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ӽı塪޵ٺṹʵ

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ɽѧѧϵڣɽ ̫ԭ 030006

Ҫ:ڵѧĻУӽɹ֮һ޵ٵʵ塣

޵ǴӷѧӪתṹͽѧġ޵ٰѧͬѧһѧȡѧ١ѧĻ롰ĻıΨ壬Ϊ20͵еǻƼִĻĻΨĸա˥䣬ƫڽѧȡʤȤΪΪṩ˸ݡ һ⹹ִʱ

ڵճ̸У۵ĻɬУΪǵĻʷһϵ¼IJйӽ(perspective)ռλáŶʶ۵ε˥ˣӽ(pe-rspectivism)Ϊ¶ң300ѧѧĵλṩ˻ᣬʹֶ֮ǿܲﵽµƣ߻ӹɵ֪ʶܹͨ۱ֶͨ䴴õΡںִǿԿֶԡӽǡһŵ׽֮ѧۼǵĿȼ⣨ΪԽ(creative interpretation)ζѧͳĽԸǽըҩá

ţӢֵ䡷Ϊӽָһۣ֪ʶɱƬģܵԽй۲ӽǵơȻһȱݣûע⵽ӽһʵĺִ÷е(Robert Solomon)ӽΪһصĹ۵㣬ʶϵ壬һʽΪֻдŶij͵ĴijһԵûණ[1]һǶԡţӢֵ䡷ĶĸĽָ˺ִӽں̶ܴϷϵĿԡ

濴еӽƵλƺĻѧֵڽʤ˱־˶ѧິǵĿʹЩֵͬС;йءĵõȷ

άʱʫ˺Ұŵ(Matthew Arnold)ѧĺ˵һѧȡڽ̳Ϊ֯ѧĻΪһϣŵţòڡ֪ʶ͡Ȼѧ֮ѡĻԥؽ֪ʶĽȻѧĽΪȺڴӲпıĿŵºѧƹооصĵλ[2]

ŵ֮100꣬ѧҸ(Northrop Frye)˶ѧһΪһɾ۵ĺʵĹ淶֧ĻУԹ侫ֵ

ѧȻΧ缴ǾסķĻ񣬵ֻѧſΪһдϣġ硱(home)ʫ˵Ȼǽʾ硣ѧӦĻģΪУκοĶġļȫ[3]

ִڿѧѧͬѧĹϵĿһʶԾʶΪݵġʱԺһܳʱڣѧƶڰѴ֪ʶغӰ칰øѧ䷽ֻҪʫġеľѧͿɵ֧֪ʶ򡣵ǽЩĻ϶Կѧ⵽߸ءԼͼ޵ձУġѧĽṹӰ죬٤Ĭġ뷽ġдѧȡΪʶ۵ȷԵı׼Ŀѧɡ߼ʵ֤۵;ĩ·ɵգƶ˺ִѧۣЩ۴Ƴ֪ʶ鹹Ժһ趨ʡ ڵѧĻУӽɹ֤֮һ޵(Richard Rorty)ʵ塣һ޵ͼԼĻ˵߸ijӦ֮ѧ۵ĶijӦһۺһ׻֪ʶԼԿΪѧ[4]

⹹(deconstruction)ṹ(Poststructuralism)Դʿѧ(Ferdinandde Saussure)һϵйʵڵĹϵ۵㡣ΪָһʣָͬôָĶ󣩵Ĺϵ־ԵϰߵϡĴ̺ͬĶ֮䲢ʵϵĹ۵ʵɵĹ۵㡣ܳһʱ֮󣬴ϰбΪӹɵţָָ֮ĹϵʣζŴʵֻͨDZ˴֮ʽϵ⣬ͨͬȻеĶʷе¼Ĺϵ⡣Եɾȷ涨ԵʵͬȫϵͳҪصIJͬһԵġУֻв졣ҪǣһζŴڲ֮Ŀ϶ϵУȴֻвûп϶ϵ

Թ۳崫ͳΪеáΪκε˵߶ʹõԵˣ෴֯ɵĹϵݣɺ֧ơѧά˹˹(Claude LeviStrause)ʹĽṹΪѧĿѧеҪ

1966꣬(Jacques Derrida)ά˹˹Ľṹ˼롣ΪṹζѧʽѧȻĻĻ֡ΪȻĻ֮ĶѧżȻġͨһװȻͬɡҲͬɡϡʷᡢȶʷ͸ǡݵĿṹ֤ȫԷ֮зġͬʵڵĹϵġԼ׳ɵġһԹۣṹ岹˵ڽԵķϷ֮⣬ģȷԺȶԵĵ㡣 ţṹ־˶սᡣζɥʧѧִѧΪ˶ϣ𣩡Ҳζζѧĵɥʧɣޱϲõؿ϶Ϸͱ仯޺϶һûдûûԴķ硣һûдķǵа룬ǵʷΪ¼ʷеÿһϷ ⹹ΪһֶԵĵ߸ԵϷĽ壬ÿΪЩͼƷļֵϵֲһ˺˷

