ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ͯ

1989Ժŷ˼


1989ǰǾ֪һҪݡҵһεŷ1988꣬ʱ֪ʶеһŻ1989ꡣǣ˭ҲûϵһʾҪ1988˵1989֮ҪֻΪһǷ200ꡣ1988й1989֮ҪֻΪһй˶70һ

عͷһ꣬Լ±䣬ͬϵȷʵСⲻΪЩ±Ĺؼ ---- ǴӷõĶģΪЩ±估ЩǶȡЩ⣬׷ݵⳡһҽеıΪйĸDZ˵ġᡱñֶƷרơҡѰšͺϺԵĸĻϣһ͵ʲ׼ܷΪƶȵĻͬӵ͵ʲ׼񷨣ΪִгõĻӦ1989ŷ˼ռĵλִеͬ⣨Լģִе塢ԡĻʽ⣩гõĺϷԼ޶ȵ⣬͹ҡõĹϵ⣬Լοɷġɡִԡԡ͡аȵȡЩ1989ǰѾ11989ԺЩøĿⴥĿ

һ. Σ--ѷ֡󡱡ҡġͬΡ

һգŲб쳣֡ż꣬һȴʡǧǾۼ˿ڲŶʮijУһһȵĿԵļСʮһ㣬Ĺ㳡ʼ֮󣬴Ҹ߳ʸ衷ʼΪNei Til EU" СNei˼ǡEUŷˡ߳ʸ衷ˣȴŲEUŷ޷ΧŷΧĹˡ

Ȼǿ˵иָĹ壺ʸ衷ġ޲׼ġ岻ͬŷġʲ׼ġ塣õ¹ʫ˼Ұ˹Hans Magnus EnzensbergerĻ˵зζǣʵ֡塱IJǹˣǸʱҺΨ2һʡڶʺ͵ʶûнһᣬ˼˹ڡԡʱгȴóЭԾó֯ȫȫͨѶԼ֯ŷޣʱŷľһ廯һ廯ܸˡ

ŷ˵IJֻЩ߳ʸ衷ˡҡ֡ԼEUҲڡעĿЩ߳˹·˹ӡʹЩʸ衷ˣǵìͷҲŸҵңҲٶЩԶϷĴкʹá˽׼ʱҽ׼֮ĶͬǷš塱ƺѾûʲôϵ

1. ͬΡ롰Ρͬ͡Ρ

ŷϵķ磬̶ܴǵصġdzض--Ǿ--ϵĿǷ޳ɼŷ˵ġԽΡһֱ֣ǶشĿǸԵ档˵ŷ漰IJǵġ桱Ų˵ŷ˲ζıҵܵشζΪĴͳ淽ʽά֡;ԣŲŷDzΪŲṩ--ǻ˶ˮƽҪIJǡˮƽliving standard), ǡquality of lifeͬǵļֵĻͳйϵġŷ޶ԣڷ˹ԼУжóסЭȵȶŷرЩҵIJӰĵǣһЩĵǡڶԿȨĵǣάֱĻͳĻҵĵǡһЩԼͬġڹȥʱλԺյʡݡݰİ˹ˣBasque),ĿӣCorsica¹İͷǣBavariaȣ򲻸ͬһŷ֮еλһ㣬һЩ˿ڡʷϵĵλȵȶǵĹ֮.3 ҪЩҺ͵ǵġͬǵġ桱ӢJohn Major1992Ӣصϰһ˵--Աصڷŷ˱֤ ԶҲᡢǸҲǶһ޶ӢͬʧһƵŷ֮С4

νͬidentityһѧָ˸ͳһԺͳԣһͬidentifyѡĵļֵʽɫҲԴӸ굽壬СͬСͬͬ͡桱֮䳣֣Ϊ漯ţ֮ͬһ峣ΪǾйͬ棻һͬҲ˶йͬ棺ͬһͬķֵ߻Ϊͬһ˵ķֵߣǰ˹ڽ̳ͻһӡңġ桱interest棬ҰּȤҲ롰ͬѷֱ˴ˡǰѡ桱ΪͬijˡõʲôйأѡͬΪͬijˡʲôйأ֮DZȽģ¹ء桱ϴЭ¹ءͬϴЭٴԸҲҲЩòһЩѣӴ˱޷ӵҾͲǡҡɡ㡱ˡüǮĹʻֻζҲϲ͹ݣ߲ͺϸٰ࣬Һҵĺܱǵڽζǽáڽ֡ʽʽֵģԱ𡢷ɫΪΪŵĸ˺ͼͬʹȥЩ侲ġֻܶԡĹ۲߿顣ĸҲ ͬ͡桱֮IJֻνͬΡidentity politicsһǶȡһҪǶǡͬidentity ͬ͡ԡcommonality)IJ⡰ͬ鷳֮֮һ˼ʵǡͬǡ족ǿԼ˵IJ졣ͬΡͬ͡Ρͬԡõʲô⡢ԡʲôҪΪʲôΪص㡣ɷĶйȻҵǿǷǹͬԡձ壬й˼ҿΪĻ˵Dzָبڲͬĸ˺ͲͬȺ֮ġ硱ҪͬģеģҪDzЩеĶʵЩеĶɵҵִȴ Ͼսձƺʱˡ塢塢龳ʱ֡ԷѧҸ£Foucault)Ϊġִ塱˼ҿͬԡֻһ񻰣һѹԵ񻰡˶ѡšͬձԡʵһһôìܡ

2. ӡͬΡΡ

ּڡΡڡͬΡġͬΡԳΪ˼ҵĹͬ㡣60̳֮һ60ѧ췴˶˽˶ŮȨ˶ȵȣҲԿ˶ļǵĿǰʱ幤ҵεĿƣΪȡͰͬȵȨΪŮȡͬȵȨ֮£ΪԵŵѧ췴ûʲôʵԵĽ˺Ů˵Ķȴȡ൱ijɹǺ˵Ķױɺ˵ĶŮ˵ĶҲױŮ˵Ķں˵Ȩͺ˵Ȩ֮䣬Ů˵ȨŮ˵Ȩ֮䣬΢Ҫǰ漰ÿˣܾʲôͬձеȨȨ漰ijһšijһضͬĸ˵ضȨ򵥵˵ڰصڱΪձԵĸˣǷڱΪвͬͬļšܿ죬ڰ˵ķͬĺƶ˶dzͬĺ塢ԡڽ̷Ⱥ壨minoritiesͬ԰ѡȺ壨ͬߣͬĺ

ʵʵ򣬶Ӱѧ硣һλѧ߶ķЩ60ʵʵġͬΡġɡԱ7080½ѧ磬ΪѧŮоͺоĴʼǣɻɣʱձĻġЩġ50ںͺڵоԱȴûһֻ70У԰ʱͬѾ˳档 Ĵȫ󣬵ѧͷǿںооУڸŮоУͬŮͬУÿ˶ԸܵΪͬĻ衣ҶΪһصҪȥӮ--취£ȣȷһֱDZѹȵġýģȻ󣬷ûѰַʽ跨ЩȳĬӽdzᡢѧʷ˼Ըǰųڱˣ壬磬ῴȥΡͬεҪڴѧԶڱʵ֣˴ָȺĶ5 ЩУԭȱΪ塢 ӢȨıɻȴʹǰͬġձ塱ԣ׼ɼԡȨεĵԵȵȡλѧ˵Ȼں̶ܴҲŷޡʵϣŷ޵˼ңղᵽķѧҸµˣѧϵġͬΡṩ˺ܴһݣĿǰڱȽӰ߽սνͬߡҪǵصѧңͬŷ޵ѧ磬ԡͬΡȤҲʮŨ񡣲доÿ궼дⷽ磬ӢijRoutledge1994ġýĻоĿУıߵþˡ13ĿУֱǡԺĻ͡Ůͬͬо11ĿУҲв󡶶꼰ĻƾӣĻͬ͡ŷ--ԪĻʹý鼮ڽ´ŷ֪ʶӵۿConstellations--An International Journal of Critical and Democratic TheoryϣӢŮѧ˹Anne PhillipsġӦ𡱣Dealing with DifferenceԤ棬ݿڣ˿һ3ڣֱΪԺԡͬ͡ҶʿѧλŲѧѧϵһλ֮ǰͨIJʿҲࣺ÷17ѧҵѿѧ뷨ṹѧѧһ͵ġͬΡ⣺Եͬ6 ⣬ŷ޲ٴѧѧչϴ󣺻ʦѧԵӣ⵱ȻиԭʧҵʴԱְΪѧѧѽȱѧȣͬԤոѧƵѧȣп϶һأи˸ȤʷԡסѧۺͼֵһЩͬǵͬϵеѧơ֮ʧҵôߵ£һ㶼10%ϣеĹ20%ϣЩʧҵ״̬µˣȻôѡʷѧƺͶгϳ߲Ʒרҵ̶ܴΪӺüרҵıҵ--ǹΪdzʺгҪһЩרҵ--Ҳְѵ⣬ѡרҵʱɴѸȤλȤͬľ״̬صġ

ǣ1989ԺŷޣͬΡҲͬġ󡱡ҡֵ֮ı׼ȷͨڸı״Ĺ۵ġά״Ĺ۵ġһ׼ȻΪ๫϶ϵġ±ߡ͡ɡڵҲҪı䣬ɣЩִĹңҪ֮һȴΪ״绤ȷе˵Ƕ״̬ȣǶԹȥ̬ȣҪҪصȥ۶ʮǰᡣǶԹȥ̬Ҳ󡱡ҡ·˹߿ŷ޵ڣŷ޵ĹȥҪԣҪԡͬΡֵУҪһ׼ǿͬʲôǴϿ԰ŰѹȡȡŵġͬΡģѹȾͬȺġͬΡġȻҲӵúܣһϴѹȵĽСȡöԺȡö֮ǰпͬʱΪ侳ڸСȺѹߡһ֤νͬΡѷ֡󡱡ҡġΪ㣬ҰŻصȥġͬΡͼų켺ġͬΡΪġ

ġͬΡʵı1989Ժŷ޼ΪͻͬΡһ͵ıνΡethnic politics)7ͬϵҪ㣬ġͬΡͱ1989ԺŷޡǶУŷɫɫĵͼ塣¹·˹ӶϮ˹ŵΪִ˵һԱŵ˹Vladimir Wolfovich ZhirinovskyȻųơȴԼŷսв˶ѡĻġȻĿĵģĪǰ˹򼸸͹֮䡢֮Ѫս

˼״ԣġͬΡû˵ı֡弰䱳ļ˷塢ԭּ˼֪ʶûʲôгָͬʵʵġͬΡΡֱӶϵŷ֪ʶӣҪԭ˹ʵɡҪ֮һά棨Mihailo Markovicˡ1990굽199211£ά浣άִᵳĸϯϯDZһЩ֯սάͳά棨Slobodan MilosevicάֱȻ˵һֱŵ塢˵塢ȨάġʵɡͬЩ6070ѧӮù㷺ѧѾȫѣά汾ͬάһŷ֪ʶӵʸ֮ġԴάṩһֽǣеĶŷУĿǰ˹򣨰άǺͺɽ彫δļмΨһⴥŭһЩˡ8 Զԣ80Ծ磬һԾ˼±壬Լ90ӰĴӢѧ߸ףJohn Grayν塱롰ͬΡĹϵЩһƳгãһͳıƳеĻͳˣһŷڲŻָͳļֵʹͳĹͬ壨ͥ壩һָŬŷޡĶŷˣӵ˵Щҵ˸ԸԳΪŷˡĻͳIJ죬УŷĹͬŷڵŷȲУǿȡ9

