ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis


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ѵҲԴһ⿪ʼҵĿ𣿼һձõķֻһڲͬҡ֮ͬķ𣿴ѧҺ̻Եڶ϶ĻشͨǷӢԼǷˣǿɵĶһȻˡҪΪЩ֮ϴһЩͨķɹǿܵĻشǣһֳڹ淨ɱʵĹѧһķѧ(scientific jurist)ѲŴ

Ȼ෴Ľǻ˵ЩʲôأһУҵķһ֪ӦаҲͥռ֮ǵȻӦԤ̵ǮⷿҲܲƲԱ̳СЩ¼ͥռС̳ͬСǷΪûһDzġ֣ЩΪڸҵй֮䶼ᷢȻеķƶȶԣЩΪһijЩԡδͰ뿪֮ӦñһЩΪӦԱʶ·ΪǶͨĶ಻ɻȱijЩ棬ʲά˹һ⣬⸻ԣΪҲֹ֤ɵһ͡ ڹ۵ȻijϾҲƵĴָͬ˼Ƕ˫໥Ҷ̡ŷɶԵЩֻǽɡΪģЩڵǰǧһ棬ЩǿеĹԵ˹עⲢǷģҪںĹҺ֮ԡʵϣδͰ뿪ĹҲеԡ ڻƶ֮ϣͥռС̳ͬСһƶȲӻ¹βɴõҲܱ⣬Ϊ˴˴ϵеǶǰеĹ淶µġ޺ͼͥԱ˴νģҲȨҪܵءͬҪСߵIJƲҪתУͨġǵУǻһЩ֪ƶ಻ͬƶȣǻDzãͨĿΧһУǿЧرͻڲ˽ⷨĵҲˡԹɵIJָԺIJй淶EntscheidungsnormָԱδⰸ淶(Verwaltungsnorm)ִӦ͵ķѧ(practical jurist)ֻͨǰѡɡΪģΪȤĻճΪеķɡ

ܾһûзĵķƶ𣿻֮ǿɷѷƶΪֻɵģǻĴڷģڷij֮ǰʹijôĻشǿ϶ġ˶٢ġն־ͻᷢжԵȼ൱ӵӡ塢ˡ˺ūԼͥϵҲˣնռƵԼһЩںͬĽͼ̳зΪϸ۾ˣǾϵĽ˵κָǿͽ͵ġʵЩָڹϵն˵ķԺDzܴڵġҪμǻ򴫽ʿıѰδ뿪ķصָҲDzܵģͼͥеĵλ͵ȼƶԼͬͼ̳УͬʱǷûʲôϤķƥ䡣 ״ᴩڸݻڽ׶ΡȻǽעתЩĺڽ׶ΣȻʱۻ˴ķģЩIJܰе򡣡˷(Lex Salica Francorum)а˷˵ƶзġǣȷ˵ҪѸ÷Ͳ³ګ(Brunner)ڡʷ (Rechtsgeschichte)һᵽķ˵ķȽϵĻԶ׼ǣֻһСԡ˷÷ɵĴ󲿷ǽʷļϵĻ֮ϵġ༴Ǹʱ˵ķֻкСһֻڷСʱμûиı䡣ķҲ÷ͳ㡣ȷʵӵһ̶ֳȣûĸѧܹͨеķģרעڱķҲˡǺܷḻġĶ԰ڷоͺñǽСϪڳУɵDzֲϪˮһ̲ˮ󲿷ֵϪˮǸɲ˵ġ

Щ۵ǴӷĵķչʷеģԴڼ˲ڡѧԭ Grundlegung der Soziologie des Rechts ͡߼Juristische LogikСڷɲ֮ǰĽ׶޷Ժ׻ͨЭķʽƽؽͨѪ׸ķʽӡͨıɱˡܡǿ顢Ժթƭʼֽ׵ķԺѹ֮˱ƽ׵ĹʶڶӦܺ⳥δһ£ǾijijЩоԺְǸܺԲͨǰţͷĿܺʧͷĿ¼ԺƵİԶԭĿǰﷸ⳥ĿӦ൱Щͳijͷ򡰺ͽͨɹȨڴ϶͹Щֻdzͷնϰ߷巨Ҫdzͷǵݴ£һɱһ壬Ҫ֧ٽӣϹһֻ۾Ҫ֧ǮϹֻ۾Ҫ֧Ǯ͵һͷţҪ֧Ǯ͵һֻĸҪ֧Ǯдġʮͭ˷ݱ׶ΣЩͷϵijķԨԴ

