ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


п֮Է֤

Evelire T. Feteris


8.1

пֵ̽Ҫ編ɲþ֮Ĺ淶ԳԵķʽ֤п淶Գ֤̿ʵ̸ʵ˵ɲþ֤Ϊ˵ ַ֧ɹ淶ķ̸ձʵ˵ضʽԷ֤Ӧһۡ

ڰпþ˵Ľôһ淶ԳʵĻɽܵġڷɲþ֤ĺȡ֤ѭijƷʡΪ淶ԳĿɽijֳأΪۡ

ʵ˵һУ򱻾ȷش衣Щ淶Գ֤ĸȻձʵ˵Ĺܱ֤ʶ˵ҪĹʶôҪһרŵ

ڡ֤ۣΪ֤۵˵ۡ1989һУпձʵ˵ۺͷ˵ۡĵԭ1978ڸеĵһ֣пձʵ˵ۡڵһУ̽˹ڹ淶֤ۣҶԵ·ѧ˹ɭάظ˹̹˹ڶͼͰݶ˹ʶۡʸѧ(Erlangen School)ʵ̸ۺ׶֤۵ȼڵڶУоһϵйʽձʵ˵ۡڵ֣пķ֤ۣձʽڷҪ

ںУпϸо䷨֤۵ĸ֡밢º˺дһƪ£1981У˷۵Ļѧڰпķۡµķɽۺ˵ķת֮ҵϵУп198019811990a1990bп̽˸۵ȣ磬ɲþ߼ͷ֤ijҪ

ǰпĻ⡣ҽձʵ˵ۼ뷨֤֤Ĺϵ8.2ڽʵ˵һۣ8.3۷֤ۣ8.4֮Ĺϵ8.5ڽڷ۷֤Ҫء

8.2ձʵ˵

ձʵ˵۰һʽ

8.2.1ձʵ˵Ĺ

һǻԴ漰淶ԳʵԻȷԵԽҪĻһì߼һֱʽ

1.1κһ˵߾ìܡ

ڶԴΪۣǿ˵һ

1.2κһ˵ֻ䱾ŵĶ

ʣµӦڱʹã

1.3κһ˵ߣνFӦڶaʱҲܹFӦصaͬһϡ

1.3ҪʹõһԣԼ޶ϡ淶ԱɻںڶĿձ黯ԭһԹ涨

1.3κ˵ֻļֵжϻжţصʱȫͬʱҲͬȫͬš

14ʹģԣ

1.4ͬ˵߲òͬͬı

һڰʸѧɵԹͨ(Vernunftprinzip)ԭָ˵ӦкϺԵĺ⡣Եʹϴۣ˵Եһ÷ϴﵽ ֺͨпνԷ˵á

ڵڶԹУ˵ԵҪ

һ򣬼ձ֤򡱽ŵΪϣָijһŵбҪ֤Ҫ󲻽Ӧ⣬ӦС

2κһ˵߱Ӧ˵ŵݼ֤ܾٳ֤ԼȨܾ֤

Թڹ˹˵龰ϡ˹Ϊ˵߲μ̸ʱ˵龰ġ

2.1κһܹ˵ߣμ˵

2.2aκ˾κɡ

bκ˾˵κš

cκ˾̬ȡԸ

2.3κ˵߾ܵ˵ڻ˵κǿ谭޷ʹڣ2.1ͣ2.2ȷȨ

п֣˵2.3һ˵򣬵˵ʵ֣2.1ͣ2.2

֤εķ򡣸ݿձ黯ԭһAͬһBͬԴ˵߸֤Ρ

3.1κijAijBԴߣɽ֤

2涨ÿһ˵߱Ӧ˵ŵݸɣԮһ֤ԼȨܾṩ֤Ϊ⣬пһ׶ԭ(principle of inertia)֮ϵĹ򣬴ԭָһѱܵĹ۵ûгɵ²ӦӦأ

3.2κ۱淶˱˵ôɡ

Ϊ֤εķΧ裺

3.3Ѿߣֻеַ֤ʱһ

ĸֹ޹صij

3.4κ۱о̬ȡԸǰ޹صŻ˵ˣӦҪ֤ԼIJ廰

IJǹ򣬶ʵ˵мֵж֤صʽƵĹ淶Գsingular normative statement֤ʽ֤Ļʽǣ

4G
R
N
淶ԳNͨԮRγRӦijɣGõ֤һʽλʽ(sub-forms)