ܵ˵1989ŷ˼롰ͬΡϵеIJĸ֪ʶΪּ˵ġҲ˵ı֣б绤֤ǡͬ塱Щŷ֪ʶӣǰӲѧɡѧߣձӡ 3. ԶŷΡ˵

Ƕŷ仯⣺ͬΡĵͱּΡΪʲôڶŷʵô--ԭǹ--ԺͻȻôͷֳ

ʷѧעĽ㡣Щң弴ʹڹʱҲûбֻDZѹˡ˼Ϊһʲ׼ԭ򣬶ŷȨ֧½ģ1989ԺһΪĽݿ˹工ΪһͳһҶҪ׷ݵһսԺǿЭ飩Ϻϵ˫ؿʹκαʾڹȥ֡һ棬ڶŷִŴԡĻͳ־õĶͬж˴Ⱥ壬ǶһԽͬĶһֱŵִڶŷʮĹʱοͬ׺Ϊһ塣±οʽʱյӱ׳Ϊλӣڴת֮ӿ˶̨ǡ10 ͬʱǰĸͬţӾյĹ졢衢׶֣ͱ壬µŨȤ11 ŷ˳γɵʷءͬǰʮйصʷأVaclav Havel֪ʶǿص--Havelǰݿ˹工˵Һͳֲͬߡ1989ԺΪݿ˹工ͳݿ˹工˷ԺڵĽݿ˹͹ͳ 19934һνУHavelɶŷ˳·ȣ ԭȵȨһͳһļֵΪģʽǿȫᣬ׶Ȩһˣ񲻿һҹ֮ܲһµĽṹһַĻԭĽṹɴ˶ֵĿϣָļ塢Ѱͬһ壨廹壩ҪڶΪǰȨȡһжԺͶԵķӦڳһ֡ȻҪ󡱣ҪעԼҪǿԼĶһ޶Ժͬ˵𡣡ָºǿԼͬԼĶһ޶ԵҲ¹ֵ֮һԭЩδйԼĹҵеһǿҪڱõἸʮ֮֮ڵõ˻ᣬⲢǵĹ12 ǰȨʹʷͬһȻķչֹˡӶЩ޷мʮʱһᡢֹһĽṹѧƽĹʹ桢13 ȥѹ¶ìڶһ𱬷ˡ

Щѧ˵ʵͬҪǸҪĻЩ󹲲塱Ȩijɾͣھʧƶȸǵĺôȡˣƶȴ޷ŵµĺôÿµĹDZѲйϡⷽ沨һ͡ŽṤɵĸĸᆳõġݿƷⲻһ̨ΪЩ屳˴ѡƱġ󹲲ġɣ˵Ҳø֡ġƻĵġں14 ÿһЩIJ֪ʶӣ˵ҲĬƾʷδŵĹķۡ15 ֵЩͻȴڲǰŷУ˶֮⣩Ψһĺ󹲲ҡɵġ16 һ£ͬΡƺԳΪΡƷʹûһҲбҪһ--žνû̫˵ķ塱1993ڲ˹һνУӢĿǰʷѧҡͬʱҲ֪ʶӺʿEric Hobsbawnһ˽ۡʿ1989ǰĶŷƶȵȱݣͬʱָڴﵽijһ֮ǰ1918ƶȿ̨ԺκαĶȣƶȶŷޡϡȽŷޡִŬ1989Ժģģж壬ԣܵ˵ŷͶŷĸ彫ڹȥʧŶҲʧδеûаյĹ17 ʿǿ˵һdzΣյľ档ǽԼܹԼʧܺͲܹпܴ̬˶ʶ̬ǣһЩصijְ汾1989ǰӵ˶ʶ̬еĸпܵЩͲݵ˶ˡ18 ΪһʷѧңʿָҪעֵһɱʷȳǺӢʳߵԭһʷġġԭּʶ̬ԭϡȥЩʶ̬һأҲǵءûкʵĹȥпܱ׫ġʵϣıԶԣͨûʲôȫʵĹȥΪЩʶ̬˵ҪΪ֮绤ЩԹžеģʷѧϽֻµ󡣡19 Щ׫͡񻰡ĿǰĶŷŷ̨ϰʮҪĽɫȺ塢ڽ̡ȥڵĹԼģͨͬζȷġҡŵҵȷ--˲ͬұȱ˺Щ 20

⣬ŷѧΪĹϵҲҪãǰڸľϵȡˣȴûмʱ֮µĹʾϵԭΪŷԶŷ󹲲塱ҴţȴЩһЩԲԡЩģڼŷˡ뱱Լϰʶ̬Ŀ£ͬ涼ûдĽӽԮ൱ޣں̶ܴ϶ŷԱŷҡ--ЩȻӦ϶Զŷλʹŷ˰ǵ干ͬλʶǵ潫ȡڹڲʶȡڸֹϵ21 ⣬ѧ߻ָڶŷ󱳺һأȥһУΪȥֱ֮ԲԱЩɵƶȵЩƶ˺ǵĿ־ʧ֯ӦЩЩҪ˴˲͵֮䡮ıζųѹδ¶ƫͻȻ˵ֺ̰ɫණһֱ˸ҵɵı֡22

ŷڷϵĿں̶ֶܴŷϵĿ1989ǰŷԶŷӰ̸۵ñȽ϶ˣʵϣ1989Ժ󣬶ŷŷӰҲСⷽ¹һ͡£ΪһսʱڵĶŷң1989ͻȻޱ䡣ŷ֪ʶϲõʱʾߵں±䡣ʾߵĵһںǡWir sind das VolkӢΪWe are the people ˼ǡ񣡡)ڶںǡWirsind eines Volk!ӢǡWe are one people!˼ǡͬһ壡һںʾĿ飻ֻԡVolkȿɡ񡱣Ҳɡ塱̶ܴȡǰĹڴʣǰĹڴССı䶯±صڶ̶֮ھʹȡʵµƶȣȡʵͬµͳһ˶ˡ˶ڵ¹ѧɣHans-Georg Soeffner仯ͬʱҲͬVolkĵϵDzֵ¹ͳҸȼĹ̡ڵ¹Ӣŷķչ̣־ʶһʼ崫ͳͬ˶ͳϵģͬĻѪͳͬϵġζĻѪͳͬġVolkһʣڵ¹رNationһʵͬʡɴʱڣVolkһʵɫŨԸӡս˸ת䡣70áVolk桰Nation»õ˿˷µ±µķչ1989ʾʹʣ˫塣һ棬ʾߣVolkʴ1989ƺӮһ־⡣ʹʵʾǵ־͹GDRĹ--ġ֮£ǰGDRƺijֹ壬Ҳ˵ĹŽ......23 һ棬VolkһʵҲ֮䡣1989ףµҪĹ̨ARDZDFڱͳһij͵۹սࡣ...... ʾЩȺò̸ͬߺWe are the People'񣩣We are one Peopleһ壩We are the PeopleǶһ޶ 24 ϶ͳһԺ󾭼ˮƽߵδԸԳԶ˵ͶͳһĴ۹Ʋ㣨˵ˣУصպһϵıж¹ѧҹ˹Jurgen Habermas˵֮䣬ǰǽɵĶڿ˵ˡɴ˱һգ£˳ͷ壬ң˾dz˳ĬĶĴˡҵȻȷDZIJǶ˵Ĺ۵㡣ˣȷʵѾˡ25

4. ŷΡ˵

³ŷ塢˳1989Ժŷ˼缫ӵһ⡣ⷽ˹һ͡˹ϴ¹˵ȷ˺Ӣ˸ءΪ¹еĵ־ԵڶսġΡʹ⾯ڵ¹ٶȷġʹҪ--ͳһԾ--ڵ־ıֻ֣̬ȡµһ50ʱ԰ɵ⽻ߡαʾǶԵġҪʹֹɴµȡʷѵҪƶһȱӦĻͳ¸Ծϵ˾ռ״ָ̬¹ȫȨͳһºͶºΪһ壩ҪҪضԴΪһ˼ߣΪһ¹ˣ˹ֹ۵㶼Ƿdzġ80˹һЩ¹ʷѧҽսǽ˹ֵвϣյϣյ¹ʷΡ塣ֱ1989죬¹ͳһҪѾȷʵϺܿʵˣ˹ԷڵʱʵͳһԴ˹˹1993벨ϣˣAdam MichnikĶԻн͵ڵ¹ʶǾǸʵ֪ʷԭʶڵ¹òͬڲãҽȻˡһʮУʶȷ˲˵ͬδܶڵ¹ʶΪһμֵֻ1848ǰá³ʿϾûȫ巶Χ˹ĵ۹壬Ҵ1990˲ƻ෴1945Ժ󣬵¹֮пܵһνǿƶȣΪʱɥʧ26 Ե־ĴͳĻΪͬ壬Լͳһʱֳν¹˵塱˹νܵİ塱constitutional patriotismŰȫ壨ȫܷܷͬΪƣԼӦĻԡ֡ĻͳȵΪĻĹ۵㣬ִļͬӦǿԸѡҷ˼ģIJԽߣͬĻԽձ顢Խʿӱʹһɶ塢ԡĻɵҲԳɹγɳԽЩصļͬ27

ܹ˹ܰ1989ǰѾ1989Ժ³˵־弰˼ʶԼͬҪʷԻԵ¹ͳһѾΪʵŷˣŷĴ󲿷ֹ֮ѳΪʵŷޱ壨¹ڵŷûгΪ˹ġܰ塱ṩµı˹ٷѳΪʵĵ¹ͳһǰǿҪѵ¹ͳһĹŷͳһĹνڹȥʮɹذĹ֮ڸбҪͳһĵ¹һŷͳһ̣Ӷʹ¹һǡŷǰȣ˹Լͬ˸ӣһҲӼͬеıȽijɷ֣вͬͬļֵ۵㡢ʽȵȣȻΪȫΧڣȫΧڣļͬһ֡Ĺͬ塱legal community1989һЩУǿĹͬ塱ȲĹͬ塱ԹͬġͼֵΪͬĻҲ󡰵µĹͬ塱ֻձִԭǿִϵʵǶԵ⣨ʲôǡ塱⣩⣨ʲôǡá⣩ʵ⣨ʲôǡЧʡ⣩ۺϿǵĽ˹һ֤ͬһĹͬ弴УͬͬͬһΪձԭִƶºƽһҲձĵʶ͵ԭ֮ͬϣԶˣͬʱҲijijˣijij壨塢͹ңˡʵϹ˹ﲻǿձԡԣҳԡԡڵѧеġͬ塱壩͡ձ塱֮䡢塱͡塱֮еУ˹跨һнȲ󡰹ͬ塱͡塱ƫءͬΡضͬĴͳֵҲձ塱͡塱ƫءΡִгΪģʽձ塣

5. ۡ

1989ԺġͬΡǡΡŷ޵ǿͷҲΪ֪ʶʶ˼ϵŲṩµıЩѧ߿ڿ . ˼۵ʷУ壬˶ҵijֵĿġ28 ˣбҪݶʮ͵ʷһ֡ۡ29

ڡһۡһĵ߰άգShlomoAvineri˼ûжϵͳУԿ˼ǰ֡ʽ1848ǰΪһ֡ǰִ󡱣1848ԺΪһ֡ʲ׼ϲ㽨ڵһַʽУڵڶַʽΪʱΡǾ÷չĹ߻ܵ൱̶ȵĿ϶ֹ·˼Ժ˼оλ֢ҲԼĻȵڼֵΪ⣬˼ʷչķѶԾ˶ۡڰάտ˼˹ȣ˹ֶ⣨ϣ϶ؿ϶Ļȣ˹ֵ߱һ޴ѡΪ˽һۡ ά ʶһЩδ㹻ӵĴͳ˹⣬ӡһǺ˹Moses Hess˹Ĺ۵ӽ־ᣨMazzini˼·ΪγŽᣨsolidarityʵңõӶΪֹ˽ѧΪ˹ͬԶԽԼ֧㡣˹干ͬ忴һнԵҪأӶһڸȣȣֵúܣ˼ȴ֮--˼˵нձϵĽ׼Ž--˵ǺڸнҪ־ԡ30 ڶɣOtto BauerɣKarl Rennerݵ˼ߣ跨ڵʱٵ۹ڵİȨСij֮ҵ־ɵĵ۹һѹȺѹȵİȨṹһĻŵ--һģʽи岻DZ˴ѹȣһԪĽṹб˴˹档31 ̫߰Chaim ArlosoroffһдڵһսԺСзΪʲô1914ᵳδܹĽ׼ŽᣬΪ˼崫ͳijĹȻһǿҪڳԽĹŽᣬȴδƶȺΪʽľý֮Сǣ˶ҲйĻŲľʶķӦ--Ѱ𴦡ڻعЩ˼崫ͳ֮󣬰άհ˼ͬ޵--˱ȽϣȻһص޲׼һصгȴʮ˶ձļ̳ˣԸܺͳЩ޷ڴձı׼֮µʷʵĵĺϷԡҲΪֺϷԲζձ壺ͬأ--ڰµ˼--֯ձཻһַʽǿһַʽΪֱͬأִľʶ֮С32