ṹʵ

ȥʮ䣬޵ٴһ׿гɾ͵ķѧתΪѧĻ(literary culture)֧ߺβѧģڡѧȻ֮˵Ŀڴݻٶ߶ԡġΣĵijӦСѧ۵Ķݻٶ߶ԡ֪ʶΣ֪ʶijӦһ֡ۡ;СĶݻٶ߶ԿġѧΡصЩѧҵһԵĶǽԵġȻṩƶǼĴڷѧұԵŬ֮ϵģЩ˵˼빹ܣͼɡ[5]

ڡ19Ψ20ı塷һУ޵ٰѧͬѧһѧȡѧΪĺѧƣ缸ǰѧȡѧĵλһƪֱ˵⿪ʼϸͣЩѧңΨߣųûκζڡʱЩˣıߣΪı⣬ڡ޵ƣ˶Ȼѧȡ˵ж߶Ǿܰ˼ͬġδнʵȽϡ޵ΪΨı嶼ѿѧձ֤ǿԺ׵ԤͿȻ㡣ȿѧȡΨΪΪʹͬǵĴڵľ汣ϵıȴΪΪִʶǶıӦǶӦʹڿѧҡ[6]

ѧҺѧѧƺбĺ˵ΨߡǼųԣΪǵѧŵ˴ȻۡȻͬʱеĴڿ´ͳѬгɳģƺԡĻѧѧ֮İá磬׼ĸɹѧ⼸ʮͲĻ֮ıݷĻ֡ѧҳţѧѧ׼ȷԵ뾭ķ棬ЩѧƲûйƽԴֱѧΪǴһʹʵ֡ʵṩе뾫㡣ѧоŵļҪĶϵ۴ڡʥĿԡҮյ븴ʵ򣬶Щΰĸܶ౾ԵIJɻȱķһ֡ ྭȷ޵ٵνĿĶַ۵С޵ָ˾ж뷴˼жϡжͨڹͬġı׼֤˼жáѰǶԸԹĸ[7]жΪṩ˼ʵ֪ʶ˼жʹǵõǵ;ĹĿ档Ȼ¶ԾжϵøϸۣϾһ֪ʶ硣ܷ˼жϵĴԻԾɵĻþԶǣϾǻþ

ЩֿܱȽϴԣԽҺʵǵĺԡѧѧܸǹijϣƶľĻǵĻ

˼һ׶νηչ޵˴̼ԵĺĻش𡣼֮Ϊѧ棬ѧѧ20ı(textualism)ϣͼѧŵġѿѧѧΪѧ[8]ͳѧΪԣѧѧʷѧٿӵȷʵҪʱǾ֪ڡDZ򷢳ȥˣĺӣǵĸĸ￴ҡ޵ЩǷ߱ĸӦе˵ΣΪǵϷͻȻĵλ

޵ƺڰġϷʿǻıʡΪ׫дƪһŷۣͬһ˾Ϸرϲһʵѧⴴı䡣˵ġѧص㣺 ǿͨոµʫС˵򲻼֤۵ķȡóɹ[9]޵Ϊرѧ˶ij֣ϵĿյʫ豻µĴԽȡʫǼģģǽģڽжԻΪԡԡ˵ʫ費Ƿһֽһ塱һֽɣġ塱DZƷ޵ٵʵṹͼʽУⴴĽǸĻŬһ·ʽ

޵Ҫһ۵壺ҪĶŵ⣬ʹõ㡣Ȼƣǰ19ѧΨ20ѧıһŦ19֮ӿڸ˼뷢չѧΨ˼˶⵽޿صƻ֮ĩѧһֱǡʱϣֻ䲢ҫۿѧŵơ[10]

ζѧΨõյı壬ζѧΨҪŲѧĻѧԼԿѧھϵȵλȷˡѧĻΪſѧЧõһ֡ڸ֤κﶼͨµ̸۶仯Ӷ˵ڶ޵ٵ˵һɺղķʿģǷΪʵϵĸǽ̵˵еǻƼDzδ˵Խʾصܣ˵µ̸ʽǵõҪġ֡ʵ塱һµµζѧΨ塣Ķ֮ڳ׷ѧѧͬеķĸ[11]