ǷĵԭʼʽӳԶδʵĿꡣǵľڷչƲӣҵֹҵڷ٣ɴɵķɾȫȻͬڵ͡µڷǰĽҪٻѸľ˾о漰ڵ档ǰ˾оռͬʱе°ҪƵܵذͬһĽоо淶ȶԭЩͨоڷɷչоشӰ죻dzΪ˾о̵ķѧңżҲη٣dz䵱оɵߺ͹ʡַͨʽ˾о˷ģΪǰδо淶

ĵԭʼʽһ˾оÿķƶȶһҪԴ˾оĽ׶ΣִӢȽķɾ֡ͨȻǸ׶ΡÿӢͨķıǴӳǧӢ˾оġǷѧҲδֹڽռ˾оdzƶʹɵˣڴ˷ΧҪͨɷһḻ˷ġ˾оҪʵʹҪʵ֮֡Ȼһԭ泤źͷ򱻸ѻʵЩǴҪʵѧҽҪʵųӶƶձԵķġʮͭйڹʧɱ涨ģSi telum manu fugit magis quam jecitǹͶ֮ǰл䡣ȻԴ˾зԭʼĺۼǣѧҶԣ۱ǹ仹ʽɵĹʧⶼûʲôڷѧв˷ģκ˹ʧص˵ǣʱѧԤⷨԺоӷԺδоİġʵַͨʽµķľʹӷѧ֮в

ַѧҵķȡķɡڹ¹ȵأҲʮʮͣسʮĩڵ¹Ĵ󲿷ֵһֱʮ͡аڵ˾оƶΪݣǽڷѧҵЩţ䶰Ǵìܺ顣ˣΪ˹ҵЩҵĹ۵һͷǺȻһ¡ʵ۲ʿῪȺӡ񷨴ȫĵڶ֡ķѧѧ˵롷ѧҵժ¼ɵģڸУǰһµĵط֮ʮĩʮͣŷ޹ҵ߲󳾣Dzˣ³ʿͨط䡷µ䡷¹񷨵䡷ʿ񷨵䡷Լģ֮ϸ˵ΪЩǴġЩҪѾڵķѧҵķɡЩضķʼ͵δУɵĹҲͼҵһֽ취ĽǷѧҳϰԵǵҪǷѧҵķڴˣ˴ΪеķɶɹҵƶɵġķֱӲ᱾ϵͥϵռСͬͼ̳еԷʽֵģδڷСһ棬IJ˾о߲˾ѧҵķΪķѧȻЩйƶʽǾݶԣǼɷѧҵķɵġ

ǣDzɴ˶϶ڹʽƵĹҷǿԴƷɣͬʱΪЩṩһ׷ɹ򡣹ҷȰܷ漰ӡΪȫ͵¶ƶľйصķɣͬҲִḣᱣշķɡҷĴ󲿷ɵģָԱΪҲоָо ձΪǹϵġ񡣵ʵϹǵ˺ųΪߵġԭʼĹһľ»ң뷨ɺͷԺ޹ءŷԭʼĹδŷ޻֮ǰȷʵ̸Ħɡ˹·Ħū䡷͡ȷ䡷Щֻ˾ойɳķɺͷѧҵķĻ࣬вڽ̡¡ʽҽѧڴڻĿնпһרƾؽһΪƽػǧˣȴܽ»ƶȽܵŴǰҵڴᶼƶķӵеĹֻijضİսƽ˰ԼԼ͹ʹڵĻŵ䣬ǵһηضоݷо֮ȷ֣ơ͵նܵͳӰ졣ڴˣǷڵһҷǴӹŴǰ׷ݵԽԶַԽֱĺۼȻ޴档9ֶͣķ˹Wormsֶӵļ̳Ȩͨ˾ķʽö12ͣӢҪĬὫǻŮĸĸĻϷе׳ԱţNolumus mutare leges AngliaeDzϣıӢķɡģǵ̬ȲDzԸԭΪµıǣκǸʱᶼøԤԭ򡣹ٶĿʮһ͵ʮ͵Ӣʮ͵ķʮ͵ĵ־