(4.1)T
R
N

УNͨRһӦT漰ijˡijΪ̬ʣŵõ֤

4.2 F
R
N

УNͨһijֺӦĻƵĹRԼͨЩţFõ֤

TDzFǷΪ棬ԼFǷ۱еΪϣһ۱(theoretical discussion)RҲܳΪ۱Ķ󡣹RȿͨٳһRһţFr֤

4.3 Fr
R
R

ΣΪ֤һ򣬿뱻TһR

4.4T
R
R

4.3ͣ4.4Ҳǻʽ4λʽ

ͬʽ֤Уڲͬʽ֤УͬĹܲͬġݵĽЩ£ͱһ֤ȡΪ֤Ĺ򱻳ΪȹPriority Rule

һЩȹ涨ijЩһӦλ

4.5RiPRKRiPR K

һЩȹ涨ijЩֻضC²űλ

4.6RiPRKCͣRiPR KC

Ӧأȹͨʽ4.3ͣ4.4֤

Ϊʽ涨֤ݣ֤Բ䣺

5.1.1κ淶Գˣ뵱ڵ֮ʱҲܴܽԤ֮֮䶯Ľ

5.1.2κιɶκ䶯ĽΪ˽ܡ

5.1.3κι빫Ҿձ̵ܽԡ

һںڶĹ涨ԭprinciple of prescriptivityڶڹ˹Ŀձ黯ԭָֻевμͬʱп˵龰³ֶԹ淶Ĺʶ6.2ڣһ۹˹Ŀձ黯ԭĸڰݶձ̵ܽԣuniversal teachabilityԭ򡣰ݶ1958ΪָÿˣӦձ̵ܽģǵ岻ܵġ岻ܵ磺ֻ˵Щ㲻ʵ顱

֤򲢲ܱ֤ԹʶĴɡȻı֤ܣһЩǿԹʶĿԡᯡʩΤĬ1973˹1973aƵɣcritical genesisйصһЩ򣬼ڹ¹ϵǷ˵龰һĹǣ

5.2.1˵ߵĵݵĵ¹򣬱ܾеġʷļ顣֮һʱõ¹޷ļ飺

aõ¹ԭȻ֤֮ʧȥ֤֮

bõ¹ԭȼδ֤֮Ҳδгֵġµ֤

淶ᣭʷʷļ飬Ӧͨ淶Թ۵֮ʷ䣺

5.2.2˵ߵĵݵĵ¹򣬱ܾ˷ʷļ顣ijһIJýijЩ޷֤ữʱù޷ļ顣

пϣУʲôǡ޷֤ữδע⵽ữʹصĸ˶Ը򲻿ܲ˵ǿ϶޷֤

һ֤Ҫʵ۱ʵпʵֵĽ

5.3뿼ʵγɵĿʵֽޡ

ɹʹʵ˵ʱת˵ʽΪܣԵϵʵ⣨ǺԤ⣩⣨رǹͨ⣩Լʵ˵漰Խ

6.1κ˵κʱ򶼿תۣģ˵

6.2κ˵κʱ򶼿תԷ˵

6.3κ˵κʱ򶼿˵۵˵

ۣģ˵ͼʵ⣬ǹںԤ⡣Է˵ͼ⣬ǹͨ⡣˵۵˵Ҫشйʵ˵⡣

ձʵ˵Ĺ򲢲֤ÿ϶ܴɺÿһɵĺⶼվԵġɳġԭ֮һԹ2.12.3ֵܲʵ֡ڶԭIJ貢ǶȷԭÿһҪʷġ˿ɸıĹ淶ǰ

ȻβɻųijЩ˵أһЩ涨ijЩ淶ԳΪ۱֮롱һЩijЩ淶ԳΪ۱֮ܡų磬ͨʩūķɵλȫųijЩ˲μ˵һ˵ܵĽ

ָп۵ȱ֮һܱ֤һսпΪ֤ΨһԵʵǡ۵һơΪӦߣп1991ע⵽˵龰½۱ȱ龰ʵ۱ֿ ۱УʵûʱƺӰ˵ơ÷dzʵռгֵϢܹ׼ɫҲ۱ʵʵ۱Уȴϵȷ𰸡ʵ۱УҪйȷԵţΨһȷǷܵ⣩֤塣