עͣ
1. δӵŷ˼ĽǶ1989Լ±䣬Ѿڡ¡롮󡯵ʱ -- 1968ŷ˼һ漰׵еŷޡ Ϻͨѧ磬1993꣬Ϻpp.91-146ĵĿǼЩ±Ժŷ˼עһЩЩϵۡ
2.Hans Magnus Enzensberger: "Ways of Walking: A Postscript to Utopia", in After the Fall -- The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism edited by Robin Blackburn, Verso, Londong/New York, 1991p.22.
3. See William Rees-Mogg: "The Challenge of the other Europe", in The Times, April 2nd,1994.
4תLinda Colley: "Identity Parade", in London Review of Books, 25 Feburary 1993, p.7.
5Todd Gitlin: "The Rise of 'Identity Politics' - An Examination and a Critique", in Dissent, Spring 1993, p.176.
6ͬԴŷѧǶ˳ƴʵʹпڱ߱ȽϤӢСԭȣָĵ˳ƵһԵġhehimʾŮȨߵĿ£ָĵ˳Ƶһ㶼ԣhe, himherselfԣshe, her herselfͬʱʹã"he or she",s/he, him/herself,ȵȣڽһЩУҷǣһߣʲ̫鷳ɴֻԵġsheher͡herself"
7Stephen R. Bowers: "Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe", in Conflict Studies, No, 248, Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, February 1992, UK
8. See Mihailo Markovic's reply to Joseph H. Carens, in The Times Literary Supplement, July 16, 1993, p. 15.
9Ӣ"ߡJohn Gray1993רBeyond the New Right: Markets, government and the common environment, Routledge, London and New York, 1993; Post-libetalism: Studies in Political Thought, Routledge, London and New York, 1993.
10Stephen R. Bowers: "Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe", in Conflict Studies, No, 248.pp. 3-4, p.18
11. һ͵ǿ޵ǣ˹֮⣬ֵ1989ԺҲģһЩԵֿ˹Ӣ۵ĽֵھȻ֮ͬ˹ǣ˵֡See Slavenka Drakulie: "Nazis Among us", in The New York Review of Books, May 27, 1993, p. 21.
12. ּVaclav Havel: "The Post-Communist Nightmare", in The New York Review of Books, May 27,, 1993, p. 8.
13. ͬ, 4ҳ
14Abraham Brumberg: "Polish Intellectuals and Anti-Semitism: Mostly, It's an Unhappy Record", in Dissend, Winter 1991, p. 72-77.
15ǰֲͬߡΪձGazeta Wyhorcza Adam Michnik͵¹ѧJurgen Habermas̸"Overcome the Past", in New Left Review, No. 203, January/February, 1994, p. 5.
16ģֱΪ72ҳ͵5ҳ
17. Eric Hobsbawn: "The New Threat to History", in The New York Review of Books, December 16, 1993, p. 62.
18. ͬϡ
19. ͬϣ63ҳ
20. ͬϣ64ҳ
21SRBowers, p. 5.
22ͬϡ
23Hans-Goerg Soeffner: "Germany--Once Again 'Belated Nation'?", in Transaction, Social Science and Modern Society, Volume 31, No. 2, January/February 1994, p. 40.
24 ͬϣ47ҳ
25Michnik and Habermas, p. 5.
26ͬϣ4ҳ
27 Jurgen Habermas:"Citizenship and National Identity", in Praxis International, Aril 1992, p. 7.
28. Shlomo Avineri: "Toward a Socialist Theory of Nationalism", Dissent, Fall, 1990, p. 447
29ͬϡ
30ͬϣ454ҳ
31ͬϣ455ҳ
32ͬϣ457ҳ


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1. ·вͨ

ŷľ÷ŷı峱ǣжΪ80ĩβ1 ʱϵĶӦŲȫɺϣԾԺЩҵľýṹʮҪ塣Щ˵¼ŷޡʵʷǾﵽӵеĹˮƽ80ĩڵۡѧ߶ŷ»ıǣҪһ㣬ƻ֮󣬶˼ƻԺΨһѡг--ڡ·ĵӢѧҼҴ׵Ralf Dahrendorf1989ĵڶ귢ġŷ˼СȻ˲ƪ̸ڡ̿ʱ塱ĵ¹սʵеġгáa social market economyȴͬƪԡ·ĸ2 ȻҲһЩŷˣŷˣŷˣŷˣȷƼ·򡰱ŷ·ŲѧϣˣGunnar Skirbekk ־Praxis Interna-tionalϵºһλʿɱֽNeue Zurcher Zeitungϵ£ʱ֪ڸʲô--ڷ3 ӢѧأRichard Portes̸ָԾúг֮ĵ·Ĺ۵ʱ˵һ֡1956ͱĹʵɻֳһЧҲûСֹᷴ۵㣬˵ЩõĶкܺõɵģûáǸɴͲҪ4

ȷʵЩŷ˵1989ǰҲ̽ʽļƻúʱг֮ĵ·ⷽһ͡ڶŷŹУھøĸ𲽽硢ɾͽϴĹҡȻʹѧҡøĸijﻮ֮һĿζJanos Kornai1989Ժ1989ǰҲȷڼƻúгõĵ·߲ͨ1986귢һƪͱʾǰпܰѼƻгɵġ5 1989Ժ󷢱һϵУһǿ۵㡣6 1989ŷ˼磬ζԡˡݶԽڼƻúгõġ·ڶŷŷ˹㷺Ӱ졣

ζĹ۵ŷ˼ܵһӭӢĸףJohn Gray1989Ժġ塱۵㣬ǡг塱market liberalism)͡limited government)νг塰ָţûҪڳϲƲ˽кԼɵȨµгʱĸֽڽСνָһʽְܡгʱĵĿܡһȶгҪڷĻǰᣩ7 ֹ۵ŷ˺г˵Ĺ۵Կָ߱ӡЩ󹲲ҵľ飬ЩңԽԽʶг塯ûʲôǿɼԱ绤ġɼʵֵġ8 ȻһοζгۼʸOskar LangeĻ˵ָζвʸŵļлг壬ĿǰеĻྺĹ˺硣ͬЩʹʸģʽվסŵƵԭһгҲDzȶеġ˹Ѿ˵ģεĹ˺ǻرܷյģʱͶڼṹʧҵΪDzԸԱҲⲻΪͶеʽеԾ9

2. ڡģʽ--һ֡·

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ڿдƪѧϰµ1993°꣬ŷDz1989ԺǰѴͬľǶùƼĴľɻг˽лķ--νݿƷءûʱ䣬Ѷŷһǧѷĺ۾ѧʵҵѧҺ͸оרǣֶŷ˿ǵĿˣԹĿڴĿ⡣Ϊǵı绤ǵұ绤Ҳ٣е˵øĸһ޵Ḷ́ϰճԼȻе˵ùDzǼ˵гɣе˵ûãŷֻýԸģ18 ô1989ȥ֮󣬶ŷ˵̬DZˡÿ˵Ļ˵ʱڲǵеDzھΣģѵһϵͳԱ仯ĻĹؼʱ̡ܴ򿪱ֽı⣺·ѭͬĸĻԽԽʶͬԭǰ겻صĹڷԶʵʩġݿƷľñ УԽԽƵعʾ˿ڷԸĸڽʱƶȣξӢΥ˵־ʵʩĸƻ19 λѧ߿ѲڷϵͳԱ仯ʿĵļֵĻǣûпܴһԼ߳ĿǰԲҪԾڣᾭƶȵĻǡЭЩЭΪһִ˼ʮ֮õԼ20 ЩЭҪһ1933ũҵ֮ɵһá֮ҡĿںżԸڶ1938ǿĹϻᣨLOǿĹ֯SAF֮ɵġЭBasic Agreement) ǽһͶг»Ტ涨һ׹̸ͨӪߺ͹˫ˡ80Эˣʹġʲ׼ҲǰһЭҪﵽij־ҵΪԼġĿǰ侭õΪģʽĻ--ƻг--ΪҡڲʵģʽĹҲ൱Բ˵ǴӴľеóһ½ۡȣ㷺룺ƶȺ壬ҽĹҵνƵĴ죬ЩξӢһְ졣ڶеƽ壺ΪƽЧʲĹ۵㣬Сƽȵij߶ȡҶԾõĸԤӦͶгڽС̶ҲʱгʵʩߡģԲƲУ޵ģữĸһЩݰȨһĹۣܵԾýСǹһüȷǹ˽еIJƲʽ͹еĹ˾Ӹá

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ʵѱŷᾭù۵ҪӢȹνг塱Ĺ۵صǰߣΪƳģʽijɾ͡ʵвֹһ֡·ڶ֡·г塱Ĵʼ˼ǰᵽĿƶʸʸڱ30ϵͳزг塱ϻʵϣвٳԡ80ĸʹг塱ѣ1989ꡰʵʴڵ塱ҵĸתۣͬѩϼ˪г跨µΪԼб绤--Ҫǣŷг䲻ŷƻҲͬ׶أΪʲô̽µᾭģʽأһƪ1992У˹շThomas E.WeisskopfгĹ۵˸شǶг10⡣дг跨ʵƽȡŽЩͳĿ꣬ͬʱֱ־Чʡ·ʽһ㣺ʱ徭õһҪ--гȡʱһҪص--ϵ˽ơٶԴ󲿷־òŵеȹģʹģҵгᳫijʽȨЩӵеҵҪȫƻĵ--DZȡ--г֮21ڡг塱ģʽ͡塱ģʽĹϵ˹շ˽ϸIJΪ˺г˶׷潲ЩĿ꣬ʵЩĿֶβͬгŰʱIJƲȨתƸ͹˵Ĺͬ壬ŲȡߴʩȥԼʱߵΪȥǿгߵг˲ìͷ׼ʱȨܵԴȪ--ϵ˽--൱ڣ˹շ˵ĸĽرǰŷ޵гľøĸľ飬гȨ棬ҵӪ棬Լ䷽棬ǰӽ˵˽ȨĸΧãԹҵ͹ҵӮΪӪĹԼdzϼҪʹڹҪʹͬӪҹ֮£˵Ľ·һ֡º󲹾ȡĽ·˰պͲֶʵƽȡŽĿ꣬гĽ·һ֡δѡĽ·ʽϵı仯ȷĿꡣǰȣԽԡһ棬˰աĸԶԶȲƲȨҪŤת˵Ľ·ս𺦡һ棬άӵвƲʱҽ׼ζ֮һȴ൱ǿĽ׼ΪԼ治ϵս22

