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ʦѧϵIJʿСϷʷɡ

÷

¶ǿɳܵ--ͺս˼Ү˹

ͺս˼Ү˹о뱻оߵĹϵȷе˵"˼Ү˹ں̶ܴ˰ͺս˼롣ͬͺս˼Ү˹ר۵ҲӰ˰ͺս˵ˣǿ˼Ү˹Ϊͺսܻĵλ"[1]

ͺսץס˼Ү˹ˡִ˶Թ¶⣬óۣ澵Ͷȴ˼Ү˹Լ龰ۡҿ龰ۿýҡų㯵"¶ǿɳܵ"ǡı仰д˼Ү˹ͨƷӦ¹¹Ӱ˰ͺս𣬳Ϊ˼֮һȫ

һ¶ǿɳܵ

¹ĽܳѧΤΪʷṩһҪΪʷҪ̣DzϰԻּ֯廯ټҰľֵ֧ijȫԵøΪҡ廯ˣȻֻ˵һƬ˼Ү˹ƷľΪƬ˵ʹࡢ͵ͼ"ﲻΪϣҲʧȥ֡벻ѵŶ֮һЩǿ֮¶Ϊ°ϣҪˣ"

ִʹִ˽ʷһڽʱΤ˵"ʱ"ִ˿ʱɷΪиȨ½磬ʱǰڽĽṹһͼǺŵϵͳʹܹԱĿһʧȥֺݵĽṹ಻޼ҿɹ飬鲻ȫĶԣһ죬ִ˷ԼϵۡȻӴ֯İˣҲΪԼİˣңϵȻĸ붼ԤΪָ·ģĴѱʹˤ˳

Ĵһֹ㷺ۣ֮Ϊ˵Ŷġڰͺս˼Ү˹Ǹģҡһ仰DD¶ǿɳܵĨDDеǵ˼Ү˹˼УƷǷ֣¶ǿɳܵ,ֹ¶ʵDZǿӸǵġ򵽣ÿ̬ϵŶ޷һ棬עIJÿ̬ϵǰ㡢㣬Ʒֹֻ¶Ҫǣ˼Ү˹ʾһֹ¶DDÿʶϱŶDDҪֿ¶еĿɳܵ"¶"ͺս˵˼Ү˹˹"벻ѵŶ֮"[2]ģ˼Ү˹򵽵ʵʵһֱȫ¡ʵԲΪһҶҵʱԼ

˼Ү˹Ķʱŷܵɵʱ˼Ү˹Ʒڻת˵һʵʷΣʱ䡢Լ˵ĽǡֽǺΣ˼Ү˹ƾմģִ˵лˣ˼Ү˹ֻ跨С˵ķʽǣαװûдڴӶӱǡ

ˣͺս˵"˼Ү˹ѰҵģԽʶΪȫݼһִĹܣʶԼʶ硣ĴУ''''"[3]

"˼Ү˹ҿڹȦдתʶȫα"[4]

"벻ˣ뿪ҲܳΪңӦԼҵˣϷԼ֤֤ϲҳϡҵҴӱõģΪ˲ŴڵģðԼʩҲDzܵġ

ʱΪһľԹµʶ˼Ү˹ҿڹȦдתʶȫαԡ"[5]

ͺսλĺԣ˵ʶŶαģȻ,㷺Թ۵һ£ʼճ:̬ŶȻڵģʱ˵ҪֻҪÿʤһѵṦܣDZܣڣһţͨDZʶ¶ˣʱȻĨɱ˵ԣǿ˵ŶԱʹ˵ֱ״̬

һ㣬ͺսע⵽ˣ˼Ҳע⵽ˣ"Ȼ˹Ү˹ʵģôС˵ٵġЩٵģΪӭĻ롣Щµԣӳִᵱݵ˹Ρ"[6]ȷѧ֤ģִ޷ǣͺս֣ȴ¶һָеĴƷУΪԹ¶Ĵ⣬еΪԷūλɣǿǵǣҲо漴ķǿֻνų"¶ĸ""ΰ󷴿"ǣ¶ʶΪڹȦдתĶDDԽϿɹ¶ԽԶ֮һԶ͸Ͽɹ¶˹Ү˹IJ֮ͬڽ¶ֹ¶巴α١ƷڹͨŶȱԹ¶Ե⣬־ܾͨdzߵġģɵĽȴձķ롣ǿһƷʱĴҵͨƷ"Ի"ƷΪ"¶"ձԵʱȴʹͳһ

ˣͺսһѪָʱΪһľԹµʶ˼Ү˹ҿڹȦдתʶȫαԡǰԵŶDzڵģԵʶҲڡҪIJһ¶ķʲô£"ſ"ϣʶʶĽ㴦ʲôˣ˼Ү˹Ʒ¶ѧ¶ģǡǡ"¶"DDʱʶαԣϡҪ˵Ĺ°αģһ塣˱뽻ΪھζŽʣζһԶʱʱشſϡ