ͨʵⲻֻһȷ𰸣ձʵ۱ʵ۱ݵĹ淶ԳNͷNNͷNֲͬļֵϵ֤ʱֻҪ֧Nַ֧NIJ˵֤ûìܣпֺܳԲԼԽֹ֤ų˲ͬ˵߲ݵļֵϵζţˣݶԲݵĽ˵Ψһһȷʱijһضֵϵ֤ijǿԽܵĿԡ

Щ򲻱֤ΨһһȷĽ۶ʵ۱粢áΪЩ򹹳˶ճз۱۵ĹߣԣǿֹԵΪ

8.2.2ʵԭ

ձʵ˵ֲϵĺԡһϣʵԵһ۵㡣ڵڶϣͨʵԵԭһģĹ۵õ˸ȷĽ͡ϣģͳ໥ìܵԭ򱻹涨Ͻһϵ֮С

ձʵ˵۽ڵڶԭϣԡЧԡɼԡڹԡձ黯ԼԭЩԭ򹹳ǰһ۵ĹĻЩԭЩǶӦġһԭּ֧ͬأһҲԱԭ֧֡

ìҪĵһ1.1ԭϡ1.31.3Ҫ˵ʹһֱͬķʽʹõıҲͣ4.5ͣ4.6ڽԭ֮ijͻҲһԭľ巴ӳԭ֧ʵ˵ͷ˵6.2ĵɹһȡ

ЧԭŽáճ÷Ҫ1.4˽ЧʡһЩҲͬĿģΪÿһṩ֤ǰ2֤εIJֹ3.23.4Լڷ˵۵˵Ĺɹ6.26.34.24.3ҲЧйأǵҪԷ棩

ɼԭеϸȣҪճ÷Ĺ1.31.31.4ڷ˵Ĺɹ6.2Լʽ4.14.6жáΣйزȨ֤ȨĹ2.12.3֤23.13.23.4Ҳáչ֤Χɫ5.1.1йع淶˵֮ļල5.2.15.2.2͹ھ˵Ĺɹ6.1зá

ڹԭҪǺ۵ϵӦþܵڹһ¡ϣڹԭָĹкԹ22.12.3Լй֤εĹ3.13.23.4йҪ֤ӰĶӦпƵչɫ5.1.1йع淶˵ʷʷ͸ˣʷļ5.2.15.2.2ͼල˵Ĺɹ6.1Щ˵ڹԭָʱζǴٽڹԡ

ձ黯ԭȡһȹϵʽԭڹ1.3ͣ1.3֡ڶ漰ƽԭйز˵ƽȨ2.12.2Լڲƽȴǿ֤Ĺ3.1еԷӳһǿձ黯۵ʽĻɫ5.1.1ʶԭ5.1.2͹5.1.3

ԭϹ1.2ҪѹƵɵĹ2.3ЩĿȷгĻͨʵͽġ

8.2.3˵֤

ձʵ˵γ̸Ա׼Ĺ淶ۡΪһ۵ԣбҪ֤Щ򡣣ֿ֤ܵʽÿһֶ֤֮ʽ˵ǵijһĿĵķ䲻֮DZ֤ԤĿġ֤ʽЩ൱ķΧʵΪأȱʵϵ֤ʵһԵģ˺Ա׼ڶԵ֤ʽУϵûеõֻ֤һ׽綨۹淶ԳϷϵȱûиһɿ֧׹ϵ˵ͳ֡ձѧ֤ʽijֹЧʹijΪΪܣʵ޷ʵֵȱݡˣпΪ֤ʽصĽṩ֤ձʵ˵еĹѷʽ