ܵ˵г۶ʵȻۺʵܷḻȴܵʵڽʮ൱̶ȵʧܵۡǣ˾跨ҳ·һĿǰʱ徭еķгɷ֣˹ɷ֣һ۹Ͷʮǽʮо൱ɹĶǹҺ͵ǿ԰汾ġ·ڡݿƷĻþ--ѧҺͶŷáһĵˣRichard ParkerŷƼݿƷùһЩߡǽ鰴ս̿ϵгõĶؽǰŷҵľãȻڲʱҽ׼ǿ½ʱ⡣ʵʹڿ˹屸ܹĿǰһ硱ڡսԺŷ޵һ÷ָ--ָ--ָĹҵңĸȻ൱áڶǵľ÷չϵͳΥִ÷չĽ̿ĽӢѧҡ־--־ͨΪó׺޶õֱԲᳫ--199111µһжԶǾĸһгȫɵġڶԽƽķԽϵ͵˰նԹжáȽԴȪǽõĹˡģΪصӦǾ÷չ京岻򴦾ϲṩĸ֧DzЧʣǹʾ壬гͲƲ˽Dzпġ23 ˻ʵСݿƷһЩ粣άǡ˹ӡӵȹ붫ǵȽϣָЩҽݿƷʦĽҲûв̫õĽˣ˽飬ŷҲҪܾۺʶ̬ȡʵõ̬ȣҪɶǵľ飬ͬʱѧϰľ顣ǰᵽĸףJohn GrayһѧʱҲӶΪȶͳ־õĹ֮ͬҪԼгƵĻƵľ顣24

塢гͶǾӿ˹汾ġ·֮⣬ǻ̸һµĸ汾ġ· 汾ҪǻѧѧĿģ汾гõĺ--ú--ӦأڻΧϱơһ£úԵķΧͨϵľƷͨھ򣬱ϼĻֻΣȨֻггǰʱľúŷĹľõԽԡھָԭӯЧʺͳɹ塢Žᡢػԭͼֵֻͨҵºֹ֡۵ǰ˵Ĺ۵ȽϽӽڸ̶ϳгԺгƵľõԽԣرǿȨܽ塰ѱг֮ڶǵճģ͸гõĺϷԲܳΪճгһһ˹ֹ۵ĴΪ˲ߣӢĻJohn Keaneʱ徭˹òŰѹҶԾõĸԤͬصworkplace democracyʱƣ25 ˹򲻽ǿֻҪԣһٶŷ֪ʶʮԵġ򡰹ص ʾɡĹ۵ɹǰ潲ġг塱һࡣ˼ҸȣAndre Gorzイĵְ汾ġ·һȻΪ˹һӡصָܵ𣬵Ϊʱ徭õĺĵľúԲ˹ȡԡ̬ȣһֿ˵ǽԵġҪIJDzþúԶеġ硱Сֳ񻯡ָúõķΧڴСڵ﹤ҵᣬԭϵġͶǰôҪˣҡҵemploymentҲشתۡԣ˶ҪӾҵְ߳ҵݻɫ繫ߡߵȵȣҪԽԽʧҵͰʧҵ--νҵ޲׼ܺ90ӽͶ50%Ϊ˸һϵн顣ΪʧҵͰҵͶִòûлõģں̶ܴǵþִҵж豸бά޺׼ԸܷȻʵϻδ¹ʵļԱһЩϺͰȫϱĺԱڴ󲿷ϰʱ䶼ţȻȡʡͬɣʧҵͰʧҵͶҲӦõꡣÿһˣ׶ʧҵӦΪһȨһˡԾҵ˵Թ֮Ӧڿ֮Сȫ˵Ӧʱ䣨󲿷ŷҵ͹ȷÿܹ30СʱƴѧʦܵݼƶΪܶĿ꣩һУּ˾ü͹еľñȻԵͬʱǿⲢζšʱ徭ڱһľúʱһѡľȡ26 дΪֹʱĹѧ֮⣬ڱĹѧڶ̶ϾúԵı׼Ӧڹ˾֮ں͹˾֮͵ĺԡʱ徭úԵĿǾܴЧʣЧÿλʱ͹̶ʱõӯ࡯ġ뱻ǽʱһƵĿ֮УܱʽȷĿ꣬ңȻҲӦӳڶԹ˾֮ڵľúԵϡ27 ͳһһʱľúԣһֲھ֮⡢ھ֮--ڹ˾֮͹˾֮--ֺԡ˵ʵķĹ˾ʿ㡢Ӯеҵȡķе򲻣ǿ֪ġΪͨŷ巶Χռ˰ķʽ⡣ǣҲ˵ŷ֮ǷУŷ֮ڿУҲһŷŷҵľ⡣ȵķ̫аɫʣҲȱȫԿǡ1989Ժѧ˵ҪĿǰԡȫ⣬Ҫijʽаڱµһڽ⡣

עͣ
1. ᵽı߹1968ŷ˼ĸ
2. Ralf Dahrendorf: Reflections on the Revolution in Europe--In a Letter intended to have been sent to a gentleman in Warsaw, 1990, Chatto & Windus, 1990, ֱ86-91ҳ͵53-61ҳ
3See Gunnar Skirbekk"The World Reconsidered. A brief Aggiornamento for Leftist Intellectuals", in Praxis International, Vol. 10, No. 3/4, Oct. 1990-Jan. 1991
4. Quoted in Huw Richards: "Out of deep shock", in The Times Higher Education Supplement, May 7, 1993, p. 48.
5. J. Kornai: "The Hungarian Reform Process: Visions, Hopes and Reality", Journal of Economic Literature, 24(4), December 1986, referred to in, among other articles, Pat Deine's "Economiy, State and Civil Society", in Economy and Society, volume 20 Number 2, May 1991.
6.J. Kornai: The Road to Free Economy, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1990;"The Affinity Between Ownership Forms and Coordination Mechanisms: The Common Experience of Reform in Socialist Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4:1 (1990)
7. John Gray: Beyond the New Right: Markets, government and the common environment, p. 43.
8. ͬϣ44ҳ
9. ͬϡ
10. Tadeuz Kowalik: "Can Poland Afford the Swedish Model?" in Dissent, Winter 1993, p. 88.
11. The Economist ־Լ£Farewell, welfare", 19931023ճĸÿϣ46ҳ
12. Joanan Barkan: "End of the 'Swedish Model'?", in Dissent, Spring 1992, p. 192
13. ͬϣ196ҳ
14. ͬϡ
15. ͬϡ
16. Tadeuz Kowalik: "Can Poland Afford the Swedish Model?" in Dissent, Winter 1993, 89ҳ
17. ͬϡ
18. See Huw Richards: "Out of deep shock", in The Times Higher Education Supplement, May 7, 1993, p. 48; Martin Holmes: "Hidden and Old Hands", in The Times Higher Education Supplement, November 19, 1993.
19. ͬϡ
20. ͬϣ90ҳ
21. Thomas E. Weisskopf: "Challenges to Market Socialism: A Response to Critics", in Dissent, Spring 1992, p. 250.
22. ͬϣ258ҳ
23.Richard Parker:"Delusions of 'Shock Therapy'", in Dissent, Winter 1993, p. 76.
24. See John Gray: "Why the Owl Flies Late--The inadequacies of academic liberalism", in The Times Literature Supplement, October 15, 1993, p. 11.
25. See John Keane: Democracy and Civil Society, Verso, London/New York, 1988, p. 8687
26. Andre Gorz: "The New Agenda", in After the Fall: The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism, edited by Robin Blackburn, Verso, London/New York, 1991, p. 296.
27. ͬϡ


. ȣ--Ρùϵ΢ġᡱ

һƪд1990׵Уߺ˹أPaul Hirst˵ԹάΪԭŷֲͬȻġ·--ʱ֮䣬ȴεĵġ·--Թңthe state̲ᣨsocietyΪŷԹ෴Ϊŷ֮䡣ֹ۵֮£1989±ıʿǴᡱҡ֮ijͻһֳͻʤգŷεص㽫ǣӦǣȫĺгŽᣬûйҶѹ֣Ҳûи֮ĵɳͻ

˹۵Ĺ۵ԼԼĹ۵ȷҲۣһǿԿ϶ģԶԡ˽ԶԵġᡱ--༴νᡱ1989Ժŷ˼Ҫ֮һⷽ棬ŷŷӰͬŷԶŷӰ졣

1.

ᡱŵѧڵ¹ѧҺڸһĸڲͬѧڲͬУᡱһвͬĺ壺ڲͬ¿Էֱɡᡱᡱʲ׼ᡱ͡ᡱ˼Ժ󣬶ԡᡱռλĽǡʲ׼ᡱ˼˵ᡱΪһ۸Ա֮ԡʱľûĸΪһʷʵӦ޲׼רҪ𡣳˱ϰڵĸʮĵ¹Ĺ˹⣬͵ǰʮ䣬ûʲôҪ˼߶ԡᡱ̫Ȥǹ˹Ҳû̫Ӱ죩߶ȻȤڶʮ䣬ŷ޵Ӱ첻󡣾ʵ˵˾ùŵϵġᡱѾʱʹʵĹңڸߣ̸۶ڹҵûʲô塣

ʮʼ˱仯ŷƶȵijɹġǷDZתȻһЩΪƶȶеԽԽɹŬһ̶ʹŷ󲿷ֹǰġᡱԡҡĶͬʱŷijֲͬͬٷͻ֮ȡˡεΡIJ--跨ڹٷε֮⽨һ֮ȲͻֲЭĵ̣ùάĻ˵֮СֲԶᡱĸҽ͡Ϊ淢չΪֲ˼۴ͳеġЩ£ġհסҲΪ˸ԽԽƵṩµԴһЩѧ跨˼һЩͳ˼֮һЩδעĴͳ⡰ᡱĸ˰ʮڣᡱĸѾŷѧ磨ѧ߼䣩ܳ1987ġάοѧٿȫ顷The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Science ȻûСᡱcivil societyĿ

1989Ժŷľ޴仯ŷṩµͲϣһ濴ѾеͬЩ仯ԣҲ˽һ۶Щ仯ԺĸԼ磩Ҫԡʲô1989ǡᡱ롰ȫȨҡ֮䶷Ľ1989֮;нôã--٣Ҫؽˡ½ȵȣһʲôϵ᣿

2. Ϊᡱ

1989Ժŷ˼磬ԡᡱձǡᡱֱͬǰ潲Ķŷ˶1989йء ͬǰΪᣬʲôϵ--һʲôĹϵ--һвͬһţΪҴڶԿϵһ֡ѵΡһţΪûйϵĹϵһ֡εΡȻ1989ǰĶŷ߿ԡʵصģάһ͵ӡ1989Ժ۸Ĺʱڴ¹ϵʱֹ۵ķֵ൱ֹ۵֮IJ̶ͬȵ򣬻Ϊ֮ͬ۵Ļ

ѧ˹G.M.Tamasһƪ19935µ˵⡣˹1989ǰijֲͬߣǷԵɡϯͬʱѧԺѧƪµĿͷΪʮͰʮĶŷֲͬĿǰЩҵеĵλ߷߲ƽڽĶŷʮͰʮijֲ߲ܻͬӭ˲1976һֱһûжϵĸͳֲͬʵֻԵã߿.άǻ.£Gyorgy Konrad]Ӣ۱ڮΪͽ񡯡ᣬֻҪһᵽֲͬͻϯDZߴЦͳʱٷ־ʷѧĴҲԷϡڵǼûǺӡǰԱǵСµġ˯ߡڹȥʮʲôҲû˵--Щ뽨һ𾴵ļסЩ˸еΣǿġˣԳֲͬߵձķУбҪЩ͡1 ĽͰ档ʹ1989Ժ󣬳ֲͬҲܻӭһΪڴ˿ֲֻ߽ͬ£ǡŪ˾òһΪŷijֲͬ߱һЩص㣬ʹе˱رΣγһǿԱ˵Ҫǣ˹ΪЩصͬŷ֪ʶӵĴͳйء˵ŷ֪ʶǴˡո˼ҡؿˡڸпάõĹģֹģƹҵɸ־ԸԵĽȷΪҹҪķӡҳϡЭԡȻŷʵŵۼͬԺڸ˼˵ҪʹԺͶԪԣԭӻȷͳһŽᣨ־ԸԽþڶŷֲͬ˵ҪͨɹǿӵͳһŽȡͶԪԸ˵뷨Dz˵ĹңͿʥ͵Ȩ˥ԺΪӺ˳ѰµɣŷĵӾǶΪԹҵġ......-ڸ-пάĹ۵Ը˵Ĺ۵ԵģŷֲͬߵĹ۵ǷԵġ 2 ˹ŷ֡εġƶġаģͬʱҲһı֣ĽǻԵģֲͬõͬͬʱΪһ˽˵飬ǷƶԵĻܾձĹ빫ԵġԵĻͨһģԸɵģǾܾδͳ3

