DZؽǵɡ 

Ĺͬ塷һ¡

ɵϿˣɭ



Ϊְ־֮߳ʷ



أ֮⡷Illuminations





Ǵ֮ʼ

֮Ӣˣ

ڼʵǿ֮Уŭ

ŨױIJе˺ո֮䣺

ǷܵѸѧ乭

ǵСţ˵磺

һֻѪɳ

ûû壬û

ѪϵҺ

ѷ˺͵˵Ľڡ

֦ҶïŮ踸ĸ֮

ӽ֮Ӵ塣

Żһڵȷ˵մ

Ӣ֮Ѫ






¼ԡڣDaniel Defoe

ӢˡThe True-Born Englishman





Ҳδע⣬Ȼ˼˼˶ʷһθת͡Խϡկй֮սתԵ⼸սʷҪԣΪڼ޿ɵĶȨ֮緢սͬʱҲΪսûκһʹ˼۹۵绤Щ¾Ȼǻǿܴӡ۹塹򡸺塹֮ĽǶȣҪӸƷζڹ1969ձ߽ͻԼԵ¹19531956ݿˣ1968Ͱ1980ȹľ¸ԤǣҲ룬û˻Щϰ뵺ϷԳʲôϵ



Խ197812Լ19791¶Լկռ죬һһ˼Ȩһ˼ȨĴģͳսע 1ôй792¹ԽѸȷֻЩŲɵ˲ŸҴ˵ 20 ͼļ棬κδģĹʳͻл񹲺͹˵Сˣվͬһߡ˭ұ֤˹һ첻ͰǴЩͼʹӶŷפسĸӦһ룬1945ڵĺڶ̶Ϸֹ˼Ȩ֮䱬װͻ



˼һʵڶսᷢÿһγɹĸл񹲺͹Խ干͹ȵȣҽ綨ģЩʵֲһӸǰĹȥ̳жռ֮С෴ģʹе߼ȴһټĹͬԣǾܾΪʵʾ 19 ǰҵļ̳ˣҲ 21 ͹ע 2



ˣ˹˵˼˶˼Ĺңʽʵ϶б˶ȨҲת ûκʵʾƲȥע 3ϣȫȷġȻ򲢷ֻ֮ڶѡϹ궼µĻԱȥΪѾȫȹ̵ġ塹ȴپһЩΡ壨sub-nationalismsսЩ˶Ȼôֵһ죬ǽҪȥμ¡ʵǰԤԽҪġʱս᡹ңңڡʵϣԣnation-nessʱձϷԵļֵ



ǣʵģôνЩʵһγھϷ硵ĹNation壩nationalityע 4nationalism壩⼸ʺ֮Խ綨Ƕã۶֮ԷˡѾִ緢޴ӰˣȻʵʳɶԱȵǣ˵ȴԵָݣ٣Hugh Seton-WatsonλӢáһƷߣҲʷѧѧļ̳ˣ˵ع۲ұȵõһۣҲ˵Ǹ޷Ϊһѧġ壻Ȼǰڣȴһֱע 5



ķףTom Nairnеߵı⡷The Break-up of BritainⲿƷߣͬʱҲǹģδضõ˼ʷѧѧͳĴˣ̹׵ۣ۴˼ʷԵĴʧܡע 6ȻıҲЩ󵼣ΪǻΪλĺǣ˼ȷʵڶԾ׷ѰһֻۣźŬʧܰˡȽ׼ȷ˵Ӧǣ˼۶ԣѾ֤һ˲쳣󣻲ңˣ˼۳Թ岻ᣬԸӡȻǸν˼ƪĶ1848IJУȻû˵ǸؼԵݴʵ壺Ȼÿҵ޲׼ȴԼģits ownʲ׼֮Ĺϵע 7͡ʲ׼national bourgeoisieһϵʱ䣬ȴûشϺ壩ݴʵԣϵ綨ʲ׼һԵĽ׼ôΪʲôضֵʲ׼Ҫģ



Ŀ춳Զ쳣󡹣һȽڹ͡ҾãĴϣ˼۶Ϊһ֡ʽġ󡹵ŬԶò԰ؽ轫ĽǶȣһָСᾫ񡹵ķϣע 8ҵоǣnationalityߣ˻ʹܹһۣԣnation-nessԼ壬һ͵Ļcultural artefactsҪʵЩDZ˼ʷֵģǵʱв仯ԼΪν̵ܹϵԡҽ᳢֤Щ֮ 18 ĩע 9ʵǴָԶʷӵġ᡹ԷȡһȻһǾͱġģʽmodulardzһԾ״̬£ǿԱֲɫɫ򣬿ͬɫɫĸκʶ̬ϣҲԱЩաҲͼ˵ΪʲôЩĻ֮顣