ʵˡһDzģõЧʵʩΪĿģұɷٺԱɸʵʩǷٺĹԱһЩ壬Ƕǵĵ˺ѡٲģDz̫ǵʱ⣬ΪЩijԱ֪ƶҲͨһַʽȫռЩ˱ܹĶⲢƶڴˣҪв֮ʿȱЩ˲ŵģ͵ŷ޹ڴ󲿷ʱҲˡΪԭŷиҡ䣨Ƿ񻹴أ19Ҷܴķ١ϡһְԱֻ֪ȫ˹ѧҷɵġл﷢(Sheriat)յʵݸһ׽׹Ȼ֪ȥǡڿս֮俪ʼŷ޻ƶһ̷䣬ʹͬʱԼ·Ժ

ͨЩҪڡѧSoziologie des RechtsиΪϸIJǿؿ˵ʶȫģΪƶȡͥ֯ռСͬͼ̳еĴڶͨĶģΪΪƶġֻйһͨƶķIJƶɣ˾оγɵķɺͷѧҵķɵģDzͨȵĹͨºܽģڷٺͷѧҿܻ뷨֮Уص֯϶Ѿ͸֮в֮϶סһЩԽٵİУѧзַĵĿIJǻʵԶDZڷʵѧоֻΪ׵Ľȷһ׻ԭ֮ЩɰŻ뷨ѧ˼򡣹ڹҷͼͥķԤ˻ͼͥĴڡռзķľռƶȴǰõչйغͬķҲܲڶ鶨Э֮ǰйزƲ̳еĵһγ֮ʱǼ̳вƲѾˡβڰĹȥิˡΪ򲢷һɲ䣬ܹʱͨܡڲϵı䶯֮СɵƶʧˣµƶȲЩƶҲڲϵر仯ڵĻƶȺǰIJȫǺϡǻعʮǰ飬ͻᷢʱķ޹ϵ͸ĸŮ֮ĹϵڵȻͬڴִԼũҵĵطɵѱһȫͬƶȡִҪ͵Ľ˾ֹ˾ڰǰδţӦ⳹׸ı˳еơ֮˸ֲͬĺͬ˭ʮǰ֪ͶͬArbeitertarifvertragأ˹йͶͬʾʮǰ˭ǹҵͬеľأѼŷѧҡһǰ˭˵·ͬԼֵ˹ͼ沢أڶںʶֱ仯ij̶ȣǴӳԶֱ仯ͻͽġִȫͬͣDZǣЩ̶ܴ𽥷ģͨͨԲϸ΢ķʽʵֵġ ⣬µĻҲµͻµľͣҪµоµķġҪں̶ܴͨʽʵֵġǾº˼ģҪȻҪۻ㹻̶ȲʹתȻڴֹĴ󲿷ͨ˾оγɵķɺͷѧҵķɵķġʵͨӣΪٺͷѧҽ׵ԼִзֵķģƶǵӡǾ׵ĽƶĻ֮ϡǷѧҹıʣԴڡ߼һгֵ߽ƶעЩɰˣЩߴû˼ķɰо޷ͨƶġκκΰ汾ĸоķ鼴עСÿһص˾о͡ʵϣԺокܿܰһµķģƺǰƶ֮С ɴˣΪʲôܺеķɾԶ׼ˡֻύԺİ˾оѧҵдҲֻеЩ⡣ֻһСֵķڷԺľ׶нġദڷɹϵе˲뷨Ժ򽻵Ǽʹ飬ͨҲѺõķʽģΪ˴ЭΪѾǵţΪǵĺʱǮ߾ڵΪũʱͲҵ˲ϣڷͥϰ⵹һȨƵĶ֮֡⣬DZסֻͨ𾴵߷ԺоŻγɷģֻмٵһڷԺ󲿷ֶδ뷨ԺԷ޷Щ鵱вȷʵǣֱҲԸԼȥͨյ񡣴ҵĹ۵ЩͼģܴĹ۵ͨǼҪġ󣬱μǵǣĺȻڷɵķչƣΪصĴɾ׵˾оԼѧѧ߶Դ˵ĹעȻҪʱա ڴ˵ͬκηԵøҪ񷨵䡷ֻ涨һǽֹͬһǣڷʱڱֹṩͨĵķʽ֤֧Ȩû˻Ϊκͬǰմ涨ġԴˣԵĽ;Ƿߵͷûصķģһ򵥵ԭʱͬɵͼԺҲûгΪѧоĶڴͬڷ֮УһѹƶУһڷоĻ֮ϡֱ仯ԭеĵλԵҪ ĵIJɷ֡ĴҪִеĻӦͻĽЩͻᲢҴ󲿷Ѿҵ˾;ͬеͻҪ񵽹ұԤij̶ʱͨŵԹһ棬ֻӦʱܱʵʩ뷨صʧˣ뷨صͻٳ֣ôļûбȷϳҲͬ衣ɵĹУðҳԱķѾùʱˡǣֹ涨ͲðҵijԱΪǰ߼Ѿˣ߶ԴȻԱʵϣֻɹеͻʧˣɲõСڿʵۣνĿɣʱڣйص̷޷ڵ־ΪʱѾ

