福柯解读康德文本的逻辑：首先指出康德是直接将"present"作为对象的思想家，其提问着眼于"今天与昨天相比，引起了什么差异"，康德是将意志、权威与对理性的运用三者联系起来规定启蒙，同时具有伦理与政治涵义，而且康德是把历史目的、对现代的定位以及主体的责任统一起来考察的，这就引入了现代性，现代性并非仅指时间概念，而毋宁是一种态度，一种现代性的态度，并以波德莱尔为例，指出现代性的态度在于探求，一种特殊类型的哲学追问在什么样的程度上根植于启蒙，人与现在的关系，人的生存的历史模式，以及作为一个自主主体的构成；而且，还在于，不断的激活某种态度，它是某种哲学的"ethos"，可以将之描述为对所处历史时代的持恒批判。接着，福柯在否定性和肯定性方面作了具体的分析，最后总结道，对我们所是之内涵的批判同时也成为关于强加给我们界限的考察，成为逾越这些界限的可能性尝试，这是一项耐心而细致的工作，是它体现了我们对自由的渴望（ a patient labor giving form to our impatience for liberty）。
德国政治哲学（所谓实践哲学）的上述倾向预设了历史哲学的整个现代景观，借助活的、发展的、内在的历史来解决问题的取向在历史哲学（由唯心论、浪漫派到历史主义，到马克思-尼采的历史批判，兰克的历史学派，到狄尔泰的历史理性批判，特洛尔奇的宗教社会学史，韦伯的制度史，文德尔班的哲学史，及与新康德主义有密切关联，却以反历史主义出现的胡塞尔现象学，现象学还原不能不是一个内在时间意识的建构，而现象学反历史主义的面目在现象学的传人海德格尔那里却是不能在明显的历史主义取向，现象学之后的思路或隐或显的，大多是以之作为对手的，但都没有逃脱历史问题，或历史主题）---必然呈现为极端的历史主义--中非常明显的体现出来，如果说，德国思想作为现代性思想/结构类型的实质意义在于，又一次在深度与广度上解决现代性危机，同时也在深度与广度上扩展了现代本身的视域，那么。其原因就在于，德国思想的特质把历史和历史问题转变成了形而上学问题，能动性，或创世意志在历史经验中找到了栖身之所，同时，也为世界（以contingency为标志）重新赋予了形式，give form to the world as contingency by virtue of history,在这个意义上，说世界历史就是世界审判，才一点也不为过。
康德的政治哲学提供了全新的勾联政治与哲学的方式，即将对政治自由/人的权利/平等的自由的考察完全的置于以自然与自由二元对立为基础建构的全面的批判哲学的视域内，这是以哲学的logos（在其包含道路、言说等初始含义上）讨论政治的physis，因此，康德的政治哲学体现出强烈的规范论色彩（这也是探究整全的哲学与提供正当标准，换句话说，同时也是探究整全的政治哲学的一致之处，从以下康德的解决线路中，还可以敏锐的发现，哲学与政治哲学之内在的逻辑与思路还有很多微妙的复杂关联），可以说，这是康德回到柏拉图政治哲学，来应对自然权利传统（霍布斯、斯宾诺莎、洛克、卢梭等，其实还应该提到马基雅维利，虽然他把政治与自然法的关联斩断了，但自然权利传统的基石是马氏奠定的）与作为事件的法国大革命。所以康德的政治哲学处理的就是批判哲学与自然权利的传统之间的关系，批判哲学与法国大革命的关系。其问题是：我在此生能够希望什么？其基本回答是：有尊严的幸福生活--考虑到康德的二元论框架，那么，这一提问的实质含义是：自由的现实化（实在化）是如何可能的？(how is the realization of freedom in actuality possible)同时，什么是康德的政治哲学体现在文本上，包含两层含义：三大批判之间的关系，以及，三大批判与其他文本之间的关系。
Krieger在《自由的德国观念》一书中论康德的部分（页数不多，但很清楚），通过对1790年代前后政治自由在自然与自由之间如何取得一个自主的媒介的作用，描述了康德自然与自由是以什么过程、方式得到合解的，以及与政治自由相应的政治结构：以法为基础的宪政共和国如何保证内在与外在、强制与自愿的统一。Krieger认为，康德并不在于提供了理念与行动（ideal and actual）的二元对立，因为此一对立在德国思想中早已有之，不足为奇；康德的关键是提供的二者的边界，中间领域，以及转化的可能性。以Krieger的描述为主线，康德自然-自由二元论解决模式的线路大致如下：
As Leo strauss describes , when the three waves of modernity is transformed from Rousseau to Nietzsche, in the sense of the discovery of history ,the reply to the modernity as crisis turns from harmony/peace to terror/anguish. If put Nietzsche back to German Idealisnm, it is so clear that, for him, the tradition of German ideas after Kant, even after Luther, including both German idealism and
Romanticism, plays great influence on the birth of Nietzsche, especially Schopenhauer and
Wagner whom we have to think of. And, it is very important to relate Nietzsche with the historical situations of 19th century as a chaotic and anguish time, either.