ڴ֮ǰƺӦȼ̵ؿһ¡塹ҸһеĶ塣۾ۼҸеŭ󣺣һʷѧеĿ͹۵ִ۵ĹԡΪĻʽձԣִÿˣӵһԱһܹӦãҽӵһԱ֣ھ޿ɾԣ磬ϣԱ֣ն屾Ƕصģsui generisڡϡѧϵƶ벻ͳһ֮ʹ岻ͬǣδԼΰ˼ңûĻʿHobbesпά˼Τ֡նԡþ徫ܹʹöԵ֪ʶӶijɵ̬ȡͺ񵱸ʷ̹Gertrude Stein԰¿Oaklandʱǻܿ½˵һһĵطthere is "no there there".ע10ʹôͬѧҲǻд塻ִʷչϵIJ̬ͬ˥֮춸һIJɱ⣻ȴ˥ƵıϵԣҲͬ˻ɴ֢DZܣ˻DZǸԴϴͬٵ֮Уɴ֢ɲңڶҩҽġע11



һֵ춣Ȼѡ䡹һרʣȴԾذ嵱רʣΪһضרݵĴʵ壬ȻѡΪһʶ̬ע⣬ÿ˶䣬ô䡹ֻһַԵıѡ룬ǰ嵱ѪԵϵkinshipڽ̡religionĸҪΪ塹򡸷˹塹֮ʶ̬ӦûñȽһ㡣



ѭѧľŶµĽ綨һιͬ ңDZΪ޵ģlimitedͬʱҲȨĹͬ塣



ΪʹСijԱҲʶǴͬ˵ǣȻ໥ȴÿһλԱСע12дȻıÿ˶ӵ๲ͬͬʱÿҲ顣ʱʵһŶķʽָ浽񡣵ǶɣGellnerж岻ʶľѣ巢ԭڵ塣ע13ʱǴֱִһƵ۵㡣ǣǶȱǣ̫еָʵαװڼ֮£ѷinventionͬ춡졹fabrication͡١falsityǡ񡹣imaginging롸졹creationڴ£ʾСʵĹͬڣ壬ЩʵĹͬиԽĵλʵϣбȳԱ֮Ӵԭʼ󣨻ִҲڣһйͬ嶼ġͬĹͬĻǵ٣ʵԣDZķʽצ۵Ĵ֪ǺʹδıȻֹԣ̴ͬӣclientshipһ㣬ķʽġֱǰצﵱлûܹʾ᡹ۡҲѾȨʱķһ׼DZһ׼ȻǷdz¡ע14춡˭X⣬Ĵ𰸲ǡ׼һԱǡXصYоIJߡZ̴ӡ



屻Ϊ޵ Ϊʹ壬ǻʮڸˣǵı߽磬ȻǿɱģҲ޵ġûκһԼΪͬȫࡣȻijЩʱͽȷʵп򽫳Ϊһŷ̵Ȼʹ춾ҲЩͽһгһգȫ඼ΪһԱ



屻ΪȨ Ϊʱ˶ڻٻ͵ġײƵĻʳĺϷԡ巢չ춳֮ʱʷպòһ׶Σ׶ʹձڽϵ׷ߣҲɱرҪڽ̶Ԫ壬ÿһı֧Χ֮ҲвһµʵΪɵģңϵ۹Ͻ£ֱӵɡɵij߶ȣɵ磬Ȩҡᣬ屻Ϊһͬ ΪÿڲܴձIJƽDZΪһ̵ģƽȵͬ־գѰϵڹȥУʹ԰ƵǸԸΪ壬޵ȥɱݸ



