴ˳ѡʱԭδɲձεĽرǴĴɲĵѡôԼѡƱЧɣίѡٵԵԱصһָ໥ĴһжӶʹίѡһIJģ˺ķַʣַַʲܽѡٱ֯ͶϿѡеƱΪһѡٵд˵ѡһ㣬ѡʲôʣҹƱġѡгֵĻףѡٺ󶼸ˮ棬˵벻ѡٻôࡣ
""ѡٴѡɲȨΣڶԵѡɲз֣"˲٣ٶһ"ѡ˭仵ȱԵѡɲԼΪڴί᷶Χɲ𺦴棬ҲΪԼһǡ֧ߣЩ֧߶ũˣ˵֧֣ɲ͸ڲ˴ԸΪȱһжԴɲIJΪ޿κΡ ɲͬȱԼΥΪɲܶԱд˶ЩΥѹرǵɲвΪļ¼ʱ͸ˡ ĴίѡҲܴβЧܸУֻʽѡٻЧܸС˲ίѡдΪϵѡٱ٣ΪѡٸʱɱͶƱѡDzȫġίǰᣬβ͹IJ֮⡣Уѡһ㲻ڴηУܶطѡٴС鳤ʱٿĻһȱϯڹУѡûθм֧䣬ԣҲѡ񲻳μѡٵɡ 塢ᵽ
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ȱĴС鳤ѡ٣ٳֹС鳤ְλ飬ҲҪ˹顣ͨѡ٣ѡ˾ˣ¶Ǵѡǰĵ׾ˣѡȱڴίѡɱżȻԣҲٻݺϵĻᡣȻⲻ˵С鳤ѡپͲʵľ˿ڴСֵڶ࣬ι㷺ѡ鳤ͬһȻвͬϣҸȻеǿʢĻи൱ѡ鳤ĿܣʹˣҲѡеδС鳤
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С鳤ѡȱӰѡΪʵ鳤ְҲΪȻڵϢʹľûбҪճнȻΣӦѡٵҪ

ǰС鳤ѡٵһͻصǣδС鳤ʵͣЩʮС鳤ڴСѡȫѡ ɵǰС鳤ʵ͵ҪԭСѡдıѡٱҪصءΪСճоͻ˶δС鳤һۣѡͶƱʱһµıЩ鳤ζЩ鳤̨
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ΪԽΪֳͰIJ𡣵ǰƽģ50100ƽ35˿ڣʮʮίᡣ˵ݺ10ķΧչģΧ˿ԶԶ˴һռͽʷΧ֮ϵӹ۵ˣΪࡣأУһЩҪ
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һֱѡٻҪӰ졣ΪȱֱѡϣֻܴӽĴڴδֱѡرƲѡٵһЩ֮

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Ҫֱ֤ѡٵļֵѣɴίѡٵijɹƵɴ嵽ٵؼѡٶɹκѡٶһᱳչġȻ嵽嵽ŵ˿ڹģѡеĻ㷢˱仯ʱѡٱȻнṹϵı仯ǰֱѡƶȻĴṹIJûһ׳ƶȽṹѡپԴﵽӦеЧ
ƶȱΪǴģѡΪƶԽṹǽʲô֣ѡ٣ȷֻDz뾺ѡ徫Ӣ˵顣ǽǰѡټֵһֿѡһֿѡǼѡƶȱڵ˴ƶȡǰ˴ƶȴڵʵƶȵʽ˴ƶʵԴָĽһ˴ѡٴоԡѡٿίѡٽԽԼѡٳɱԹ涨ѡٲĴίȻ˴˴Լ򳤵ѡ⣬˴˵˾㡣
ѡٵľȻDZԽ˵ġĵҪּ˵Ǹ㼶ѡٵĻṹͿܵóǶǵĽۡ

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