ǰᵽĺ˹ں̶ܴϴŻͬ˹Ĺ۵㡣δͳһһĻ淶֮ڵĵɾȻġ˹һҲԹάŽṤۼڡεΡ֣ȫȨҡѾڵ¡ڲͳһѾⲿĹͬάֵ£1989ǰֶŷѾܳΪȨĺϷԻ£Ȼڡ֮СȨߵȨȵ塢аĹֻΪԭԵĶǸԸܵĶȫ޷ĶͳΣ

˵˹ŰѡԵΡͬεΡֿʹ֮Ϊεһ֣˹ʹΡΪεһ֣ҳΪεһ֣ǶԵԭŷֲͬߣŰѡεΡΪΡǽεҪֵĻôˣJeffrey C. IssacµȻѡԵΡͬεΡ19925¸Ƿеһѧϵı棨Ϊ췴񡱣У˰ν췴Ρrebellious politicsĻ췴ΡָһԸΣڹң跨ռԷĮġʹĹŽṹͷŽṹһγìͷԹңѰƹҡҲ漯ԹҽԺ,ıȡô෴һֵ·ȰΣ跨ɳĮݣΪʵṩһϸкǿУİľ塢dzнĽӰ硣4

1989Ժ˵֡Ρ췴Ρġ˹ǰᵽƪµɧǶԴ˶ġƪ˵һ϶ͷʱΪʵķɡŲִμҶĿһλӢѧ߶˹Ժڸƪµıֽ༭дһţ˵ŷ˽ ˹˽ŷ塣λд˹1989±ֻ΢ãҿΪʲô1989ԺΪʲôȻڱԵλæÿһԸڹȨ¶ŷѳ࡯˹㲥Ϣʱ󲿷ڽмΪڵͶԱΪԼ--ܽȱģǰΪöṩ˴ﵽ׼Ļᡣ......˹ѳ߻ǣͬǵǣ·ᡯʮ͵ĸ棬ǼΪɹģʵӦøϸעʮͺԼеʵǰǵɵġƲܡ5

3. Ϊʲ׼ᡱ 1989ԺЩŷ˼˵ᡱ֮ҪΪһ֡ʲ׼ᡱȻڡʲ׼ᡱburgelische Gesellschaft bourgeois societyҲвͬ⡣ݺڸĹ۵㣬Ϊʲ׼ᡱĺ˽ĸ֮ԽձϵġҪϵҲʱгϵ˼崫ͳϵĵ̬ǣ϶ʷãĹ淶塣˹ʮռĽṹת䡷ĸǡһburgelische Gesellschaftʲ׼ᣩоʱȻ˼һʱ徭óּ̬ȣΪʲ׼ᡰһҪġռ䡱Ĺԭ--ͨγɹ־͹۵㣨ۣȴ൱϶̬ȡⱾӢ뱾1989ԺӢ൱ķ죬ͬ1989ļʷ¼ȻءҪᵽġ˼ۡͬⱾϵ۶ŷޣԲ̸ⷽҪ˵1989ŷޣһӰȽϴĶԡᡱ⣬ںڸĴͳ֮еġԼ.׿Ϊֹ۵Ĵ1989ᳫᣬгõҪɷ֣ܲΨһɷ--ȰʮʮֻԾ±嶼ǿĻͳãͬƶϵֻеһʽ仰˵Ҳʽġͬƶϵᡣ Ϊǣ̨塢ϳʡ¼ºۣרĶᡣȷʵķ룬Ϊݸ׵⣬ıǾɺɣ֮µ˽вƲԼɵĵƣָļֵۺ۵Ǻƽദ6ЩУһ澭ɺܵϸ񱣻һܵܶơڸ׿ʷϽʵͬרƶȻ޵ƶȡͬƶģ籰˹³ʿԸ񵳵ӢͶŷռλĶ1989ĽͣGray ˵ֻ޳һ룬Ϊ1989ĻȫȨʤʽʤ仰˵1989ֻһϵĵʤһʽἴʽʤһ棬ͬר壨authoritariansimͬȫȨ壨totalitarianismص㲻ڷ񶨹ڷ˽ǾҲ˽˵ʽֵɡһ棬ͬƶȱҲ׸е⣺ҵĹϽΧȨ̫ʹùΪյԴսƽȡȨͶȺչˣ˾ɡЩĻʽԶŷ˵ȫҲȫУΪڶŷ󲿷ֹȱӦĻеʽľøˣ׵ĽǣŷӦѧϰǰרᣩڵᣩڼ˽лͽķƵͬʱЩҵĵ֮ǡЩǸĽơ7 ΪǶĽӡЩ飺پƣҵ»úϷԵΨһ·

4. Ϊᡱ͡ᡱ

ᡱ۴ͳУеġᡱ˼û̫Ҫĵλ1989ǰŷֲͬڸڹ֮ԵµĺͬʱҲʹġᡱĺ˱ǰߵҪԡ1989ԺַչʹԽԽؿˡҡġᡱһcivilСġġȵ˼Сġ˼пӹ׵ġòġġ޷--ܿһᡣӢɱֽÿյѶDaily Telegraph׫ķNeol Malcolmˣ1989꿴ǡӺᵽᡱı仯8˵Ŀȴ˲ͬ෴Ļ1989Ժŷڵĵ״Ĵ½ײعע˹ѽӽڶ˹ڿԭ͹źͺʩԭϣЩҵĺвĻҪصöࡣǵһ㣬1989ǰĶŷ״1989ԺĶŷ״֮ѡĻ1989껶ŷˣڻѡǰߡ̸ɲܰѹڵµĹԻø֮ӢһһƪµдǶСŷǰҸеĵģֵ¶Իʧ--Լɴ˶ĸϰԳŵʧԴǵ˵ǣthey lack civil societyȱcivilᣩ9

ᡱġᡱ͡ᡱ˼ǰᵽĴ׵رӡ1989֮ĵڶ̸꣬Ժһٵĸսʱдǹؼ10 ׵ΪڶŷУӢŷоȨϣTimothy Garton AshĻ˵1989Լڴǰһķɵ˼áӦиʽĽ磬ȫԵģԵģصģְҵģǶ־ԸԵġʵġģңףDzɵ͵-ҿƺͲġӦǡġcivilҲ˵òġݵġǷDZġƽģCivil and civilianݣcitizenshipĸõӡ11 ׵Լϣͬʱˡᡱ壺ᡢ͹ᡣУᡱҪ漰֮һ֡ܡa frame of mindһᣨcivil societycivilΪġDZġ--ߣcivilized--ߣҪһЩ˺ŮˣǻأҪǣгķʽ£ˡҪжֶΣҪһЩη塢Ҳûηijĵ˺Ů--񡣡12 ׵˵Űѡݡcitizenshipһ--ȷ˵ÿֻͶƱûвͶƱȨˣҲܿĶһֻᣬ һֹι̡ͶгĻʵĻᡣҪЧһ㣬ЩĿcivic virtuesDzȱٵģòҲ13 ЩϵĽһ졢飬ҪĺҲҪͼڡΪᣬҪرƶϷֹҵƵݻ٣ҲһЩŷǰֲͬǿڹҡεĶԡڴ׵ȫ뿪˹ҡ뿪ÿ˶ԼijЩͳġcivil societyᣩDzܳΪcivil societyᣩģһӡ˴׵ŰᡰΪ֮ɣľóɷ֣ṩ֮͹߶бҪǸԼĴɺǸԵʵڡ14

ϣˣAdam Michnik1989Ժŷε״䲻ϣΪ1989ǰĶŷֲͬߵҪǰܵ˹ö࣬ԿġѳѾҲȺ߶öࡣ״ɧԹȥڻ˹ͬϣ˵ּȴǡ˷ȥ--˹199311½еһζԻĿ ųʵضԴʷܰ1989ǰʷ1989ǰִȫĨɷ ᳫݣԱ--Ļ˵áŲʲά׵ķŲʲά׵Ĺ塱15˹һܵĿǰԾڶŷ̨νָɾߡ1989ǰͬûиϵ˵ĹܹҪɲϺϢ顱--Ϊ1989ǰŸĸɱ绤1989ǰIJ쵼³˹绤ϣ򷴲ΪЩָɾߵijͷ̬ǻѵġ̬ġȫ̵¡ʽ߼ϲݵġ16

ϣȻ̵£طȴǣڲΪ̵µƶȴIJ̻ᣬȴѾȫʧȥ1989ǰеĵ ̻1989֮ǰDzȫĺϷ֯ͬŽṤĽǺճΪһĹؼ֮һ̻ԼڿԵλеҪԵλʱڣʹ̻̽̽ΪµĺϷԻ̻Ը񵽴֡ʿڲʱҪͽͶijij˵ѡƱ̻Ἣֹ̥Ϸȫˣ ZChNԺͻֵ̼ΪɷŷͳһԽ̻۵ָΪ°ܻ׹ӡǰصĹӵȵ17̻Щڹڡ֪ʶǿҵIJϣ˵֮䣬̻Ȩͱˡ18 ˵̻᳹˲Ĺ̡1989꣬ѡɡ̻Ϊѡǽ̻ᣬ跨ʶ̬˼塣ܾͼȻ㷢˭Ҳûϵ顣ƻ̻Ȩʮ֮ãȴδܳɹǵͱ˵μҺεȴɵ֮ڣƻˡ19

ʵṫº˽״Σڶŷ׵DZд1990˶ŷҲʵʵؽ̰թֻǰЩƵش˽ڼ󡢳ʵͳԶ㣬Ҫ˵Ϊ˴㡣20 ˹ؾ棺һµҰʱǵ游ĸı׼Ǹĸı׼--Լʱı׼ΪǶЩ--ǶDzģuncivilised21 ǣڶ౩˵Ѿô ǵѾˣǰʹŭ飬ڡ üëҲؾǹȥˡ

ĵΣҲӳŷ̻ٵΣϡ˹һƪΪʶ̬֮Σиǣ̻ĿǰԴͽ㹻Ľʿļ㹻룬ңŷޣһЩͳıеҳϵͽҲܾĽĸŮͶƱͼƻǵǣݽʱЩϵһ۲ߣΪֹṩŷıг22Ȼ̻ڽ̵Σڵ¡ֵ۵ΣЩ뿪˽ȴûҵµľе˵̻ڽ̵Σȷʵһ⡣

άͳ£ŷ޼DZɵרĿǰӢ仯Ӣص÷ܰͳĻʹͳֵΪһҪʹһںţصȥBack to Basics˹ھʮڰʮᳫͳںŵӢĻܱصڳŲϣ÷ܺͲ˹ӱҲбӿץصںĿǰӢȴѾȶȻڱ巶֮ԱǵӢԵΪ ȻӢѧҼ˹Anthony GiddensѧȻԡصǿᡱĿںȻΪȻ23 в׫ģӹڡص۵Ҫԣ跨֤ʵ÷֮ǰѾҪصˡһƪΪδĿ־塱дڡص֮ÿһ--Σֵ--ɶڹơ24 ƪµ߿ԭǡĻֵͥϣִ̫ʮʮȷȱݵճ̡......ִͬĻ˵ִһֲġûȷķġͬŮȨĽ˵Ľ޷ԵԽԽĵĶͯͼͥ⡣ͬijһɱĽѧҺѧҵĽˣۺ鱨鷽ļżʺͶȫλġĻĽäĿŷ25 ǰ꿯ͬһ־һƪܹҪۼҲTony Blair1992һΪػءӢ⼸С³ϻֵĺ壩飬˵Լ.÷صĿںźܾǰѰΪ֮Щֵˡ26 ǰУд صʵȥصǵȥⲻڹҶǵĹңһνó......Ƿ֮еģ֮еġǵȻ֪ǣЩԸеڣȴѾʱ֡27 ˵壬ŻһҲìܡ