When we enter the ideas of Nietzsche, it will be apparent that, in what sense, 19th century
turns the crisis of time . As the beginning ,it is enough to take the crisis as a whole crisis of culture ,of subjectivity, of being.
1、 The subject of "history /historicity"
After Kant, the subject of history /historicity "happens "to be the main line to solve metaphysics question. A living developing history process, toward rational/natural right/end, appears in the focus of various systems. In the end, the concept of universal history as symbols of spirit can shed light on both contemplative and active life, eg, Hegel's history dialectics. In Nietzsche's point, the demands of philosophy of history are fairly specific: it is to understand both the constraints and possibilities of practices at any point in time, and to understand how history is reproduced by these practices. Horizon, that can differ historical being from non-historical being, only belong to creative subjectivity who could experience perspective horizon as practices. As concerned with the importance of history, Nietzsche follows the tradition of German ideas, even Hegel.
However, we have to point out that, unlike Hegel's dialectics of life, who views history
from the outside as a trans-individual process of development, as if we could have held the absolute objective perspective like God, Nietzsche requires a "subjective" view, who wants to see history from the "inside", one that would capture the individuals' narrative perspective and sense for the meaningfulness of self, world, and action. In the popular article, "On the use and disadvantage of history for life", he assembles the criticism of the several modern approaches to history :the "monumental", the "antiquarian", the "objective" and the Hegelian. His new affirmation lies on relating effective history to present life directly. The perspective of present life to view history escapes from the common sense of time, and especially integrates time around the present. Thus, history is inherently pluralistic, complex, and in large degree contingent, without unified logic, purpose, or teleology as a whole. The horizon of life, of present life, sheds light on history, and in time, effective history is embodied in each subjectivity.
2、 The genealogy of crisis
The conception of culture presupposes an action frame of reference in Nietzsche's sense. In the Untimely Mediations, he defines culture as the " unity of artistic style in every life-expression of a people." Insofar, as a people forms a "mighty community", it is "held together not by external forms and laws, but by a fundamental idea of culture…… "(p5)For Nietzsche, it is along the similar line that culture declines and at the same time, the total crisis constructs its own genealogy.
In short words, we can describe the genealogy as followed: Greek: The tragedy gets the highest point. While the inquiry to the nature of human being comes into existence, say, Socrates, who unifies knowledge, good ,and politics into the question of "what is nature", culture begins declining. When Plato constructs the dualism of form and matter that plays great influence upon Western philosophy, there happen to be the birth of crisis.
Christianity: It is people's Platonism, as Nietzsche tells us. Christianity continues the dualism, especially, God own other-world and take care of this-world, who create the world contingently. The dualism influences on people's morality, that is what Nietzsche says, the relation of master to slave morality.
Christianity itself is going on losing the subjectivity. Modern Time: As secularized time, modern contains the crisis coming from Platonic- Christian dualism. It shows its characters of crisis in even every sense, including culture, state, society, etc. Surely, the unique and real subjectivity is lost.
Person really becomes mask.. It is a time of Nihilism.
3、 Nihilism: negative and positive direction
When describing the total crisis, we can say, in short sentence, we have come to a time of Nihilism. Confronted with a life we are compelled to live without intellectual grounds of conduct, a life in which "everything is permitted", how to act and not to act is questionable. In negative sense, Nietzsche regards the genealogy of crisis as the genealogy of Nihilism, in other words, Nihilism is the very character of modern culture, which continues the traditional dualism and traditional morality. It needs going beyond, since it is the very possibility of goal-directed, meaningful action that Nihilism draws into question.