޵ٰı廮Ϊࣺǿġı߾Ŭģ¿ѧ

һ⿪룬ѰҡһԡǿıֻԼṩı⣬ЩƹʦѧԼĹ⣺

ҽӶҪ£[12]ڷ˽ʾϣ֮ڷ˷޵ν㡱ϣ֮ǿı߰ĶǻƼʽĶ˼Ϊ˻ȡҪģԱı

ܰӦԣĶκ㡪ѧɵģѧҵĻϵĻߵġʹ߽ѺʧֶεҪ

Ӹ濴ѧкṹķչͬĻĽƽеġƵĻʹ谭ҿһгŵڶʲôҳϡ޵ٰǻƣһʹ˿µ̸ʽΰǵһָЧ(life-effectiveness)׼˼롣޵˵ִ֪ʶӱʣӦʹ֮ģһаšߵ

ִĺͺִ˼ҾܾĹǵԸָ֮ʵڣҲָеʵڡһܳͬӢΪΪִĶعйءҺۼƺӭȻ֮еྫ컯ȻʷäĿDzעĿģôǾͿ԰ԼӢͬԼΧжʿԼһ̶ȵ˷ܻø磬ͻΪа硣

õĻ

ӽ塱ִ塱͡ЧĻЩƣijָDzͬʵڡ֮Ų𣬵ǶǵһġĻסЩͬʾһֶصʵ壬Ե;ԾʾϷΪεĹߵʵƴʽָνԴڸ˵뼯־רΪȨߺƷгĹߵԡһ֡͵ġĻУκιͬ(relevance)(marketability)ȣضǵڶλġ

Դ˶ɱκһƲǽҵDZɾ͵Ľ͡ڿ¡ʩպͰĬʱֶҵӲûвΪʫ˺ΪǵԺʶȷԵıݡ1937꣬Ĭڹ˵ŴԡʶԼִԡоȻѾΪһԡ˵ͱһ侲ÿһ˵УйijԴȪ

ִʶΪ֮вӵԷͲǼ¼еĿ;ͱΪԸֶδﵽڡԵżȻԡУ޵дΪǰǶģһһʱŲǸʱ类ӵԵĴߵĴ졣ϵǵ߸˹ϵ۽硣߸˹ʹ˵һֻ룺֧ʵڡ޵ٰѺִĶر־һ֣Ժ־֮ⲢʲôȨͳ硣Ϊ18ڸҺʫ˷ֻӽĺִؿκζֻҪ¼棬ԱΪҪôҪôҪôҪҪô޹ؽҪҪôҪôá[13]

ֻʵʶֻЩԷ仯Ա㲻˵ԼڻӦ˵ˣŻΪࡱȻ20ĩһĹ滮޵ٱøļߡdzϲԵУװǻƵͼ˵Էӳij֡Ϊ

һһ᣺⣬ûбĿġʹʫ˺͸ұ⣬ûбĿģͨͨΪ֤Ա˸ѡһǿҵʫ˺͸ΪӢ۵ᣬΪǵӣӵӵеĵ£˵˵ĻΪӽϵ۵־˵ԣΪȥʱijЩʫ˺͸˵ȥ˵[14]᲼(Niebuhr)ڼ·˵ıˡ˵ʱ֤̽ԺͿԣʥͳͬʱҲϵ־ʾӽĻ۵㿴ֻܱչһ̸۷䡢ϵۡĩеȴռͳελķʽʱͱһ״ʻ㣬ʼ̸һµĴʻ㣬ԸЧ׷Ҹıһ洦⡱һ棬˵ıʺϵ۵ıʡǣķʽԵģǡǡƣʵϣǹЩĿɲֻ꣬˽[15]

޵ţйԣǻ̵ͳѧ˵ǵѿľ壬ɱ˸еȻζ³Ϊϰ һʱ䣬ǸеҪݴڲɼ֮еijЩ17Ϳʼͼ԰氮ϵۣѿѧ統׼Դ18ĩҶʼͼ԰Ҵ氮ѧԼľĻʫʣΪһ׼ԡ³Ų(Blumenberg)ɡºʹάɭͬе˼·ߴʹҳԴﵽһֹ۵㣺DzκζDzκζ׼ԣǰκζǵԣǵʶǵĹͬ塪ʱ仯IJ[16]޵ٵļżȻԵԶֻܷӳҳ˽˺ͱıβвңã͵DZģǸԼ˽Ҫ硣