5. κ;õĹϵ

϶Ĺ۵ڲ̶ͬ϶Ԥˡᡱ͡ҡַܴʲôǶͬҵĹϵΣγһӣǹһȡǡڶȡЩѧ˵֮ҪΪǹһȣгһ--ǵȡ

ῴͬʱڹҺ;õĵȵĹ۵۾ݣҪɵ¹ѧҹ˹ṩġ1989ǰԼûʹáburgerlische Gesellschaftġᡱһʡ˹Ĺ۵ӰӢ³˹͡Michael Rustinļ.ºࣨJean Cohen УAndrew AratoѧߡºͰڹ˹ڹڡ򡱵оͺĹģɹ۵ġжۡĻǵν˼塱28 ۣҪ˼á//áַ洫ͳġ/ҡַ˹Ȼ޳ɶĹ۵ַӵġ1992һʵ淶֮䡷У˹רһ£--ʱһʡZivilgesellschaftʾӢСcivil societyᣩĺ壬ΪڵУԭõġburgerlisch GessellschaftһҲɡʲ׼ᡱ˼ߣ˹ˣĴͳ⡣ϵ־Ը硢Ǿ͸ۡӶγɹ־͹۵㡢顢ݺʹĻֵĹ̳ͳ˶ȵȡڹ˹ִýȨҺŽᣬǷֱɿƲҡгúṩġȸڸݺ߼֮Ľ޻͡⼸ʮֱ׶ˣЧʺ;ЧʵĽͣɺɥʧ߼֮ҪԴ ְῴǵȵĹ۵Եѧġһͱ򣺰ʱ徭ùϵҪɷ֣Ѵģ˽лг鵤ҩѰڵŷ޴ͳִǼֵҪԴŻصͳص潲ĸ׵ġ塱ͲͳΪӮáµĶmoral majorityŬڲ̶ͬ϶ص㡣ʮʮֻԾ±Թ˹۵Ϊ۵Ҫж󡣶Դǰۣ29 Ҳ׸

֡ȡ۵ִĵڶĴһЩۼҡЩۼ˵֮ҪΪԳΪִᣨҲŷᣩҪһµĸݣҿdzΪЩҪһµĸݡг߶ԾҪڵһѾˡ˹˴ִ۳αʾԡҪĻɣΪϵͳճгĽǶȽиڱľõԽԣгõʱǺѰѡֻܴⲿԡѱġֹ۵㾭ܵۼҵķ飬ۿڵӢԼ.һӡǰʮۼࡢҲӰһڳ1988ġᡷһȷºͰлڹ˹ۣΪ˾̣ΪһۣؿѷҪ֯ԭ򡣡30 һƪ1989ϰУǿϵͳһгϵͳҲ߼Ȼܷϵͳ߼ҲӦܷгϵͳ߼ 棬Ӧǡơġ31

ܻͰġơij̶飬DzΪDZҪģҶΪᡱĸӦǡ塱ĸĺģ塱Ӧ塱ϵص㲻ʱ𣬶ͬ;1989ԺŷޣеӰ1989ǰָ˵һҪ۵Ȼ¹壬¶᱾ķ񶨡1989Ժֹ۵ƺõ˸֧֡32 ֹ۵һҪҲʶ̬ʵеһͳһ쵼ھʵ󲻷ֵָá˿Щ˿ʹһͬ룬ڶȻͬѷѽ⡣1989Ժŷ֪ʶӵһ񣬾DZ涼ûбȻϵıȲǹԸ˵ȫƣҲǹԾõĴ졣Ӣѧߵ·Pat Devineд壬ҿζĿƣ˵ĽƶԹҺ;Ŀơһ˵ ζ--ԹҵĿƣԼ--ԾõĿơֹ۵ϹҼãζŹҶԾõȫơ33 һӢѧһƪ˽µ塢г塢壨򼤽壩ͽ壬ֵ֤һֹ۵㡣֡塱ҲԽС塱ҪǰѶԪṩһֶԪĶǹĻֽ̫ŵļ塣һҲṩһֻģmutualistͻĶԪ壬ֶԹĹͬ巴ӦڻûԼľȺ34 ǰᵽεĺ˹ʷѧҵݸǣ롰塱ʲͬ塱һֻںܾԺžκ;úġһ棬塱ıͬ塱ͬʱ塱ģڸĺıΪǸ֮ľ־ĵͳ19ͳʱг彥˷ʱ塣һ棬ıͬҲûʲôϵɹһκһЧȨɵģڶ£־ԸԵĹͬɣBernad Shaw˵ġ˽ҵ塯ġ35 ˹˶Թҿƾû൱϶ģʱгõҲ൱һṩʷ˵1989Ժŷ˵ľ硣

6. ܷͷ

ϸɶǼʣĴ󣬵һϹ۵dzһ£ǿͬʱҲһᡣȻԷıʡݡиָ⣬漴Եǣִƶִиһϣȴо˵Ĺʶ壨ڽϵ͵ij̶ϣ壩ǿεġȤǣһԷΡԡʲ׼Ȩ̫ӵ˼ң1989Ժ׷ǿζʵҪԺоɶ۵Ҫԡ

ȻⲻܽΪ1989Ժ1989ǰɶԷѧȤѾˡͬۼҶйءıŷNorberto BobbioһֱڰӢһ͵ߵĴͳγν塱36 ڱŷĿֻƶȵĿʵ֣ƶȡʱصڡɡŷܵ˵Щġ塱صڡϡᡷһ߻עص㵱Ȼڡǡɡ󱫱ŷһΪɲɷ֣뷨Ρܷɷ֡˹跨϶ɵͳһоΪ˼ӶԺڸĴͳãҰѸעڸӽ崫ͳĿѧڰʮѧڷϵġ֮ͬУ˹ӽ壬跨Զ߽ۺϡ ͷͲһ⣻ȷ˵1989ǰӢѧ磬ѾʼҪҪûгܷƹܷˡ1989ŷı仯ʹʵȸΪͻˣȤʵȤϵøˡܽ1989ǰʱڵʷѵδ1989ԺֵĴ⣬˼Щʱע⵽ᣬҲע⵽Ϊвɷָϵ˵Ƕġᡱ˼ȤͽѧѧԸ˵ĻôǶġᡱ͡ʲ׼ᡱ˼ȤͽѧͷѧԻԾ

߻򡰺ߡĽǿ֪ġ׵һ潲Զŷؽ˵ΰǡҪйعҪŬ37һǿܷͷɶȷԼ塢ɺγҵġϵҪԡ38 òȻķģҲȫõġ39 Լ.˵ӷ񶨷潲ͬڿһеġȫȨ塱νġ۹ҡӿ϶潲˽вƲԷικУ󲿷;ûɷαڹҵ֮С40 һᣬѧϰơҪ˵ǸƶȣǸŷȰ档

ʿ1989Ժͬ׵͸׶йսҲóƵҪӷεĽۡ

һƪд19896µУŷǿDZȻϵһġֻǡliberal democracy뿪ɵνprogressive democracypopular democracyΪ벻νִ˵ĴɡɣȨֻȷ涨ķɳȨ۵ɣɣͽɡ˵ĻɵĻôɵĻڷΡȻָĻڷεƹҲȡŵ˶Щ⣬ʵ41

˹ʮоѾڵºͷɽƷġѧϰ̵̿Ҫ棬ڰʮġжۡһиǴ̸ɡ1990дһƪ˼1989У˹Ϊ˼ȱһķѧͳҪȡҪѵ֮һдġķʵ֮أԶԶΪֹ۵Щȱ㡣˼˵͹ʽĻȻسΪӹ׵Ϊ͹ʲ׼Ĺʽ--ڴ˻ϣн׼ġԵս--ĽƳһִ⹤Ե̬ȡСһҲظǣ˼ѹΨһܵʵ֡ǰԺڸѧ˵ʱɽڡѹҴһǿ֮ϵĻתһȫĻɿܱƻķʽһҲ˵Ԥڡʱڡɱ޲׼ר⣬޷Ľʽ42 Ϊֲհף˹ھʮ㷺עķѧרʵ͹淶֮--ּڽһ̸۵ķ̸ۡѧĻϽһڷġ塱۵㣬ѹ͹ͬ壨ʶضʽ壨ɡԪͿ繲ͬձԭͳһǰУ˹ȷʾⱾһҪ1989Ķŷޱ䡣43

һֱڴ˼еķѧͳоĺأAlan Hunt1992귢һƪΪԷȤ£Խ̳϶Է˸ƪµĿͷд1989ڹЩش¼ǿ--ʹѾ̫--һ㣬߱ԷӡԷӡںţҵ¹۵㣺һǸ򹲲Ĺз͹ҽĹ۵෴κʽľ绤УãΪ˸ṩij̶ֳȵıܷҪģ\ civil libertiesȨͷΣʱγɵķɻʩһ绤ĵıҪǰᡣ44

עͣ
1. G.M.Tamas: "The Legacy of Dissent", in The Times Literature Supplement, May 14, 1993, p. 14.
2. ͬϣ15ҳ
3. ͬϡ
4. Jeffrey C. Issac: "Civil Society and the Spirit of Revolt", in Dissent, Summer, 1993, p. 357.
5. The Times Literary Supplement, September 3, 1993, p. 15.
6. John Gray: Post Liberalism-Studies in Political Thought, p. 205.
7. ͬϣ213ҳ
8. Noel Malcolm: "The Fall and After: From Mafia to Civil Society", in The Times Literary Supplement, May 14, 1993, p. 12.
9. Ferdinand Mout: "How Green are Our Uplands?--Alternatives to the New Right", in The Times Literary Supplement, October 15, 1993, p.14.
10. Ralf Dahrendorf: Reflections on the Revolution in Europe, p. 93.
11. ͬϡ
12. ͬϣ99ҳ
13. ͬϡ
14. ͬϣ96ҳ
15. Jurgen Habermas and Adam Michnik: "Overcoming the Past", in New Left Review, No. 203, January/Feb. 1994, 14.
16. Adam Michnik: "An Embarrassing Anniversary", in New York Review of Books, June 10, 1993, p. 20.
17.See Andrzej Maciej Kaniowski: "Western Theories of Modernization in Relation to Poland--or about attempts of the life-world to colonise the systems", in Development and Modernity: Perspectives on Western Theories of Modernization, edited by Lars Gule and Oddvar Storebo, Ariadne Press, Bergen, 1993, p. 57.
18Michnik and Habermas, p. 14.
19ͬϡ
20. Ralf Dahrendorf: Reflections on the Revolution in Europe, p. 20.
21Simon Targett: "Brutal New World", in The Times Higher Education Supplement, March 14, 1994, p. 19.
22. Eric Hobsbawm: "The Crisis of Today's Ideologies", in New Left Review, No. 192, March/April 1992, p. 58.
23. See Anthony Giddens: "Community charged", in New Statesman and Society, 22 April 1994, pp. 42-44.
24. David Herman: "Fear of the Future", in New Statesman and Society", 13 May, 1994, p. 17.
25. ͬϡ
26. Sarah Baxter: "Winning Labour a Moral Majority", in New Statesman and Society, 10 December, 1993, p. 18.
27. ͬϡ
28. ˼塱post-Marxism1989Ժ󣬵1989ԺӰ󡣡󹲲塱塱ȴһ1989ԺѧС˼塱ʳֵƵĸߣڣԳΪ󹲲ߡȴԳڡ˼塱롣
29. ͯ¡롮󡯵ʱ -- 1968ŷ˼׵еŷޡ pp.114-146
30. John Keane: Democracy and Civil Society, Verso, London/New York, 1988, p. xiii.
31. Adrew Arato: "Civil Society, History and Socialism: Reply to John Keane", in Praxis International, Vol.9, No.1/2, April&July 1989, p. 141.
32. See Peter Saunders: "When Prophecy Fails: a Critique of Luke Martell's 'New Ideas of Socialism'", in Economy and Society, Vol.22, Number 1, February 1993, p. 91.
33. Pat Devine: "Economy, State and Civil Society", in Economy and Society, Vol.20, Number 2, May 1991, p. 205.
34. Luke Martell: "New Ideas of Socialism", in Economy and Society, Vol.21, Number 2, May 1992, p. 152
35. Eric Hobsbawm: "Out of the Ashes", in After the Fall--The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism, edited by Robin Blackburn, Verso, London/New York, 1991, pp. 315-316
36. See Chantal Mouffe: "Toward a Liberal Socialism?", in Dissent, Winter 1993, pp. 81-87.
37. Ralf Dahrendorf: Reflections on the Revolution in East Europe, p. 153.
38. ͬϣ 80ҳ
39. ͬϡ
40. John Gray: Post-liberalismStudies in Political Thought, Routledge, New York\London, 1993, p. 315.
41. See Norberto Bobbio: "The Upturned Utopia", in After the Fall, pp. 3-5.
42. Habermas: "What does Socialism Mean Today? The Rectifying Revolution and the Need for New Thinking on the Left", in New Left Review, No. 183, Sept./Oct. 1990, p. 12.
43. Jurgen Habermas: Faktizitat und Geltung: Beitrage zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats, Suhrkamp Verlag Frankfurt am Main 1992, s. 12.(English translation with the title of Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, trans. William Rehg, in press.)
44. Alan Hunt: "A Socialist Interest in Law",in New Left Review, No. 192, March\April 1992, p. 105