8.3֤

ձʵ˵ij֮һǰѸγ۱DZڵ۱ߣͳԶԣҲֻҪһϵġԡҲȱ㡣ijܱ֤ĽȫԳ򣬵˵Ĺ淶жȻDzݵġ

ҪһյȷˣڷضӦרų򡣵һþΪҪʱνۿܡΧĹǺġֹ͸ַɳĹ

п䷨֤רŷɹDZڱ֤Իһ˺ԵһҪЩӦ編ȶԡͺϷԵרŷҪ

ڷɲþ֤棬пȡݷһѱ֣ܵ¬з˹1974ڲ֤ⲿ֤ڲָ֤ѧжϿ֮ǰ߼صⲿ֤УЩǰĿɽԻ֧֡

п֮ⲿ֤ǷĻ㣬˳Ϊ֤۵⡣ⲿ֤Ļڲ֤ʹõݷɱ׼Ƿɽܡ

8.3.1ڲ֤

ڲ֤򵥵ʽĽṹ

(J.1.1) xTx ORx

ơTa
ǡORa12

1һձ淶2ǶԹ淶ķɺõʵ3жϣйطɺĹ淶ԳһͼʽУxȻ˺ͷ˷ΧڵĸaǸ峣ijרƣTһνʣ淶1ʵǰΪ˵ԣRͬҲһνʣǹ淶顣£

1ְϱʵ飨¹13һ
2MǸ
3Mְϱʵ顣 12

ֻеձ淶1Ӧʵ2ûʱJ.1.1ſáͨ淶ǷòΪòͬʽн͡ձ淶Ϊοܲԭ һ淶ʹõıԱģɵġڶģ壬ضΪʽǷ񱻵Ȩ淶ʹõı۷ǿŵġ硰ƽ塱֮ǿŵӦDZõᄈȷ

ΪܹȷģĻϿŵ׼ȷ壬뽨һһ綨ӦijһνʡMʱijˡΪ¼״̬ǡT

xMx Tx

ijǷMʱӦ

xM1x Tx

ijǷM1ʱӦ

xM2x M1x
ȵȡ

Ҫijһ÷֤Ͳ˸ӵڲ֤ʽJ.1.2

J.1.2 1 xMx Tx
2 xM1x Tx
3 xM2x M1x

4 xSx Mnx
5Sa
6ORa15

ͼʽУ1൱ڡ̷䡷310ձ淶涨ijˣXռڵ棨TӦ4¼ORx2DZռһƲM1߼ռ棨Tij3˵ռijضֵĶM2߼ռһƲM1ij4DZռ˵S߼ռijмֵĶMnnǴҪIJMıM2ij5DZA͵ڳHagueĵij6ǹ淶ԳORa