мƺԭͻȷ˵֪ĩڵ־ͺȷе˵ʿᷨ䡷ȫҸʵʩʮĩij̶ֱֳʮкڡͬŷ޺ѾЧķֻǷķ棬ǡ񷨵䡷ķ档IJпоٳƵǿܻóۣûһǺصģΪַʽġìֻDZµĿͷᵽģĻƶҪķ涼һµġǷִͥ֯ռСͬͼ̳С̶ֳϣƷɵڲɷɵᣬһķij̶ֳҲһᡣδԼ뿪ԭʼ֮䣬ߺִʲά֮ԵIJֲͬƵķDzܵġЩϸ΢IJ죬ǼʹЩϸ΢IJҲᵼ·ֲ޶խķΧڽСһڲỷͷɰСһļʹһΪģھеķУǰķȻΪɷٻѧҴ·ΪԴĩŷ޹ʵʩֿͨDzȷġͨһȫµķɣԾɵġȫΪܡǷзķҲDzʵġǷѧҸǵķƴԼǷȻ͸÷ɵƶԣѧҴӡ񷨵䡷ܵ

ֱѧƺֻǵعķġױ⣬ΪѧѾȫһʵѧ,ܹӦͷѧҡ١ʦ͹֤˵ҪǻֻԷĸȤǣǿģֻһʽһǷɵһµʽƶȶֵĴɣչԭʼУҲΪ᱾ȻϮĵ¡ԴˣѧҶԷĵԴʱЩȴƶеľءڡ߼һģѧֻùǵ·ƶȡͻѾγɵķġ ִѧѧѷɿһֹܡϸϽܰڷС뿼ϵеɣͬʱҲ뽫᳡֮СȻΪ˴ﵽĿģ޶ȵṹ֪ʶеƶȵ֪ʶƶЩṹƶȡԶǸܼƵͼˣǧڹȥһڸ֧һֱβڶԵرļأԣڶļҲһϵͳĹܹʾ㡢ȨͲѾͳѧԺɡбҪӴнųΪܹʾЩҲͬشĿѧʵüֵ ָоıҪԡЩܹע19146յѧԺЭ룬Ҫ191412µѧԺύҵĹڷѧģҲ˴Ը[1]ҵǣһսıֹҵĴ˴г̡Ȼ˸˵ǣԴʱҷµķѧоõͬе֧֡ѧ(Jorga)֯ĶŷоΪṩݽĻᡣƪݽ˺ڸ־Neamul RromanescԻЭ漴˹(Gusti)ڰ˾Ųе³̣Statutele Institutului Social Romanesc,˹أ1921ѧԺ

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[1] 191412£ѧԺЭ֥ӸٿϣڵĹ۵ڴ˴λWHڼܽᡣѧԺЭ14ļҳ4675Ӣ