. ʷս᣿--а

аսᡱ1989ǰѾ൱Уʱ»ֻһ˵1989Ժƺˡۡаǰ۹֮ɻᣬΪϵ1989Ժ״1989ǰ״ͬսĽıˡаսᡱ龳1989ԺƺðѡаսᡱͬսսᡱᲢۣ񫡣ЩԾǣ1989Ժڡаսᡱ롰ʷսᡱ˵ϵһġ

1. ɽġʷսۡ

1989Ժŷޣͬʷսᡱ򡰺ʷʱϵIJһŷ˵֡һ˵֣ΪԺԱ¹˾ʵѧ߸ɽFrancis Fukuyama 1989ļɽԡʷսᡱһϵнݡһƪ£1992ԡʷսˡΪרͬһٻ˸ķİ棩һˣĺͥٽڣҲһۣ֮սԺҪͻͷ--˹Ľ--֮СݶԣԷڱµһмۣ֪Ϊʲôݱߵӡŷ˶Ժͥٵĸ۲ôȤ֮£ɽŷҪ˵öࣻ1989Ժŷѧ¡вḣɽֵĺ١ܸɽĺڸ㡢ڽٷڲ˿Щô̸Ȿ˵һЩ⡣һλعĬLutz Niethammerĵ¹Ҳ1989귢һΪʷʷյ𣿡Ӣ뱾ΪPosthistorie: Has History Come to an Endоϰڲͬ˹˼ϵķ͵¹ѧҵʷսۣҾ˵ѧֵȸɽĸߵö1 һʱĹ۵㲻һǾòɣҪѧ³˹Steven Lukes۸ɽʱ˵󵨣ץסʱձ̬2

ȥʷսۡĵΪۡŷ˼ʷֹ١սۡعĬоЩʷսۡͬǶԡʱеֹĻɡйصġֶԼµĿԵı̬ȡ̬Ȼ̬ȣ1989Ժŷ˼ҲԿǰ潲Ӣڡصġ۵ĺģڵ¡Ļֵܲѧ;÷Ͻϴ¡ɵġͳĶǰᵽӢⳡҲ漰ִȷĹ۵⡣ֹġִȷ桱ʵ顱ֵǿҵģ͡ķΪʲôµľһǺõġѧҲգKarl Popper15ǰһΰҺʷڵĶѧۻ⣬Ȼδ3 ڣ󷨹Esprit־Ķ棨Jean-Philippe DomecqۼңҲִġ񱡱ɡǰDz֪ƵĸָϡŹִֵרҲǡ--Եȷǵ̬ھͽͯǸСкһںˡʵû·4

Ĺĸ֮¡ĺ壬Ԥ衰Ŀġĺ塣ڡijijսᡱۣdzڶֹµҲdzڶijһĿ֮ʵֵԵáɽġʷսۡҪһ롣ɽ֮⣬ҪΪ˸ڶʮϰڵı壨սȵȣֵ֮ġֵֹ۾棺ƶȵľʤɽ1989ķġʷսᡱµҪݣ

ƪ֤ڹȥļȫ˶ƶΪһƶȵĺϷԵ˲ĹʶսʤϮľơ˹塢йĵжʶ̬֮һ֤ƿǡʶ̬յ㡯ǡʽ˹ˡʷսᡯ˵ǰʽصȱݺͲΪǵıơ˵ЩԵìܵġⲢ˵Щȶңʿûвص⡣Щⶼִ֮ϵɺƽԭIJȫʵе⣬Щԭ⡣ڵЩп޷ʵȶһЩпܵ˵ġԭʼȨκ;˶ãƵѾˡ5

˵ƶɺƽȵԭֵĻôгԭ֡ԣȫ˵ʷսᡱĸƶȺг--򵥵˵ɺ;--⼸ľʤ

ɽ˵ʷڶᷨѧҿҮAlexandre Kojeve´Ӻڸ˼ġ˵Ľûյģopen-endedǻʱ̽ģﵽһ׷ʽڸ˼趨ˡʷյ㡱Ժڸ˵ƹң˼˵ǹᡣⲢ˵ʱʷ¼ˣֽ¿ɸˣ˵ΪԭͽƵķչвнˣΪҪⶼѾ6 仰˵ɵʤ֮Ա־ʷġսᡱΪ⡰սᡱend ʾĿġ⡰ʷhistoryǴдʷHistoryɺ;ɣִдʷĿģǵʤҲʷ֮ĿĵĴﵽ

̣ɽֽ͡һνáִȻѧ߼ִȻѧϵIJϽŵͣʹĸᶼԽԽʻҪлִȵȡƺձʱķչƶȵķչȴ޷ǶȽ͡ʵϣȽʱͬƶȲ档ԣɽ跨ִȻѧ֮Ϊ֮Ѱҽ͡ΪһڸúڸνġΪ˳ϵĶstruggle for recognitionƶȵγɡںڸڶĸط˲жάĶжڱ˵--Ҫ˶ijϣҪ󱻳ΪˣϡмֵġɽִӰͼһСthymos飩ĸΪڸָ֤˵ǸԡIJ֣ʹ˸е֮ɽΪƵĹ̵ոǶ𡢶ڱϵ׷Ϊƶÿ˶õϺء ͬһƶʹøɽʷĿȫֹۡؼƶȻÿ˶õͬijϣһʹΪ϶еĶûбҪҲûпˡûһֶɽIJǴҶˡΪһˡǴҶūˡһˡΪĩˡˣʷսܷζ Ϊ˰ַζ棬п֮䡢Ⱥ֮սִȻѧķչսðڵʽеģΣǿ֪ġԣɽɶԡˡĩˡľеģƶȵţȴdzΣաڸɽҪǿһƶͬʱԡthymosӦںͺthymos֮ƽ⣬ֻƶƽ⡣7

2. ʷսᡱǡս᣿--ķӦ

ɽġʷսۡŷ˸ķ죬кõIJ٣ĸࡣֱȽдԵԷӦĸףмĴ׵򣬺ĵ״Jacques Derrida

ڸɽ1989ķ¡ʷսᡷûм£׾дһƪΪʷս--ս᣿ָصĽ죬ɽ˸߲ҵƶȵľʤǸݲġ

ȣ˵ȻӢѧռλҲδܳɹ֤˵ֻƶDZȲٵģѧ--ġԼ۵ġΪһֹȨ--δȷĻ⣺ƶܱԺ͵άΨһʽδܶԵ֪ʶӵڽ--Ѷ˸еijͬθĸ׵--ṩԵ֧֡8 Ϊѧ硢DZѧܵͬҹǾȡΪΪ֮ӢҵǷԶ׼ʽ֮úܺáҲԽúܺá9 ׾һЩӣ͵Ļ磬ɯŮʱӢľƣʱڵձϳʡ̨¼ĶᡣһضʷͳĴͳձ黯 ΣΪʹɽݲѧǰƶȿʷ֮ĿĵʷѧĹ۵ҲֻǺģ ĺΪᣬƶȣֶʷڹ͵ڣֻͨչ--УȻɷɱڹ--ִûЩ--ȷ˵˽вƲͷ֮µԼ--ִûػƶҰгõĸ壬ʷ۶֤гִϷٺɵǰᡣ10 Ⲣζֻŷ᣻ʽͣڸֲͬȨչ11

󣬸Ϊѧռλʶ̬ĵˣѣŮȨͻжߣaffirmative-action policyʹõһʣָΪѸŮҰֺɽΡᡢ;ýƶȡߣҪ󹫹ź˽˲ŶԽЩ˲ȡ̬--ߣʽʱ֧˶˽ȨprivacyַԽɵƣͶԼɵ𺦡ʶ̬֮ϵЩƻʵѾñκִҶƲ㻯򻯣ݣŽᣬһᣬϵȵλǽ֮ϵģʷŲװ˷ѡ12

3. ʷսᡱǡаս᣿--ɵķӦ

DZд1990׵ȻԸɽ1989ºһϵݽѧֵ۲ߣҲһЩƪĹ۵㡣

׵˵壬һ߲ͬǣһһڡΡӢУɡ롰ܷΪͬһʣconstitution壬һ棬ڡΡżĸԣ׵Ȼɽһƶȣ״ȴֹۡҪǣѧϸĵλͬڴ׵ɽˡŷһ1989ǰʮ꿴ʱͶĹ֮ƶ֮Ķ۵ΪǴġص㲢ijһضƶȣǶԸƶȽѡһַһɵġԵġͨƶѡѧϰķ׵ѧҲգһҲӵƾӢõ٣һѾصᡱ1989ǰʮᡱ롰ᡱ֮ĶʱڡԭϽֿǶκƶȿŵģΨһųֻһƶȡֻһֹٷʶ̬ڵġᡱ1989岻һضƶսʤһضƶȣڡᡱսʤᡱ--۵Ҫ--ͬʱҲζšᡱսʤаΪа͡ᡱ֮ڵϵаı˵һᡣֻڡ֮硯еĸʵһַıcounter-projectаһѡȻһյᡣ13 ڴ׵ʹһʴȵаҲȻ棺ʴȵаҲЩ.ն԰ͼġݻٵ14 жһһԵаҪйϤĻ˵ʵĻһŰֽԱȥͼ̫пᡣڶһⲻ˻᷸󣬴ӶбҪһʵжûרġʱڡǶ߻רûзȨϰߣǾֻһֱȥ

һУ׵Ϊڵڶнġ·аΪһԵġƶȡȻһƶȣǡ֡ǡ֡򡮵֡ƶ뺴֮ijͻУڷ--еƶȾ--һǡŷ壬κθͷġ·뱻һƶȣһаҪɵĻū֮ѡһǴ˼˵ģûΪЩرѡṩм̡15

׵ʾ˶ԣ֪ʶӱȶĿǰµ֪ʶӸӽЩڴ׵Щ֪ʶӣжЩˣҲںһ֡ƶȡǺᡱ˵Ŀǰŷһ˫ϡ޼ҿɹ顱֪ʶӵ״̬һ棬¹ѧķKarl Mainheim˵͵֪ʶǡɸġ--ðйϤһ£֪ʶDzضġƤϵġëа֪ʶرԵһ棬1989ԺһЩ֪ʶ־DZԼ徫֮磬跨ij֡ġ롣ΪЩߣ׵ǷԼľʳ;ңһа˼ҡӢIJΪףǰᵽķİ¡Raymond AronǰᵽıŷǶԿǿ¡ӡ˵ȽĹŵѧҵĺ