ڲ֤Ҫÿһѧжϱһձ淶ǰ߼Ƶã

J.2.1֤ѧжϣҪһձԵĹ淶

J.2.2ѧжϱһձԹ淶߼ص

߼ЧԵҪݿձ黯ԭʽҪĻ ձ黯ԭζijЩ淶жϽһձ淶ʱܵõ֤Ƶأһ÷ĹڣJ.1.2еģ2ҲΪձձ黯ԭҪͬҲӦͬۡ

ݷѧʹõı﷽ʽǷӦʹνʡTԲǾҪһձĹ򡣵һձʱ߼Ч֤ؽڲ֤ķ֤ͼʽΪձʵ֤ձ֤ͼʽרŹߡ

ڲ֤֤һ̶ϵĺԣΪҪЩԲļٶӦȷ

J.2.3aǷΪTM1ʱʹһܶԴһĹ

J.2.4뽫˶߼Ƶչֱɣijһȷбϵ֮

J.2.5Ӧܽ߼ƵIJչ

J.1.1J.1.2ͣJ.2.1J.2.5ȷһĺԡȻ֤ĺǰĺԡж֮ԵIJöⲿ֤

ѧжӦһǰ߼Ҫ󲢲ζŷѧжϵ֤зɹ淶ķѧþԶԮӱڱȽϸӵİУҪжһЩ磨23ͣ4κƶǰ֤సУʹõĹ淶Ͳһʵ֤

ԵҪǡ˶ԷɽеĴԲֵķԣЩǴʵ֤вǰֳԡڲ֤ҪҪȡڲ֤ĹУɽЩԭʵ֤淶ֱӻµǰȻЩصļӦڲ֤ȷָ˶ԴʶĿԡ֤Щܴʵ֤Ƴǰⲿ֤

ڲþߵĴʱʶڲ֤ĹҪġһѾָӦþḶֵ́龳֤̣֤龳֡ Ͳþ֤ԣΨһصֲֿ֧þʱԮãǷνʵþĹ̡

8.3.2 ⲿ֤

ڲ֤ʹõĸǰ֤ⲿ֤ҪΪЩǰк֣ܶӦֲ֤ͬʽʵָ֤֤ϷЧԱ׼Сжֳھǰ֤ʾá䷽ѧ򡢺ƲĹйھ֤εĹν֤֤ЩȲǾԳֲʵ֤ǰᣬڹʽJ.2.1еij23ͣ4

ⲿ֤Ĺ֤ʽɷΪ顣һɽ͵֤ʽ֮Ӧùѧ֤֮֮áձʵ֤֤ⷨʽ֮ʹù

һҪһⲿ֤ڷɹ淶ʱʽЩʽڱһѾ۹ĽҪصĻ֮ϣǣֱѧ͡ѧ͡Ŀ۽͡ʷͺϵ͡

Щ漰ڲ֤ĸ֤ձ淶ʹõıвֹһֽͣôѡеĽ;Ӧͨⲿ֤ʽ֤пãJ12ļԱⲿ֤Ļʽ

J.1.21 xTx ORxR
2 xMx TxW
3Ma
4ORa13

ǰᣨ1һձ淶ձ淶̷310涨ռ棨TߣxӦ4¼ORx2桱һʵʹù磺Ƿռ˵SߣַضֵIJƲռ桱Ĺ򣩣3һ磬AHagueǵĵ4ΪĹ淶Գ磬ӦA£ӣ1淶Rͣ2ùWѭľ淶

2xMx ORxR

2һĹ淶磬ռ˵ߣӦ

ڲ֤ͼʽƣⲿ֤ͼʽҲǻЧ۵ⲿ֤У磨22ձ淶Ҳжϣ4ܴﵼĻ

ⲿ֤֤ͼʽ˷ϽҪصĸͼʽĻЩͼʽҪ֤RĽ͡

RijɹĽͣͨW֤WǹȻԻרҵԵţǷԵš֤ijͣ߱ǿԳϵġӦأʹùֿԷΪ̬

J.3.1WiRӦóΪRĽ͡

J.3.2RԻWkΪRĽ͡

J.3.2Wi WkԲRԳΪRĽͣRҲ޷ΪRĽ͡

ѧָͨýͼǺ϶֤ĶRĽRʱѧΪֻʽһ漰ͼ

J.4.11RIR WΪ֮ͼ
.2R

ڵڶʽУҪ߲ù淶RΪʵضĿZֶΣ

J.4.21R׷ʵZĿꡣ
2-RIR W-Z
3R

Ϊɸһǰ򣬸ǰݣ

a WIR WRR͵ʵRЧɡ
ңԣJ42Ӧǰ᣺

bԹ淶R׷ĿZʵһɣҪù淶Rʱ׷Zʵ֡

c׷ĿZʵ֣ôҲҪʵĿZһֶΡ

ȷ۹cĸͼʽ

S 1OZ
.2-M-Z
3OM

ճУS

.1Ϊ״̬֮ĿZܻʵ֡

.2MʵZֶΣܻãZĿҲʵ֣Ҳ˵MZ
3ʵZֶM

ԮУ̷ָͨ310Ҫʵֱ˲ƲĿ꣬ڸй涨ij֡桱goodΪҪܵͷߵͼƶϡ

ĿУָͨijΪ״̬¼ZӦȻʹRõ֤

J.5 .1OZ

.2-RIR W-Z

У1ijһΪ״̬¼״ĿZǿ֮2ʾ³ΪʵĿZҪãIR WRĽ͡

J.5ͣJ.4.2ݵһͼʽǣ

S .1OZ
.2-M-Z
3OM