Ȼ֮䣬Щʹֱĺ⣺ʲôԭʹֻжʷͣģС˵Ȼܹ˾޴ţֻ̽ĻԴDzпܿʼ⡣







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1ѡʽֻǿսĹģ̬Ҫ׷Ϊ˱ܵ⣬ӦҪ˵197812µԴ׷ݵ1971˶֮װͻ19774֮ᣬɼկ˷Խ漴ı߽ͻжĹģͷΧ󣬲197712߳ԽϵĴģ֡ȻЩͻжĿĶҪƷзȨռƬ漰IJҲܺ197812IJȡⳡս˼ۣμڵ£Stophen P. HederկԽϳͻThe Kampuchean-Vietnamese Conflict춰أDavid W.P. Elliot࣬ڶϰ뵺ͻThe Third Indo China Conflict21-67ҳᣮأAnthony BarnettȨ֮ͻԽϡInter-Communist conflictsand Vietnamѧ߹ػڿButtetin of ConcernedAsian Scholars2-9ҳԼɣ˹Laura SummersᣮӦԼկΪΪܵս塵In Mattersof War and Socialism Anthony Barnett would Shame or Honor Kampuchea TooMuchǰ飬10-18ҳ



2ⷽǷƵϺͬˣӦԼֵױʾǸ壺е 壿



3ˣ˹춡еߵı⡷һ֮ijЩʡ˼Some Reflection on "The Break-up of Britain"ۡ105ţ19779£13ҳ



4עݡţӢǵ䡷The Oxford English Dictionary, nationality һмҪ壺

ʻԸ

У

һضʵضңStateĹ֣߽綨ֵķɹϵֹϵ漰˸˶ԹҵЧҶԸ֮

ΪһķֱĴڣĶ

һ壻һȺDZڵģϵpeopleһȺ壨ethnicgroupߵ˽⣬ͨѧ֮жԿ⼸÷ͨĶ⣬ȻţӢǵnation壩stateңֵ壬ͨϣ־áԴѾ֣߲ȡľ뷨IJԡ



5μġҡ5ҳΪӡ



6μġִ˹The Modern Janus ۡ 94197511-12ºţ3ҳƪıֻδĵڡеߵı⡷Ϊĵھ£329-63ҳ



7˼˹Karl Marx and Frederich EngelsԡThe Communist ManifestoڡѡSelected Worksһᣬ45ҳбΪӡκ۵ע͵УȻӦöҪĶǰơע1961ġ˼˹ȫľ֮ԡб£ÿһ޲׼ȵȻӦô򵹱ʲ׼478ҳ



8עɽ׿ܣPtolemy of AlexandriaԪ͵İѧңԪ150 Almagest ԵΪĵۡϵԽԽѧֶβܽͷ˶õոʱʱѾγһӲعصĸȴȻ׼ȷ˵۲λáԴһѧҸᣨNicolausCopernicus 1473-1543Ķƪָ Commentariolus1514һ׳нĽԵΪĵԤ裬һ̫Ϊĵϵԡܡ˼ĴپʵصսʱֻӶ޵Բ˵Ϊ֮ƣҪԸľ񣬳Ԥ裬³



9簬ܣAira Kemilainen⵽ģѧԺо֮˹׶Hans KohnͿ٣˹CarltonHayesŷӦΪ֮ųضҵһЩʶ̬⣬ǵĽ۴δصɹҲ۲쵽塹Ҫ 19 Ͳű㷺ձʹá磬δںܶ׼ 19 ʹǵ䵱СȻǵ˹ԡnationsIJƸֻۣۣ֮ʵ᡹򡸹ҡ˼ѡܣ塷Nationalism103348-49ҳ



10ע"There is no there there"仰ָǸط˹ģʵģȱʵģûкĵġ ŮҸʷ̹Gertrude Stein, 1874-19461937Ʒ ÿ˵ԴEverybody"s Autobiography֮¿䡣ʷ̹Ůʱڱݵİ¿;ɽɽɹģס裬֮Ϊ侫ϵĹ硣ڡ裬Paris France , 1940һУʷ̹ĵڶңģҵĹң?quot;it is not real but it is really there."Խ仰ǰһԱ μʷ̹裬New York: Liveright, 19702ҳ



11еߵı⡷359ҳ



12Ƚ٣ҡNations and States5ҳ˵ľǵһͬڲΪڶһȺΪԼγһ壬ֵ߱ݷѾγһʱһʹˡ



13ϣErnest RenanQu"est-ce qu"une nation춡ȫOeuvres Completesһᣬ892ҳֽ˵з񶼱Ѿʥ 13 ͷϷɱ¼ڷʮܹṩԴ춷˵֤




14磬˹Ϊˡ޲˵1789ʱռȫǧ˿еʮ֮ࡣμġThe Age of Revolution78ҳȻпھȨ֮ͳͼ