4. ʷսᡱǡһʷ۵սᡱ--ķӦ

Ӣۼ֮һɭE.P.Thompson һƪ˵׵ֵһΪʱһЩdzѵ⣬dzʵģķа˼ɭ˵׵֤ûʲô⣻߶һֱڽڷа塣׵϶а嵽ʲôɭаʵһа岢һΣһθ졣α֡ӽʫǸӽڼ㡣Ҫƽκһ仯ǶĿѡаʲôΪʵֶΡ16 ɭûḣɽѧҵ״һڵġۡϷijģڶԸɽġʷսۡка˼ġǶԵ״Ĺ۵ȽϸĽܡ ڵ״￴Ҫǵһǣʷսᣬijһʷ۵ս᣿17

״ƪµĻ1993һϵнݣЩѾʽ棬Ӣ뱾ڽҲСµĿһ˼顱ȻĿǴ˼˹ġԡͷڡ顱Ƕλܵ1989ԺᡶԡҪŷ˼Ҳֹ״һڹ˹д1990ķ˼1989ҪУҲáԡΪʷ¼һҪݡ״ԡԡҪȤڶԹȥĽͣڶδչڵ״￴δû˼飨spectres of Mzrx

кü˼

ȣδû˼⣬漰˵⣬뿪˼Dzܽġʮкڣ¼չʮԺ˼͹ͬȻôأʱʱѧ˵ضԣ˼ʱɳԽѧڣͬĿǰѧҵĵ״Ҳ˵û˼ûδû˼ûж˼ļͼ̳Уûδ--Σûжijһ˼šǶྫеһļͼ̳Уûδ18

Ϊʲô˵˼顱أھܷŷ汾˼嵫˼屾˵̸˼飬ȫµᡰ˼δȥĺ ˼岢ûսᣬʷûսһĴڴýúȵĸɽġʷսۡ͡˼սᡱѧսᡱһͲ֪йٸ汾ھһ״νѧε˫ء⹹֮ظ֪Ԥԣġ󡱣anachronismʷ˼ȷʵش仯бҪµʶ˼һ顱Ϊ顱ͬȥйصģ1989ԺĽ죬Ƕ˼ȷʵͬʱаߵͼ̳ߵ顣˼忴һ顱һ˼Ϊ˰˼ijȷ汾˼壬Ҫǿ˼аʡ˼˹дԡʱľһ˼Ҳʹŷ޵ͳев˭Ҳ֪в֮Ϊ飬ΪǵĴʽڲͬȴڣֲڣڹȥδЩҪʲôʵģʲôõġ˼ˣġһ֡Ҳϣʵ֮˲ģ壬ϣͨʵааȻ˼ľе֣״Dz̳еġ ˼˹塱ʱõġ顱һʲͬ״イġ顱Ǹġǵģ˼鲻ֹһжбҪѡûбҪǿͳһ

ϻֻǵ״˼̬ȣ˼ԵǰмҪһķԵġͳԻdominant discourseĻȨcultural hegemonyķڵ״￴һͳԻ֧ŵĻڴýĻѧĻ֮ɵӴýʱͬһЩװÿǰܵϵһصвڵ״￴1989Ժɽʷս˼ĻţͳԻһͱ֡״Ըɽѧֵ۲ߣ˼顱ijĵһƪ۸ɽ۸˼ģͼġ

״ΪڸɽʷƶȵĽĽ͵ĸǶڡΪϵĶһ̵ֻĽͣʷսĿĵʵǻ̵ġĩѧeschatologyĸ۵̻ͬʽŷͬͻ̿ͺʥͬϵңӦ--ɣ˼Ͷ˹ڡԡͷ塱ʱҲᵽ˽̻ʡ1992һ﷢۵㣬ڵ״￴ζġ

״ָɽΪ֤ƶѾʵ˵ʷĿģڶ۵ʱþʵ͵°벿з¼ͬǴ෴ʵʱǿ˵Ϊʷ֮Ŀĵһ룬ƶʵϵIJձͲƲɽ˵ѾӮþսȡô۵㣬ɽΪһڵʵΪһ롣ͬһ¼[ģʵ֣ȴ˶ʵֵԤʾʹԴ۵㣬ΪһԤʾԵļһŵҲһɻԭ¼ҲҪСIJ¼ֻΪȱٵģǶ¼˼19 ȱ˼Ľڵ״￴һνеġʵڡvirtual reality ʵڡǼһָʹѱ١ԹۿҿԶ֮вģ ״غ壺ʾڡͳԵĻֵʵĻұʾֻǽʱĴýʹġ

״ΪɽijɹҲ֮һӳΪгʮֵĴýСգǶ̬ȾͥŮһ̵ҥԱƷһΪгϵһҪЩΪʱʤˣбҪԼʱڱκʱ򶼴ΣաijЩʵбҪԼ˼еԭ򡰾񡱣Ϊ顱DZ

ڵ״￴ɽرľʦҮʵǰֻìܵijɷֵġͨǵķ򡰽⹹״õϢǡǡͬһطͬ޶֮ڣʷĵطijһضʷյĵطʷʷԿʼˣʷлԤʾԼ--лŵԼˡһضսĵط˵Ĵԡ˻Ϊ˵ĴԿʼ˻лԤʾԼ--лŵԼ䷽ʽȥǷģinhumanͬ޹صģa-humanʹЩȻԵĻ⹹Ե⣬ȴܻԭΪʱΪʷ֮սĸı20

ֻصǰ潲Ķ˼̬ȣΪڵ״￴ֶʷʷԤʾŵøݣ˼ṩģһԶҲ׼˼ĵľôеľʵ̬......˵ijֶڽźͻȵĿ϶a certain emancipatory and messianic affirmationijŵǿ跨κζϹκ-ڽ̵Ԥκξ顣21 ˵ڵ״￴˼岻ӦǿѧҲӦҪУӦаԿѧΪŷʵʧԺдӿ루аѧ֮չĶ˹෴״ΪҪǵӿѧ루аķչȷʾӵIJ󷨹ṹѧҰ跨˼ͬκĿۺͻĩѧmessianic eschatology룬෴Ѻͬǰ롣22

ϵһж˵ڳ󣬾ѾŬܵþͨһЩ״ԼҲṩһЩȽϾ뷨԰Ǹõа˼롣ǵ״ġµĹʡThe New International롣ӹʷΧΪа绤Ϊ˼绤1989Ժŷ֪ʶӵ൱ԵĹͬص㡣23 еѧߣ˹ǸͳDz˼˵ģ岻һΧȡʤ24 1989Ժ˭Ҳû״غ˼̳Сԡ߼ҵ֮־Ҳǡ顱ġµĹʡҪԹʷĸĸԤΧ̵ת䣺Ȩĸͨ-壨ȡȨǾȨŮͶͯȨȵȣڼͼõȷһʷҲչͷֻķΧ Ա--ҪͬȨһµĻ--ȫ緶Χľú򣬶ԽҺӰӹҵȨ25

״˵ⲢǷ壨anti-statistΪΪҵĹԵҲҪijЩ˽ʵ-ýơǿ˼ϵҪԣܲһҪ޳ɹڹҺͳν׼ԹҵáڹȨ͹һķֻ֮սᡢεսڹҵ˼廰discourseҲΪۡ--ߣ˵һ飬Ǹӵġ仯ŵġʵģҲػɷĸȻ˼¡еõּٶķԣǴǿͨԼ-ѧʱʱʱʱ˽ʱļлʵֹؽӹܹȨͨʷЩΣ̽һ֡µĹʡѾǴһֹȨ۵ľԣг򡢡ծ-ѧġµĺ;õķչάĿǰôµIJƽ--̶ȴʷκʱ--ôֹȨ۾ͽDzǡġʱαġôʽĺìܵġ26

ƪе״イһΣҲҪʷս״̬Ϊʱгʵֶ質ҲҪΪʶ̬սᡯΰĽŻս죬ǧҪֳɵĴĿĵʵκγ̶ȵĽǷϣ;ֶԣϴûôˡŮ˺Ͷͯѹȡܼ27

ȻʵĿǺ͵״ʶǰʺĿǰᵳ˼νġµĹʡ֯ṹΪаܶġʡں̶ܴҲһаһͬ۹ɵĸŦϣ֮⣺

һ顢ѡϣŦһȻϡġܵŦ1848ǰԽԽ¶ţѾIJֹһһʱ˵ŦûеλûͷΣû֣ʹܵҲ࣬ûкԼʧȥϵûЭûеɣûйңûţԾ֮ǰ֮С֮Ĺʣûйͬݣco-citizenshipûйͬĽ׼ǰ¹ʵƸһЩ֮ûнƵͬ꣬ǼʹŻδ-˼Ĺʡ޲׼ר޲׼ȫϵĻĩѧãȴһܵ˼˼һ飨֪ľ鲻ֹһĸ٣Աͬˣµġġʵķʽͬˣʹͬ˲ٲȡ˹ʵʽһַcounter-conjurationжԹʷ״ҺȵȵУҲ˵ни¡ǿ......28

ġʡΪ˵ĸƴϣܻشģְ汾ġʡ֪ʶӣDZµһֿͷʱᵽЩˣЩμӡһеˣЩڷԼŷ˵ʱ߳ʸ衷ˡ

עͣ
1. See Stephen Howe: "Into Extra Time", in New Statesman and Society, 10 September 1993, p. 37.
2. Francis Fukuyama:The End of History and the Last Man, Penguin Books, London\New York, 1992 Steven LukesԭӢ־New Statesman and Society, ˴Fukuyamaıҳժ¼
3. ͯͳ¿˼룺ѧеĽṹʦѧ磬1989꣬54ҳ
4. ڽʮԺ󷨹Ļ͵Σۣнδȥڡʮһ͡˫¿ۣ19944ºţ 5-13ҳ
5. Francis Fukuyama: The End of History and the Last Man, p. xi.
6. ͬϣxiiҳ
7. ͬϣ337ҳ
8. John Gray: Post-liberalism--Studies in Political Thought, p. 246.
9. ͬϡ
10. ͬϡ
11. ͬϣ247ҳ
12. ͬϣ 250ҳ
13. Ralf Dahrendorf: Reflections on the Revolution in Europe, p. 56.
14. ͬϡ
15. ͬϣ57ҳ
16. E.P. Thompson: "Liberal Complacence", in Dissent, Summer 1991, p. 427.
17. Jacques Derrida: "Spectres of Marx", in New Left Review, No.204, March/April 1994, p. 35.
18. ͬϣ35ҳ
19. ͬϣ45ҳ
20. ͬϣ51-52ҳ
21. ͬϣ54ҳ
22. ͬϡ
23. йصһЩϣNorberto Bobbio: "The Upturned Utopia", in After Fall: The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism, ed. Robin Blackburn, p. 5; ¹Jurgen Habermas: "What Does Socialism Mean Today? The Rectifying Revolution and the Need for New Thinking on the Left", in The New Left Review, No. 183, Sept./Oct. 1990, pp. 17, 20; Ӣ Eric Hobsbawm: "The Crisis of Today's Ideologies", in The New Left Review, March/April 1992, p.64; ǰ˹Svetozar Stojanovic: "Marxism, Communism, and the Good Society", in Problems of Communism, Jan-Apr. 1992
24. See Fred Halliday: "The Ends of Cold War", in After Fall: The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism, p. 98.
25. Jacques Derrida: "Spectres of Marx", in New Left Review, No.204,p. 52.
26. ͬϣ53ҳ
27. ͬϡ
28. ͬϡ

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