У1ǹ淶Գ2Ǿжϡ֤ԶԾķʽΪ֮ˣĿֵھʱ쳣֮δԣ1飬жֻھ˵˾ڷ˵еҪԣҲձʵ˵Ҫԣ

ĿУĻṹѧĵڶһŻһضĿĽDZҪġĿ漰ߵּνķɵۺ⣩漰ġĿΪ͹ҪĿꡣĿΪձʽı壨4.3ڴ˱УҪۼһĺΪĺֹһԣбҪƾԭЩ

ʽʷȽϵʷУҪۼɹ淶ʷڱȽУҪۼҵķϵϵУҪۼij淶ڷıеĵλͲͬ淶֮߼ĿϵĹϸϣϵҪʽǴ淶֮ìܡ

һضʽֻеʽǰʱġҪŪijǾģʹáͼȥķҵķҲǹ淶ġӦҪй

J.6нҪ֮ʽǰᡣ

ΪȷڷǷп¹

J.7ڷ֮֮ͼԣ֮˵ΪӦ߲ڴޡ

J.8ͬʽ֮ҪԣӦԺ(weighting rules)ȷ

J.9뿼пڽҪصʽ

ⲿ֤ĵڶйطѧеijʹáѧеij԰ɸĶ塢ڷɹ淶еĶ塢ԭıȵȡ֤ijһʱȡԷѧijЧʹá

ΪԷѧе⣬пĹ

J.10κܵɵѧһձʵ˵֤

J.11κηѧ֮뾭ϵļ飨ָԸóǷѧѧ淶һ飩Ҳܾϵļ飨ָԸóǷձʵɳһ飩

J.12ʹѧ֮ʱʹ֮

þʹйءѭĻҪͬӦͬԴĿձ黯ԭ⣬֤ĸת޵ϡҪ˵Ϊһ尸ͬϵIJþãп

J.13һþֻ֧򷴶ijһþʱ֮

J.14ijһþߣ֤֤֮

ⷨʽĹ򣬱ڽͷɹķɷ죩У֤

һ٣˵ijһⰸijһضϽʱ÷Ҫ˵尸ڻ治ͬڿøùڷпʹ˵ڿ³ͼʽ

J.15.1xOGxFx

2x-Fx-OGx1

ٲܸݳķжǰİǷܸùϽʱʹ֤ƿ±

J.16 .1xFx v F sim xOGx

.2xHxF sim x

3HxOgx (1),(2)

пΪ

.1һxxһԼFһĽԼF simôӦxá¹񷨵䡷433µģG

.2һxxһּгתijҵҵԼHôxһĽԼF sim

3һxxһּгתijҵҵԼHôӦxá¹񷨵䡷433µģG12

˷ʽͼʽعΪ߼Ч

ؼڣ1ͣ2ǰǷܱ֤ͨ1޷ʵ֤еóʵ֤淶ͨ涨ʽ

1.axFxOGx

Ϊ˵õ1Ҫֹ

1.bӷɵĹ۵㿴ͬӦͬķɽ

1.bձԭ1.3һֱ䶯ͬʱҲƽԭһϣ1Bʹֻе֧ʱܲá

ͬҲڹɽ֮֮С磬֧ij⼴ͨùWIR WRij淶RضIDzʱôͱ⽫²ɽܡ塢֮ĽZֲɽܵĽãӦֹZij֣O-ZᵽͼʽSʾ;Ľṹ

J.17 .1O-Z

.2RZ
3-R

ǰᣨ1ͣ2뱻֤ǣZΪǽֹģRĵZĽǰ߿ͨձʵ֤֤߽

ļ豻ȷЩʽΪ߼ЧʽõӦأӦʹЩʽ

J.18֮ʽǰᡣ

Щʽʵ֤֮ձʽӦáJ.15߼ЧJ.16ǿձ黯ԭãJ.17һֽ֤ʽ

пȻû֤ľ򣬵˾֤áڷ۱Уһʵ۱һжʵIJͬձ6.1ʹһԵ۱ΪܣձҲӦڷ۱֮Сڷ۱УпҪ֪ʶ磬ڣJ.5»¾пû꾡νо۱⡣

󣬰п˷֤ձʵáκηЧģôձʵDZҪġձ飨£۵ֽ֤֮һѡ֤Щʹ֤ͼʽʵ۱Ҳ֤ѧе⡣ʵ֤Ҫ֤Բͬһѡ񣬶ЩӦò֮֮ͬСʵҲ֤ڲ֤еij

8.4 ˵ձʵ˵

пѷ֤ձʵ֤ȣζձʵ˵ĹʽӦԾ巽ʽӦãԱ֤һղþΣζţɺҪձţڷ۱Уǹ淶ԳЧĿԷʽ֤ ζŷ֤ǽձʵ֤Ļ֮ϣҪڷƷΧ֮ڡΪ֤ʹַʽij֮ѡ񣨼J.7ձʵ֤˵ͨDZġ

пָڸʽķ۱磬Ҵձʵ˵ĽǶȿкܴIJͬڷѧ֮䡢ʦǵĴ֮۱ýйڷܴԼҪڷɿѧѧ۱еԼ١ɿѧе۱ܵԼҪһ˾ܵԼ٣ҪȷͥܵԼ١

ڲͬʽڣԼij̶ȺҲͬΪɻԼǷѧ۱硣ᄈеɫǶԵȷģIJ벻Ըģʵ޶ġ֤Ҫʱƺͳ򷨹ĵԼΪȡǾҲǣĵIJǻһȷIJþҪһԼIJþݰпĹ۵㣬ⲢζŷɳӦһϵıϡʽķɳԿǽʵ۱Ա֮۱ʽ