At the same time, to transcend the Nihilism which cause the modern crisis, we have to get a new- Nihilism, say, in Nietzsche's sense, the positive Nihilism, for the classical symptoms of Nihilism --"the felling of nothingness ",the "pathos of in vain", and meaninglessness--only express a failure to relate interpretations of self and world to possibilities of practice. Then, Nietzsche draws a conclusion that we have to cancel/discard the dualism of Western tradition:
culture. In this direction, Nihilism liberate the world as contingency and power from Absolute (Platonic Form or Christian God/Person ) ,the process of directly and really experiencing the subjectivity as practices/agent/self is possible. In the time, the conduct of sovereign individuality maintains the evaluation of everything. It is important to remark the stimulus, even the total stimulus: will to power(in certain sense, subjectivity as will to power is Nietzsche's major issue) .
4、 Will to power
We could easily make sure that modernity concerns the process , within which the individual looks for its God by itself after the declaration from Nietzsche: God is dead. Nietzsche sees the full development of the individual conditioned by the most ruthless struggle of individuals. "Let us be so far honest toward ourselves ",he says," for everything is a consequence of the will to power, which is precisely the will to life-a fundamental fact of all history ". When will to power is conditioned with the life as practices, it is apparent that he use the term to refer to the world ,to life, to interpretive activities ,to affectability and pathos, to desire for the "feeling of power", and to organizing forces. According to Mark Warren's Nietzsche and Political thought, we find out that at least we can understand this term along different directions as such, in which it is a new day opens to us to discover who and what we are on earth:
a) Will to power shows the character of the affectivity, or pathos of existence -- that is, our sensual embodied world.
b) Will to power denote a physis: the world in itself is a field of forces, actions, and reactions, here the concept as a cosmological conception of totality.
c) Will to power: interprets(it is a question of interpretation when an organ is constructed):it defines, limits, determines degree, variations of power. Mere variations of power could not feel themselves to be such: there must be something present that wants to grow and interprets the values of whatever else itself wants to know.
d) Will to power as autonomy of the self is a universal motive, and thus a universal value of the self-reflective beings.
e) Will to power produces a conception of history consistent with Nietzsche's genealogical method, in which sense he conceives of practices as a confluence of those kinds of historical inheritances demarcated by the will to power.
The conception of will to power is not the definition of the world, not in ontological sense ,even say, it only tries to show the characters of the world in the time of Nihilism as a test.
As Warren states," the doctrine of eternal return constructs a conception of identity that is compatible with embodied experience and historicity because it is an identity in progress ,an identity that is constructed and reconstructed out of experience by means of engaging the world " We can see that, the doctrine of eternal return is more existential than such a certain opinion about the dimension of time, even if at the basement of nihilism, Nietzsche opposites to Platonic- Christian time ideas. When we are going to open the horizon toward new reality, say, toward the future, the question will appear how to experience the past by virtue of the form toward the new self-identity. Based on the motive of will to power, eternal return of the same cuts into various power-relations of historical horizons and then connects old form with new matter together into self-identity. In this sense, will to power can be realized and identified by virtue of external return, arrive at its highest pole, overcoming itself and living its own life, and open for everything.
5、Superman: some images
In certain sense, Nietzsche is constructing the new subjectivity in the cruel days. We can easily see the (re)birth of subjectivity through his description of superman as the opposition to world of last man. Superman belongs to the future, who obtains the opportunities to relate vis contemplativa to vis creativa. Only in the world of superman, can the quarrel between poem and philosophy be replaced by experiencing the practices as actions. On earth, what are the images of superman to Nietzsche? Maybe it is the baby, who is declaring that "being /becoming" after "ought " and "will"; Maybe it is Zarathastra , who creates the world of history beyond good and evil like God of Old Scripture. Maybe it is Nietzsche himself, who is the unique artist of present life.Thus, in the sense of living a good life, Nietzsche tries to return to the classic sight of political philosophy(maybe he thought pre-Socartes is the perfect world ) by experiencing will to power to live the present life. 本文链接：王利：德国政治理论传统论纲：康德、黑格尔、尼采,转载请注明出处。