˼Ү˹С˵˹С˵һʼԸġһҪϽˣͨЩɫй˵ĸֹ¶ԣ¶ЩԵʵʡڣЩ"Ⱥӵ"˹¶˼Ү˹Ŷ˹˵ںϡԣ˹ڶ󣬾ܾȣߣӵԼŶʱ˼Ү˹˹˹¶Ʒȴ˹¶ߵӵлþꡣ

"ζŽ"[7]ԻĿ񻶻ļ£

ڡ˼Ү˹һ޶Уͺսרо˼Ү˹ĶԹ¶Ŀ

"ʶ㡢ܴڡҪʶԼΪԼԼʾˣͨ˲ˡʶһЩҪжͬ˵ʶͬ㣩ȺҷգɥʧҵĻԭ򡣹ؼķʲô£ʶʶĽ紦ſϷʲô¡һڵĶ㣬ҪתⲿҪԻÿһڵĸܶڱ߽ϣֽŵĽᣬǸܵȫʵʡ̶߳ȵԡһϣ˼Ү˹ȻͬһǷĺΨģģĻͬԭ޳·Ĺ¶Ļ϶¶Dzܵģ¶õġ˵ĴڱⲿĺڲĴڣ̵ĽʡھζŽʡԵڣζòϣȫζΪ˶ڣͨΪԼڡ˲ûԼڲȨԶشڱ߽ϣעڲʱڿ˵۾˵˵۾۲졣"

һλ˼һڵĶ㡣˵ŶõġܵġαģſϨDDʶʶĽ紦DDĽҪģԶڱ߽ϣſϣԹ¶ڴڵģԻ뽻ġ ˣھζŽʡͬʱͺսǿǣɵЩ˼Ү˹ѧ۵㣬ʶաˣ˼ŵ˵ʶ˼Ү˹ĸС˵״Ķ

˼Ү˹֮ǰƷûע⵽¶Ŀ"Ʒ֮ḻǰδУеƷҪ֤ȷǿܣԸ"[8]˼Ү˹Ʒ˵ʶʶĶԻΪƷУһֶԻĿ񻶻DDһȵĽģʽDDﵽ˽ļ£˵ıǿӵŶ̹¶ɣΪ̹¶ͬŶ֮ﵽԻŶڶԻһ˲䱻˷սʤˡڷdz̬¶Լ״̬ŶͱǿӵʶŶͬʱҲһ塣"ԵĶԾһʣӣܣʶֻɵͨԻʽΪ֮㣩ʾԼ"[9]

ȻھζŽʣôԻ񻶾ЧĽʵһ֡

ڡ뷣Уǻó񻶻֡ⲿƷһУǵˡǵĸ˼룬ƵԼıԵͨ"һϵij֡Źоƭͼᡣ"[10]һж׼תΪԼĶ棬һж˼ˣﵽԼļޡ˼Ү˹С˵УڶԻĿнꡢ϶񶨵ȡͺս֣˼Ү˹ϲֽƣֽͷԭһҪӳһˡһԱ£ߵһ𣬻෴ӳڶԷϤ⡣ͺսָ˼Ү˹һжԼĶڶӡڣ˽ҲޣڣзӳԼۣͬڲ͸ͱ.ȰһĿڿ⣬ǽڿԻϵġ"ڴ˺Ʒ 񻶻㷢չʷ˱仯Цأ൱ģȴͳˣ˼㡣"[11]

Կ"и߶ȵɺ̹"[12]ͷѹѾõŶгֵķԡ"񻶻ʹ˼Ү˹ֳܹһ޷ʾԸΪеijЩ档ر̵ʵ˿񻶻ģǸԸѾԼ,ٵͬԼ,ѸһһĿȻյĶ;෽Ԥʾ˼Ү˹дһЩ˹"[13]

ǿʽܣ˼Ү˹ȿ˷ϵΨֿۣ˷ʶϵΨۡһù¼һʹԼ֮ҲӦԣģҲ벻˵ʶġһԶҲܽоҵԼȫ֡¶DzܵģھζŽʡС˵Ⱥħɳзͬ˹޽н̸֮ǰȶ˵ "ޱ޼ʵߵһ𣮣һꡣǿǣ˵ɣôһ˵Ҳá"[14]

ģԻ֮

ڶԻ֮䣬ΪɱĴڱˡȤǣԴ⣬ͺսǡǡڡ˼Ү˹ʫѧ⡷УΪڶıʼУڡ˼Ү˹һ޶С ƪУͺս꾡ط˼Ү˹Ʒж˹̩дıϲ죬ֲ"Լ֮""֮"