п֮Ĺ淶ȷҪͨ۱硱ĸеIJԷʽ۱硣˺ʦǼֻ׷Լ棬ҲҪʹǵȷȻ˲ͼ˵ԷҪκӦôһ¡٣ǵ龰£Ըһ¡ʴˣڷУԲһʵ۱ͬķʽȷš

пΪɹеijԽṹǷɱΪԵ⡣ⲻͨ۱еܵƵʵ򵥵ظ񶨵Ļش𡣸߾ԵǣҪһþĹ۵㿴ɷɳ趨Ƿṩ˳ֵĻᣬԻп龳вĽݰпĹ۵㣬ͨ㷺ľȥֺʽij۱ǿܵġ

ڷУרŹɷ۱µν۱ܡdiscursively possibleķΧеijPgȷһPgʱֻʣһֿԡУ˷ҪɲþȻˣɲþıҪԲζԸ𡣿ǵձʵ˵Ľṹȷɹijͷ֤ijϹIJþǺġ ͨԮձʵ˵ͷ֤ij򣬿ṩһѧþ֤

8.5

пķ֤Ϊ淶Գġ淶ָԷ֤Ĺ淶ָ֤һ֣淶Գȷ۱硣Ŀǹ۱磬۱۱һ

ڷ֤Уձʵ˵Ĺ⣬˷۱ĸӹָͨӦúרŷɹ򣬰пͼشִеһ⣬רŷɹӦڷ֤ãɺԵľʲô

пͼشһǷʽ淶ʵʹ淶кιͨһɲþڲ֤ⲿ֤ȫͼҪȷ֮ʵʽ׼ʵʱ׼

Ϊձʵ˵Ĺϵܱ֤һյĽҪһսķ۱ۣһϵв

ڷɲþ֤ϣпΣڲ֤ⲿ֤ڲּ֤ͨһ֤outlineعģļؽҪԭӦΪһЧþۣǴָ֧òþijǰᣩеⲿ֤Ŀ˵ЩԼһ֡ؽijȷԵķɱ׼ǿɽܵġͨ𣬰пͼڵһ漰һϵгͨ߼ó۵ĺãڵڶϣЩĺʵȷá

ڲ֤IJϣǼ򵥰ѰһЧӦõõعڶⲿ֤ķУҲӦعһЧ

Ȼпģʽ˼⡣ȣݰпڲ֤ⲿ֤ͼʽ֮ѵġⲿ֤ͼʽJ.1.2ȥڲ֤ӣextensiveͼʽı壬һֲͬ͵֤ⲿ֤ͼʽJ.1.2൱ڲ֤еģJ.1.2ijΨһIJ֮ͬǣ淶2ڣJ.1.1Ȼ淶Ҳܴ磨xSxORxģJ.1.2еóȻԸù淶ۣⲿ֤еˣڲ֤е23ͣ4ⲿ֤зɹĽк𲢲

ڶⲿ֤ȥΡڵһϣ磨2ijⲿ֤1.2һͼʽеؽڵڶϣЩͨѧѧȽʽõ֧֡ĵڶʽΪڶ˳򡱵ⲿ֤

һǰпⲿ֤ضͼʽĽṹϸ緢ѧͼʽĿͼʽͼʽȴָֻṹѧġʷġȽϵĺϵͼʽԷƺ͹ϸȴûжԳϸ˵ҲûнЩͼʽⲿ֤ĻͼʽӦûǽһ䣿

пʹķ֤ۿڷѧе۱ͶԷɲþ֤簢п1981bע⵽ģӦԷ۱磨PjһͷϣPgеijһڷУΪ֤һսҪзɳĸӹ

һ⣺ڷ龳УͨǷӦ÷֤ᵽйڿѧۡͥеأͬ龰ĸֹҪһزֹõʽķ֤֮ҲӦһ۵ķ֧в

ڰп֤۵ۣһŵͼͷ۱ձʵ˵۱һڷ龳ġԷɲþ֤ṹϸŪ֤ʱӦֳЩΣӦֳҪжٸ衣֤ͨɲþĸַʽϵͳĺϸһܣڶԷй淶ԵĺԵо

ڷ۷֤ʱΪԣӦ꾡п۵ضȡȣӦŪڲ֤Ľṹⲿ֤ĽṹӦ˵ⲿ֤ģʽʽΣijЩⲿ֤ʽӦΪϸӦ֤ڷɲþ֤к͵ijġ

עΪEvelire T. Feteris֤ԭĵڰ£뱾ӡݳ档