ڡżȻԡ׺ԡУ޵дȤζѧļȶγеµ㣨ģӦΰ֮ľ[17]һעЧʵֵĻУһûбȲȷԵɸߵ˼ĻУʥºܱܿΪģӽƺӦˡΰ ں̶ܴϣ˵ʩպ͵ʷһֱŬ˹ŵɯ͵ѿֶνеʶ۸ڵб뻯˵ƵңͬڵѿͳңҪִӽǺͽ͵Դʱ̶ͬ

ѧȫʷڻˣʹȥΪչͽŵӢ۹£ĿѳΪҵĵǰȥ֮ȨйأΪʹǰɳΪܣڽʾʵбڰһǡĬʷҷչԢԣһǺڸѧʷԼϵдﵽս۵ķ档ĬͺڸԤʾ˺ִӽ塣Ժִӽ˵ȥԶȨ ޵ΪDzӦǵʷ෴Ӧѭɵİ֮Ѱο塪ͨԽ״ͨΪԼķʽԼҵ͵ĴѰο[18]޵ٰѡ桱һֽΪ

ѿѰϵ۴ںʥԵӹɵ֤һֱ˶ʱѧ⣬˶һ㻶ӭܹķǼΪģԹĴͳɣ˶ȴձġ⵼¶ϵ۴ڵ֤ѰһѰԿ·ϴ֤ĿԶա֮ͼͨҵֱ۵ѰԴȪİ취ϵۺĵλӢʫǡۼҺ͵¹ʩնͼΪлṩѰʱǵֲڶԲ谭ڴõľ֮һԵ ȥ˥䣬Ů˵ȷԼֻʣ±ҵIJࡣִҶȥʶҡ

ڵУҵ(desire)ֱٱͬﱾлϡ෴Щ˵һϵ۵Ľеĸͺִ˵ȷԵΩһԴȪƫ(preference)ӽڽеʤ˵Ȥ(whimsy)(willfulness)ΪΪṩ˽еĻ

α༭κ

Уߡϼ

οס

[1]Solomon.Continental Philosophy Since 1750:The Rise andFallof the Self[M].Oxford:Oxford University Press,1988.116.

[2]Arnold.The Function of Criticism at the Present Time[A].Proseof the Victorian Period[C],440-441.

[3]Frye.The Educated Imagination[M].Bloomington:Indiana U-niversity Press,1964.3233.

[4]޵١ѧȻ֮[M].Ϻ꣬1987.4.

[5]޵١ѧȻ֮[M].Ϻ꣬1987.4.

[6]Rorty.Nineteenth Century Idealism and Twentieth-CenturyTextualism-Consequences of Pragmatism[M].Minneapolis:Universi-tyof Minnesota Press,1982.

139140.

[7]Rorty.Nineteenth Century Idealism and Twentieth-CenturyTextualism-Consequences of Pragmatism[M].Minneapolis:Universi-tyof Minnesota Press,1982.

143.

[8]Rorty.Nineteenth Century Idealism and Twentieth-CenturyTextualism-Consequences of Pragmatism[M].Minneapolis:Universi-tyof Minnesota Press,1982.

141.

[9]Rorty.Nineteenth Century Idealism and Twentieth-CenturyTextualism-Consequences of Pragmatism[M].Minneapolis:Universi-tyof Minnesota Press,1982.

142.

[10]Rorty.Nineteenth Century Idealism and Twentieth-Centu-ry Textualism-Consequences of Pragmatism[M].Minneapolis:Unive-rsityof Minnesota Press,1982.147.

[11]Rorty.Nineteenth Century Idealism and Twentieth-Centu-ry Textualism-Consequences of Pragmatism[M].Minneapolis:Unive-rsityof Minnesota Press,1982.149151.

[12]Rorty.Nineteenth Century Idealism and Twentieth-Centu-ry Textualism-Consequences of Pragmatism[M].Minneapolis:Unive-rsityof Minnesota Press,1982.152153.

[13]Rorty.Contingency,Irony,and Solidridge[M].Cambridge:C-ambridge UniversityPress,1989.7.

[14]Rorty.Contingency,Irony,and Solidridge[M].Cambridge:C-ambridge UniversityPress,1989.6061.

[15]Rorty.Contingency,Irony,and Solidridge[M].Cambridge:C-ambridge UniversityPress,1989.8.

[16]Rorty.Contingency,Irony,and Solidridge[M].Cambridge:C-ambridge UniversityPress,1989.22.

[17]Rorty.Contingency,Irony,and Solidridge[M].Cambridge:C-ambridge UniversityPress,1989.9.

[18]Rorty.Contingency,Irony,and Solidridge[M].Cambridge:C-ambridge UniversityPress,1989.27.

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