"Լ֮"ж˹̩дȤDZ˶ĸܡζʲôȤͺսִָӵΥ߼ͬһԼһʶҲԼʶͬڣʶɥʧĶ"Ϊ˴ڲдж˹̩ϧƻ߽Ƕȵʵ"ڲж˹̩ûйϵģǹ¶ģ"οԼ֮ʵĮĵġ'ҪԼһ˻Լһ'"[15]

"֮"˼Ү˹дǹ¶ˡͺս֣˼Ү˹"Ҳ"ڲд˵ǰʹ༰Ḷ́۲졣ΪܳΪʶеʵսģʶûսģʶܴڹ¶״̬ģڲдж˹̩дʶ֮Ǹڵģ�"ڵ߼Ǹ"[16]

ˣ˼Ү˹ƷУijûж˹̩ƷôƵ˼Ү˹κɺͽãΪκα˸ܵʶְ¶ڵʶҪΪɺͽ"˼Ү˹Уϸ˵ڿȻû˵ĸʶе˼Ү˹ֻɱɱͷ񣬼һЩβɷֵʶΪ"[17]

壮 ͺս֣˼Ү˹Թ¶սҪʫѧϽµγһԷԤ·һĶԼٶۣȱͬʱֵҲڶﴦϣ"Ͽ˿ĶϿҿĶһжǹеģDZˣDZڶԻнС"[18]

ڻʶ̬ľ£˼Ү˹ĻֵͬܡеĻһһλʰijĬʹܹ˵˰˹¶�"ͺսݳʽԭǶԻ˼Ү˹С˵еȵλ"[19]ھǽԻֹ㲻ڡһֶ˼Ү˹Ľ˰ͺս˵ʫѧ޶й˼Ү˹ʱʮ"˼Ү˹ڰͺսռеĵλͺսΪ˼Ү˹ռеλһ"[20]

ˣ˹¶ƷС˵սʤ˹¶˸ʥᵽĸоǰڹ¶еһֱ޷ ˣͺսʶֿʽĶԻʹǿԽһִͶԻĿԽṹʹܰϵ໥ãתƵǵĸ߼УҪijͳһĺΨһĶʶӵе򣬻ijͳһɷָչľϣ"˼Ү˹ҿĶԻʡⲻһֳɵĴڣʾںγеĶֺеһֲɵĶԻ"[21]

ɴˣǿԵóۣͺս˼Ү˹ƷĿй¶Ի񻶡֮ϵﵽµʫѧ߶ȡ[22]

״̬Ϲ¶ڶԻԼʶ˵ʶӶͷԼǿӵʶ̬ϵŶڿ񻶻ĶԻдﵽļ¡ľԾµʶõģܱ˵ʵ뷨ʶڣһ¶ķʲô²ҪģҪ"ſ"ϨDDڶʶĽ㴦DDʲô˼Ү˹Ʒ¶ģǡǡǹ¶DDʱʶαԣвϵİҪ˵Ĺ°ֻ塣˱뽻ΪھζŽʣζԶſϣ˱봦ſϨDDִʵζֻͨԻɢ¶ͨԼִڡ

"µأһӣˣͻջ"

ʥԼ仰ڡټֵܡз֡еԢҲڴˣ˵ŶԶֻһӣֻнգù¶ȥ"ջ"ˣ澵IJǵˣÿһˣͶIJ˼Ү˹Լ龰ۣҲǰͺս龰ۡ ע͡
[1] ׹ͺս𡷣[]ȣˡ˶˹룬йѧ磬2000꣬313ҳ
[2] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹һ޶ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998ꡣ379ҳ
[3] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹ʫѧ⡷ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998꣬ڣҳ
[4] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹һ޶ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998ꡣ379ҳ
[5] ͬϡ
[6] ĻС˵ʵ۷ڣ޹ӦΪ½ṹ룬꣬꣬271-272ҳ
[7] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹һ޶ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998ꡣ378ҳ
[8] ĻС˵ʵ۷ڣ޹ӦΪ½ṹ룬꣬꣬277ҳ
[9] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹һ޶ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998ꡣ394ҳ
[10] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹ʫѧ⡷ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998꣬218ҳ
[11] ͬϡ
[12] ʮһʷӳѧ磬1999꣬350ҳ
[13] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹һ޶ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998ꡣ394ҳ
[14] ļͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹ʫѧ⡷ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998꣬238ҳ
[15] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹һ޶ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998ꡣ381-382ҳ
[16] ͬϣ383ҳ
[17] ͬϣ397ҳ
[18] 񣼰ͺսԪͿĻۣѧѧ1ʦ磬2000꣬295296ҳ
[19] ׹ͺս𡷣[]ȣˡ˶˹룬йѧ磬2000꣬328ҳ
[20] ͬϣ329ҳ
[21] ͺսȫ֮˼Ү˹һ޶ͺս״ʡ룬ӱ磬1998ꡣ395ҳ
[22]ʫѧڶʮͿʼʱָѧƷṹֶϵͳоνʫѧָǴС˵ǶȵĶԼ˵ʵȽǶȿóĽۡ


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